This Day in History September 9th

This day in historySeptember 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 113 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 9 AD,  Arminius‘ alliance of six Germanic tribes ambushes and annihilates three Roman legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest.

In 337,  Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans succeed their father Constantine I as co-emperors. The Roman Empire is divided between the three Augusti.

In 533,  A Byzantine army of 15,000 men under Belisarius lands at Caput Vada (modern Tunisia) and marches to Carthage.

In 1000,  Battle of Svolder, Viking Age.

Bayeuxtapestrywilliamliftshishelm.jpgIn 1087,  William the Conqueror, English king (b. 1028) dies. William I (Old Norman: Williame I; c. 1028 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. The descendant of Viking raiders, he had been Duke of Normandy since 1035 under the style William II. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.

William was the son of the unmarried Robert I, Duke of Normandy, by Robert’s mistress Herleva. His illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process that was not complete until about 1060. His marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighboring county of Flanders. By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointments of his supporters as bishops and abbots in the Norman church. His consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, and by 1062 William was able to secure control of the neighboring county of Maine.

In 1087,  William Rufus becomes King of England, taking the title William II, (reigned until 1100).

In 1141,  Yelü Dashi, the Liao dynasty general who founded the Qara-Khitai, defeats the Seljuq and Kara-Khanid forces at the Battle of Qatwan.

In 1379,  Treaty of Neuberg, splitting the Austrian Habsburg lands between the Habsburg dukes Albert III and Leopold III.

In 1493,  Battle of Krbava Field, a decisive defeat of Croats in Croatian struggle against the invasion by the Ottoman Empire.

In 1513, War of the League of Cambrai: Forces of James IV of Scotland battled English troops in Flodden near Branxton, in the English county of Northumberland. The Scots were heavily defeated and James IV was killed along with all his nobles, ending Scotland’s involvement in the War of the League of Cambrai.

In 1543,  Mary Stuart, at nine months old, is crownedQueen of Scots” in the central Scottish town of Stirling.

In 1561,  The ultimately unsuccessful Colloquy at Poissy opens in an effort to reconcile French Catholics and Protestants.

In 1583, English explorer Sir Humphrey Gilbert drowns on his return to England together with the entire crew of the frigate Squirrel, which sank off the Azores. He was of Devon in England was a half-brother (through his mother) of Sir Walter Raleigh and cousin of Sir Richard Grenville. Adventurer, explorer, member of parliament, and soldier, he served during the reign of Queen Elizabeth and was a pioneer of the English colonial empire in North America and the Plantations of Ireland.

In 1675, The New England Confederation officially declared war on King Philip.

In 1692, six women were condemned as witches in Salem, Massachusetts.

In 1739,  Stono Rebellion, the largest slave uprising in Britain’s mainland North American colonies prior to the American Revolution, erupts near Charleston, South Carolina.

In 1753, The first steam engine arrives in the colonies from England.

In 1761, The English refused to offer lower-priced ammunition and goods to the Native Americans.

In 1776, The Continental Congress officially names its new union of sovereign states the United States. The Continental Congress met in Philadelphia made the term “United States” official, replacing “United Colonies”.

In 1791,  Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington.

In 1801,  Alexander I of Russia confirms the privileges of Baltic provinces.

In 1823, Alexander Lucius Twilight, probably first black to graduate from US college, receives BA degree at Middlebury College. He was an educator, minister and politician, he was licensed as a Congregational preacher, and worked in ministry and education all his career. In 1829 Twilight became principal of the Orleans County Grammar School. There he designed and built Athenian Hall, the first granite public building in the state. In 1836 he was the first African American elected to public office as a state legislator, serving in the Vermont General Assembly.

In 1830, Charles Durant flew a balloon from New York City across the Hudson River to Perth Amboy, New Jersey.

In 1836, Abraham Lincoln receives his license to practice law.

In 1839,  John Herschel takes the first glass plate photograph.

In 1850,  California is admitted as the thirty-first U.S. state.

In 1850 – The Compromise of 1850 transfers a third of Texas‘s claimed territory (now parts of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Wyoming) to federal control in return for the U.S. federal government assuming $10 million of Texas‘s pre-annexation debt.

In 1855,  Crimean War: The Siege of Sevastopol comes to an end when Russian forces abandon the city.

In 1861, Sally Tompkins becomes the only female commissioned officer of the Confederate Army.

In 1862, Lee splits his army & sends Jackson to capture Harpers Ferry.

In 1863,  American Civil War: The Union Army enters Chattanooga, Tennessee.

In 1880, Antoine Feuchtwanger invented the hot dog. (date?). A Bavarian sausage seller, is said to have served sausages in rolls at the World’s Fair-either the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago or the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St Louis-again allegedly because the white gloves he gave to customers so that they could eat his hot sausages in comfort began to disappear as souvenirs.

In 1886,  The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works is finalized.

In 1892, Amalthea (Ahn-ahl-THE’-yah) — Jupiter’s fifth moon — was discovered by American observational astronomer Edward Barnard. It was the first moon orbiting Jupiter to be discovered since the four original moons spotted by Galileo in 1610.

In 1893, Ester Cleveland, second child of President Grover Cleveland, became the first child ever to be born to the First Lady of the United States, Esther, in the White House. The first child ever born in the White House had been Thomas Jefferson’s granddaughter who was born in 1806.

Photolautrec.jpgIn 1901, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec died following a paralytic stroke brought on by syphilis and alcoholism. The artist was 36 years old. He was a French painter, printmaker, draughtsman and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 1800s yielded a collection of exciting, elegant and provocative images of the modern and sometimes decadent life of those times. Toulouse-Lautrec – along with Cézanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin – is among the most well-known painters of the Post-Impressionist period. In a 2005 auction at Christie’s auction house, a new record was set when La blanchisseuse, an early painting of a young laundress, sold for US$22.4 million

In 1904, Mounted police were used for the first time in the City of New York. The boys in blue still have a horse division for use in Central Park and other areas not easily patrolled on foot.

In 1912, J Verdrines becomes first to fly over 100 mph (107 mph/172 kph).

In 1914,  World War I: The creation of the Canadian Automobile Machine Gun Brigade, the first fully mechanized unit in the British Army.

In 1914, in World War One, the chief of the German general staff Helmuth von Moltke called off the German advance after the British and French counter-attacked, thus ending the first Battle of the Marne. German casualties were estimated at 800,000.

In 1919, Almost the entire police force of the city of Boston went on strike to protest the Police Commissioner’s refusal to recognize their newly formed union. It is the first time in American History that a major city is basically without police protection and Massachusetts Governor (President of the U.S. in 1925) Calvin Coolidge proclaims that: “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, any time.”

In 1922,  The Greco-Turkish War (1919–22) effectively ends with Turkish victory over the Greeks in Smyrna.

In 1923,  Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey, founds the Republican People’s Party.

In 1924,  Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii.

In 1926, In the United States the National Broadcasting Company is formed.  The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) was created by the Radio Corporation of America (RCA).

In 1939,  World War II: The Battle of Hel begins, the longest-defended pocket of Polish Army resistance during the German invasion of Poland.

In 1939 – Burmese national hero U Ottama dies in prison after a hunger strike to protest Britain’s colonial government.

In 1940,  George Stibitz pioneers the first remote operation of a computer.

In 1940Treznea massacre: The Hungarian Army, supported by local Hungarians kill 93 Romanian civilians in Treznea, a village in Northern Transylvania, as part of attempts to ethnic cleansing.

In 1942, World War II: A Japanese floatplane drops incendiary bombs on Oregon.  This was the first bombing of the continental US: at Mount Emily Oregon by a Japanese plane launched from a submarine in WWII.

In 1943, World War II: The Allies land at Salerno and Taranto, Italy. Allied forces under U.S. Lieutenant General Mark Clark made amphibious landings at the Salerno beachhead. The port of Naples was their ultimate target.

In 1944,  World War II: The Fatherland Front takes power in Bulgaria through a military coup in the capital and armed rebellion in the country. A new pro-Soviet government is established.  (National Day).

In 1944, Allied forces liberate Luxembourg.

In 1944, thru Sept. 16, hurricane from North Carolina to New England: 46 deaths, and 344 deaths at sea.

In 1945,  Second Sino-Japanese War: The Empire of Japan formally surrenders to China.

In 1945, Japanese in S Korea, Taiwan, China, Indochina surrender to Allies. U.S. troops land in South Korea, as Soviet forces begin to occupy the northern half of the country. The 38th parallel officially begins to serve as the boundary between the two new nations.

In 1945, 1st “bug” in a computer program discovered by Grace Hopper, a moth was removed with tweezers from a relay & taped into the log.

In 1945, Ruth Shorter was born in Brownsville, TN graduated from Haywood High School in 1963 and currently lives in Virginia…. Happy Birthday Ruth!

In 1947,  First case of a computer bug being found: a moth lodges in a relay of a Harvard Mark II computer at Harvard University.

In 1948, Kim Il-sung declares the establishment of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea.

In 1956,  Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.

In 1957, COVER OF TIME Teamsters President JIMMY HOFFA

In 1957, President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.

In 1963, A Federal injunction is issued to Alabama Governor George Wallace as he orders the state police to keep African-American students from enrolling in white schools.

In 1964, William Willis, a 71-year-old American explorer and author, completes a two-stage, 9,800-mile, 200 day drift across the Pacific Ocean from Peru to Queensland, Australia.

In 1965, The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development is established.

In 1965, Francois Mitterrand nominated for French presidency.

In 1965,  Hurricane Betsy makes its second landfall near New Orleans, leaving 76 dead and $1.42 billion ($10–12 billion in 2005 dollars) in damages, becoming the first hurricane to top $1 billion in unadjusted damages.

In 1965, Tibet is made an autonomous region of China.

In 1966,  The National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act is signed into law by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.

In 1967, Uganda declares independence from Great Britain.

In 1967, First successful test flight of a Saturn V rocket.

In 1968, COVER STORY OF NEWSWEEK Hubert Humphrey: the battle of Chicago

In 1969,  Allegheny Airlines Flight 853 DC-9 collides in flight with a Piper PA-28 and crashes near Fairland, Indiana.

In 1969 – In Canada, the Official Languages Act comes into force, making the French language equal to the English language throughout the Federal government.

In 1969, Allegheny 853 collides with Piper Cherokee above Indiana, kills 82.

In 1970,  A British airliner is hijacked by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and flown to Dawson’s Field in Jordan.

In 1971, The four-day Attica Prison riot begins, which eventually results in 39 dead, most killed by state troopers retaking the prison.  prisoners seized control of the maximum-security Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, NY, killing a guard and taking 38 hostages; three inmates were subsequently slain by other prisoners.

In 1972,  In Kentucky‘s Mammoth Cave National Park, a Cave Research Foundation exploration and mapping team discovers a link between the Mammoth and Flint Ridge cave systems, making it the longest known cave passageway in the world.

In 1975, Viking 2 launched toward orbit around Mars, soft landing.

In 1976, COVER OF ROLLING STONE: DOONESBURY

In 1977,  first TRS-80 computer sold at Radio Shack.

In 1978, Iraqi Ayatollah Khomeini calls for uprising in Iranian army.

In 1979, the comic strip “For Better Or Worse” debut.

In 1980, a federal judge orders the Air Force to reinstate Leonard Matlovich case with full back pay. But the Air Force says it’d rather settle the case for $160,000, than take him back. Matlovich takes the money.

In 1982, “Conestoga I”, the world’s first private rocket, is launched.

In 1983, Radio Shack announces their color computer 2 (the Coco2).

In 1983, The chief of the Soviet General Staff, Marshal Nikolai B. Ogarkov, told a Moscow news conference the decision to shoot down a Korean jetliner within Soviet airspace on Sept. 1 was made by a local commander, and was not an accident or an error.”

In 1984, The Circle Vision 360 film, “America the Beautiful” closes at Walt Disney World.

In 1985, President Reagan abandoned his opposition to sanctions against South Africa, ordering implementation of measures against the white-ruled Pretoria government.

In 1986, Frank Reed, director of a private school in Lebanon, was taken hostage by pro-Iranian kidnappers; he was released 44 months later.

In 1987,  appearing before President Reagan’s special commission on AIDS, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop denounced doctors and other health workers who refused to treat AIDS patients, calling them a “fearful and irrational minority.”

In 1989, The comic strip “Outland” debut. It was a spin-off of Breathed’s strip Bloom County, featuring many of the same characters.

In 1990,  1990 Batticaloa massacre, massacre of 184 minority Tamil civilians by Sri Lankan Army in the eastern Batticaloa District of Sri Lanka.

In 1990, The Ellis Island Museum of Immigration opened. More than 12,000,000 people entered the U.S. through the immigration center at Ellis Island when it was open.

In 1990, in Liberia, President Samuel Doe was captured by a rebel group led by Prince Yormie Johnson who then declared himself in charge of the country.

In 1990, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev held a one-day summit in Helsinki, Finland, after which they joined in condemning Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.

In 1991,  Tajikistan declares independence from the Soviet Union.

In 1991, Iraq grounded foreign helicopters carrying U-N weapons-plant inspectors.

In 1992, Russian President Boris Yeltsin called off a trip to Japan in the face of growing pressure to resolve a dispute over four Kuril islands seized by the former Soviet Union in 1945.

In 1993,  The Palestine Liberation Organization officially recognizes Israel as a legitimate state.

In 1993, Marxist Fidel Castro approves private enterprise in Cuba.

In 1993, former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos was buried in his homeland, four years after his death in exile.

In 1993, about a hundred Somali gunmen and civilians were killed when US and Pakistani peacekeepers fired on Somalis attacking other peacekeepers.

In 1994, Prosecutors in Los Angeles said they would not seek the death penalty against O.J. Simpson.

In 1994, the United States and Cuba reached an agreement aimed at discouraging Cubans from trying to flee to the U.S. by rafts or other vessels.

In 1994, Space Shuttle Discovery is launched carrying the first U.S. robot in space (a new jet pack is to be tested also).

In 1996, Promising safer skies, President Clinton issued orders to tighten airport security and challenged Congress to support a $1.1 billion anti-terrorism crackdown.

In 1996, Keeping her word not to cooperate with Whitewater prosecutors, Susan McDougal was led away to jail for contempt of court, denying she was trying to protect President Clinton with her silence.

In 1998, Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr delivered to Congress 36 boxes of material concerning his investigation of President Clinton. He said it contained “substantial and credible information….that may constitute grounds” for impeachment.

In 1998, Four tourists who had paid $32,500 each were taken in a tiny submarine to view the wreckage of the “Titanic” two and a-half miles below the ocean surface off Newfoundland. I received my invitation eight months prior.

In 1999,  Sega releases the first 128 bit video game console the Dreamcast.

In 1999, a massive explosion tore apart a Moscow apartment building, killing about a hundred people.

In 1999, Israel released 199 Palestinian security prisoners as part of a new peace deal.

In 1999, in Beloit, Wisconsin, Nicholas Stephen Wadle was born at 9:09 am on the ninth day of the ninth month of 1999. His weight? Nine pounds and nine ounces.

In 1999, Former Republican Senator John Danforth opened an independent inquiry into the 1993 siege of the Branch Davidian compound near Waco, Texas.

In 2001,  Ahmad Shah Massoud, leader of the Northern Alliance, is assassinated in Afghanistan by two al-Qaeda assassins who claimed to be Arab journalists wanting an interview.

In 2001Pärnu methanol tragedy occurs in Pärnu County, Estonia.

In 2001 – At exactly 01:46:40 UTC, the Unix billenium is reached, marking the beginning of the use of 10-digit decimal Unix timestamps.

In 2009,  At exactly 9:09:09 PM, the Dubai Metro, the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula, is ceremonially inaugurated.

In 2012,  The Indian space agency puts into orbit its heaviest foreign satellite yet, in a streak of 21 consecutive successful PLSV launches.

In 2012,  A wave of attacks kill more than 100 people and injure 350 others across Iraq.

Einar H Ingman.jpg

Medal of Honor recipient Einar Ingman

In 2015, Einar H. Ingman Jr., American sergeant, Medal of Honor recipient (b. 1929) dies in a hospital at Tomahawk, Wisconsin on September 9, 2015 at the age of 85. He was a United States Army soldier who received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Korean War. Near the town of Malta-ri, He single-handedly attacked a machine gun which was firing on his group, tossing a hand grenade into the emplacement and killing the crew with his rifle. While approaching a second machine gun, he was knocked to the ground and lost part of his left ear when a grenade exploded near his head. As he got to his feet, he was shot in the face by a Chinese soldier; the bullet entered his upper lip and exited behind his ear. He continued his attack on the machine gun, firing his rifle and killing the remaining crew with his bayonet, until falling unconscious. His men went on to capture their objective and force the opposing troops into a disorganized retreat.

In 2015,  Elizabeth II became the longest reigning monarch of the United Kingdom.

In 2016,  The government of North Korea conducts its fifth and reportedly biggest nuclear test. World leaders condemn the act, with South Korea calling it “maniacal recklessness”.

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