October 13th in History

This day in historyOctober 13th is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 79 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

Christian Feast Day:

Fontanalia, in honor of Fontus. (Roman Empire)

National Police Day (Thailand)

International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction

Image result for friday the 13th

General events on September 12th

In 1582, Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

In 1792, In Washington, D.C., the cornerstone of the United States Executive Mansion (known as the White House since 1818) is laid.

In 1881, First known conversation in modern Hebrew by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda and friends.

In 1884, Greenwich, in London, England, is established as Universal Time meridian of longitude.

In 1885, The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) is founded in Atlanta, United States.

Ben Paschal in 1925In 1895 Ben Paschal was born (October 13, 1895 – November 10, 1974). He was an American Major League Baseball player for eight seasons between 1915 and 1929. He spent most of his career as the fourth outfielder and right-handed pinch hitter of the Murderers’ Row championship teams of the New York Yankees in the late 1920s. He is best known for hitting .360 in the 1925 season while standing in for Babe Ruth, who missed the first 40 games with a stomach ailment. Paschal was described as a five-tool player, excelling at running, throwing, fielding, hitting percentage and power hitting. His playing time with the Yankees was limited because they already had future Baseball Hall of Famers Ruth and Earle Combs, along with Bob Meusel, in the outfield. Paschal was considered one of the best bench players in baseball during his time with the Yankees, and sportswriters agreed that he would have started for most other teams in the American League. He was one of the best pinch hitters in the game at a time when the term was still relatively new to baseball.

In 1914, In Major League Baseball‘s World Series, the Boston Braves defeat the Philadelphia Athletics, 4 games to 0, at Fenway Park in Boston, completing the first World Series sweep in history.

In 1925, Margaret Thatcher, English politician, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom  was born. (d. 2013)

In 1967, The first game in the history of the American Basketball Association is played as the Anaheim Amigos lose to the Oakland Oaks 134-129 in Oakland, California.

In 1974, Ed Sullivan, American television host died. (b. 1901)

In 1983, Ameritech Mobile Communications (now AT&T Inc.) launched the first US cellular network in Chicago, Illinois.

frank&sydIn 2006, Sydney and I walk twice a day. Once in the morning and once in the afternoon we would parade through this aging neighborhood. He turned 14 October 31st and he has been an underappreciated joy. The Jackson Sun photographer Drew McMurtrie saw us and caught us a top of the hill. Apparently his parents had a basset and he just couldn’t miss the opportunity to take a shot. Sydney died in July of 2007.

 

Government and Politics on September 12th

Claudius (M.A.N. Madrid) 01.jpgIn 54Roman Emperor Claudius is poisoned to death under mysterious circumstances. His 17-year-old stepson Nero succeeds him to the Roman throne.

In 1775, The United States Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later renamed the United States Navy).

In 1845, A majority of voters in the Republic of Texas approve a proposed constitution that, if accepted by the U.S. Congress, will make Texas a U.S. state.

In 1911, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, becomes the first Governor-General of Canada of royal descent.

In 1921, The Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia sign the Treaty of Kars with the Grand National Assembly of Turkey to establish the contemporary borders between Turkey and the South Caucasus states.

In 1923, Ankara replaces Istanbul as the capital of Turkey.

In 1946, France adopts the constitution of the Fourth Republic.

In 1970, Fiji joins the United Nations.

In 2006, The Justice Department gave its unconditional approval to AT&T Inc.’s buyout of BellSouth Corp. on Wednesday, a coast-to-coast behemoth that would be the largest U.S. provider of telephone, wireless and broadband Internet services.

In 2007, Think Big Brother is not Watching. Ralph Williams of Cromwell, Otago, New Zealand, had his car briefly confiscated in a police investigation. When he got it back, he discovered a GPS tracking device had been installed behind a panel. He put a SIM card from the device into his mobile phone, and found it was programmed to text a police detective’s mobile with reports on his location. Williams then put the tracking device up for sale online, noting “No police to bid on this.”  Williams was not charged in any crime. A spokesman for the New Zealand Civil Liberties Council said the case sounded like a cross between George Orwell’s “1984” and “the Keystone Kops”.

 

War, Crime and Disaster events on September 12th

In 409, Vandals and Alans cross the Pyrenees and appear in Hispania.

In 1307, Hundreds of Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of Phillip the Fair, to be later tortured into a “confession” of heresy.

In 1644, A Swedish–Dutch fleet defeats the Danes and captures about 1,000 prisoners.

In 1710, Port Royal, the capital of French Acadia, falls in a siege by British forces.

In 1812, War of 1812: Battle of Queenston Heights – As part of the Niagara campaign in Ontario, Canada, United States forces under General Stephen Van Rensselaer are repulsed from invading Canada by British and native troops led by Sir Isaac Brock.

In 1915, The Battle for the Hohenzollern Redoubt marks the end of the Battle of Loos in northern France, World War I.

In 1918, Mehmed Talat Pasha and the Young Turk (C.U.P.) ministry resign and sign an armistice, ending Ottoman participation in World War I.

In 1943, World War II: The new government of Italy sides with the Allies and declares war on Germany.

In 1944, World War II: Riga, the capital of Latvia is occupied by the Red Army.

In 1962, The Pacific Northwest experiences a cyclone the equal of a Cat 3 hurricane. Winds measured above 150 mph at several locations; 46 people died.

In 1972, An Aeroflot Ilyushin Il-62 crashes outside Moscow killing 174.

In 1972, Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571 crashes in the Andes mountains, near the border between Argentina and Chile. By December 23, 1972, only 16 out of 45 people lived long enough to be rescued.

In 1976, A Bolivian Boeing 707 cargo jet crashes in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, killing 100 (97, mostly children, killed on the ground).

In 1977, Four Palestinians hijack Lufthansa Flight 181 to Somalia and demand release of 11 members of the Red Army Faction.

In 1990, End of the Lebanese Civil War. Syrian forces launch an attack on the free areas of Lebanon removing General Michel Aoun from the presidential palace.

In 1992, An Antonov An-124 operated by Antonov Airlines registered CCCP-82002, crashes near Kiev, Ukraine killing 8.

In 2010, The 2010 Copiapó mining accident in Copiapó, Chile comes to an end as all 33 miners arrive at the surface after surviving a record 69 days underground awaiting rescue.

In 2013,  A stampede breaks out on a bridge near the Ratangarh Mata Temple in Datia district, Madhya Pradesh, India during the Hindu festival Navratri, killing 115 people and injuring more than 110.

 

Royalty and Religious events on September 12th

In 1332, Rinchinbal Khan, Emperor Ningzong of Yuan becomes the Khagan of the Mongols and Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, reigning for only 53 days.

In 1843, In New York City, Henry Jones and 11 others found B’nai B’rith (the oldest Jewish service organization in the world).

In 1917, The “Miracle of the Sun” is witnessed by an estimated 70,000 people in the Cova da Iria in Fátima, Portugal.

 

Human Achievement and Science events on September 12th

In 1773, The Whirlpool Galaxy is discovered by Charles Messier.

In 1892, Edward Emerson Barnard discovers D/1892 T1, the first comet discovered by photographic means, on the night of October 13–14.

In 1976, The first electron micrograph of an Ebola viral particle is obtained by Dr. F.A. Murphy, now at U.C. Davis, who was then working at the C.D.C.

In 1994,  Oe Kenzaburo wins Nobel Prize in Literature. He is a Japanese author and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. His works, strongly influenced by French and American literature and literary theory, deal with political, social and philosophical issues including nuclear weapons, nuclear power, social non-conformism and existentialism. Ōe was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1994 for creating “an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”

 

Arts and Prose events on September 12th

Allan Ramsay, Selbstportrait.jpg

Allan Ramsay

In 1713, Allan Ramsay, Scottish painter was born. (d. 1784)

In 1958, Paddington Bear, a classic character from English children’s literature, makes his debut.

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