This Day in History September 22nd

This day in historySeptember 22 is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 100 days remaining until the end of the year. It is frequently the day of the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the day of the vernal (Spring) equinox in the Southern Hemisphere.

Holidays

 

History

General events on September  22nd

Thomas de Mowbray Ist Duke of Norfolk.svgIn 1399,  Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk, English politician, Earl Marshal of The United Kingdom (b. 1366) dies in exile from the plague. He was an English peer. As a result of his involvement in the power struggles which led up to the fall of Richard II, he was banished and died in exile in Venice. Mowbray’s quarrel with Bolingbroke and subsequent banishment are depicted in the opening scene of Shakespeare‘s Richard II. Thomas Mowbray (as he is called in the play) prophetically replies to King Richard’s “Lions make leopards tame” with the retort, “Yea, but not change his spots.” Mowbray’s death in exile is announced later in the play by the Bishop of Carlisle.

In 1598, English playwright Ben Jonson kills an actor in a duel and is indicted for manslaughter.

In 1919, The steel strike of 1919, led by the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers, begins in Pennsylvania before spreading across the United States.

In 1927Jack Dempsey loses the “Long Count” boxing match to Gene Tunney.

 

Government and Politics on September  22nd

Denarius issued in 193 by Septimius Severus, to celebrate I Italica, which supported the commander of the Pannonian legions in his fight for the purple.

In 66, Roman Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica.

In 1499, Treaty of Basel

In 1789, The office of United States Postmaster General is established.

In 1792, Primidi Vendémiaire of year 1 of the French Republican Calendar as the French First Republic comes into being.

In 1862, Slavery in the United States: a preliminary version of the Emancipation Proclamation is released.

In 1885, Lord Randolph Churchill makes a speech in Ulster in opposition to Home Rule.

In 1908, The Bulgarian Declaration of Independence is proclaimed.

In 1957, In Haiti, François Duvalier is elected president.

In 1960, The Sudanese Republic is renamed Mali after the withdrawal of Senegal from the Mali Federation.

In 2014, In accordance with New Business Item 51, the “NEA will, using electronic resources, publish a list of Pre-K – Graduate School recommended books in the NEA Today that have LGBTQ and gender non-conforming themes.” The union will compile this list so that teachers can better promote Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Questioning (LGBTQQ) lifestyles. Just when it appeared that the NEA could not more heavily promote alternative sexual lifestyles nor place any more emphasis on teaching even very young children all manner of sexual behaviors, at the 2014 convention they surpassed themselves with a call to bring some of the most radical LGBTQQ organizations in the world into the nation’s classrooms.

 

War, Crime and Disaster events on September 22nd

In 904, The warlord Zhu Quanzhong kills Emperor Zhaozong, the penultimate emperor of the Tang Dynasty, after seizing control of the imperial government.

In 1236, The Lithuanians and Semigallians defeat the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in the Battle of Saule.

In 1586, Battle of Zutphen: Spanish victory over the English and Dutch.

In 1692, The last people hanged for witchcraft in England’s North American colonies takes place.

In 1711, The Tuscarora War begins in present-day North Carolina.

Nathan Hale

In 1776, Nathan Hale is hanged for spying during American Revolution. He was an American soldier and spy for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British and executed. His last words before being hanged were purported to be “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.” Hale has long been considered an American hero and, in 1985, he was officially designated the state hero of Connecticut.

An account of Nathan Hale’s capture was written by Consider Tiffany, a Connecticut shopkeeper and Loyalist, and obtained by the Library of Congress. In Tiffany’s account, Major Robert Rogers of the Queen’s Rangers saw Hale in a tavern and recognized him despite his disguise. After luring Hale into betraying himself by pretending to be a patriot himself, Rogers and his Rangers apprehended Hale near Flushing Bay in Queens, New York.

According to the standards of the time, spies were hanged as illegal combatants. On the morning of September 22, 1776, Hale was marched along Post Road to the Park of Artillery, which was next to a public house called the Dove Tavern (at modern-day 66th Street and Third Avenue), and hanged.

In 1789, Battle of Rymnik establishes Alexander Suvorov as a pre-eminent Russian military commander after his allied army defeat superior Ottoman Empire forces.

In 1857, The Russian warship Lefort capsizes and sinks during a storm in the Gulf of Finland, killing all 826 aboard.

In 1866, Battle of Curupaity in the Paraguayan War.

In 1914German submarine SM U-9 torpedoes and sinks the British cruisers, HMS Aboukir, HMS Hogue and HMS Cressy on the Broad Fourteens off the Dutch coast with the loss of over 1,400 men.

In 1934, An explosion takes place at Gresford Colliery in Wales, leading to the deaths of 266 miners and rescuers.

In 1937Spanish Civil War: Peña Blanca is taken; the end of the Battle of El Mazuco.

In 1939, Joint victory parade of Wehrmacht and Red Army in Brest-Litovsk at the end of the Invasion of Poland.

In 1941, World War II: On Jewish New Year Day, the German SS murder 6,000 Jews in Vinnytsya, Ukraine. Those are the survivors of the previous killings that took place a few days earlier in which ab0ut 24,000 Jews were executed.

The ship, c. 1984In 1945, INS Vikrant (from Sanskrit for “courageous”) was a Majestic-class aircraft carrierof the Indian Navy. The ship was laid down as HMS Hercules for the British Royal Navy during World War II and launched on 22 September 1945, but construction was put on hold when the war ended. India purchased the incomplete carrier in 1957, and construction was completed in 1961. Vikrant was commissioned as the first aircraft carrier of the Indian Navy and played a key role in enforcing the naval blockade of East Pakistanduring the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971. In its later years, the ship underwent major refits to embark modern aircraft, before being decommissioned in January 1997. Vikrant was preserved as a museum ship in Cuffe ParadeMumbai, until 2012. The ship was sold through an online auction in January 2014 and scrapped in November 2014 after final clearance from the Supreme Court. The Indian Navy is currently constructing its first home-built carrier, also named INS Vikrant, scheduled to be commissioned by the end of 2018.

In 1965, The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (also known as the Second Kashmir War) between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, ends after the UN calls for a cease-fire.

In 1975Sara Jane Moore tries to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford, but is foiled by Oliver Sipple.

In 1979, The Vela Incident (also known as the South Atlantic Flash) is observed near Bouvet Island, thought to be a nuclear weapons test.

In 1980, Iraq invades Iran.

In 1993, A barge strikes a railroad bridge near Mobile, Alabama, causing the deadliest train wreck in Amtrak history. 47 passengers are killed.

In 1993, A Transair Georgian Airlines Tu-154 is shot down by a missile in Sukhumi, Georgia.

In 1995, An E-3B AWACS crashes outside Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska after multiple bird strikes to two of the four engines soon after takeoff; all 24 on board are killed.

In 1995, Nagerkovil school bombing, is carried out by Sri Lankan Air Force in which at least 34 die, most of them ethnic Tamil school children.

In 2013,  At least 75 people are killed in a suicide bombing at a church in Peshawar, Pakistan.

 

Royalty and Religious events on September  22nd

In 1761, George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz are crowned King and Queen, respectively, of the Kingdom of Great Britain.

In 1823, Joseph Smith, Jr. states he found the Golden plates on this date after being directed by God through the Angel Moroni to the place where they were buried.

In 1896, Queen Victoria surpasses her grandfather King George III as the longest reigning monarch in British history.

 

Human Achievement and Science events on September  22nd

In 1910, The Duke of York’s Picture House opens in Brighton, now the oldest continually operating cinema in Britain.

In 1991, The Dead Sea Scrolls are made available to the public for the first time by the Huntington Library.

 

Arts and Prose events on September  22nd

In 1869, Richard Wagner‘s opera Das Rheingold premieres in Munich.

In 1888, The first issue of National Geographic Magazine is published.

In 1955, In the United Kingdom, the television channel ITV goes live for the first time.

BerlinPortrait1.jpgIn 1989, Irving Berlin, Russian-American composer and songwriter (b. 1888) dies in his sleep on September 22, 1989 of natural causes, in New York City at the age of 101 and was interred in the Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York. He was a Russian-born JewishAmerican composer and lyricist. Widely considered one of the greatest songwriters in American history, his music forms a great part of the Great American Songbook. He published his first song, “Marie from Sunny Italy”, in 1907, receiving 37 cents for the publishing rights, and had his first major international hit, “Alexander’s Ragtime Band” in 1911. He also was an owner of the Music Box Theatre on Broadway.

Alexander’s Ragtime Band” sparked an international dance craze in places as far away as Berlin’s native Russia, which also “flung itself into the ragtime beat with an abandon bordering on mania.” Over the years he was known for writing music and lyrics in the American vernacular: uncomplicated, simple and direct, with his stated aim being to “reach the heart of the average American,” whom he saw as the “real soul of the country.” In doing so, said Walter Cronkite, at Berlin’s 100th birthday tribute, he “helped write the story of this country, capturing the best of who we are and the dreams that shape our lives.”

He wrote hundreds of songs, many becoming major hits, which made him “a legend” before he turned thirty. During his 60-year career he wrote an estimated 1,500 songs, including the scores for 19 Broadway shows and 18 Hollywood films, with his songs nominated eight times for Academy Awards. Many songs became popular themes and anthems, including “Easter Parade“, “White Christmas“, “Happy Holiday“, “This Is the Army, Mr. Jones”, and “There’s No Business Like Show Business“. His Broadway musical and 1942 film, This is the Army, with Ronald Reagan, had Kate Smith singing Berlin’s “God Bless America” which was first performed in 1938. Smith still performed the song on her 1960 CBS television series, The Kate Smith Show. After the September 11 attacks in 2001, Celine Dion recorded it as a tribute, making it no. 1 on the charts.

Berlin’s songs have reached the top of the charts 25 times and have been extensively re-recorded by numerous singers including Eddie Fisher, Al Jolson, Fred Astaire, Ethel Merman, Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Deana Martin, Ethel Waters, Judy Garland, Barbra Streisand, Linda Ronstadt, Rosemary Clooney, Cher, Diana Ross, Bing Crosby, Rita Reys, Frankie Laine, Johnnie Ray, Billy Eckstine, Sarah Vaughan, Nat King Cole, Billie Holiday, Doris Day, Jerry Garcia, Willie Nelson, Bob Dylan and Ella Fitzgerald. Composer Douglas Moore sets Berlin apart from all other contemporary songwriters, and includes him instead with Stephen Foster, Walt Whitman, and Carl Sandburg, as a “great American minstrel”—someone who has “caught and immortalized in his songs what we say, what we think about, and what we believe.” Composer George Gershwin called him “the greatest songwriter that has ever lived”, composer Cole Porter wrote, “You’re the top! You’re a Waldorf salad, You’re the top! You’re a Berlin ballad,” in the great list song “You’re the Top” from “Anything Goes” and composer Jerome Kern concluded that “Irving Berlin has no place in American music—he is American music.”.

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