October 14th in History

This day in historyOctober 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 78 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

General events on October 14th

In 1582, Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

In 1644, William Penn, English businessman, founder of Pennsylvania was born. (d. 1718)

In 1790, Thursday October Christian I, English son of Fletcher Christian (d. 1831)

In 1812, Work on London’s Regent’s Canal starts.

In 1882, University of the Punjab is founded in a part of India that later became West Pakistan.

In 1890, Dwight D. Eisenhower, American general and politician, 34th President of the United States was born. (d. 1969)

In 1908, The Chicago Cubs defeat the Detroit Tigers, 2-0, clinching the World Series. It would be their last one to date.

In 1910, The English aviator Claude Grahame-White lands his Farman Aircraft biplane on Executive Avenue near the White House in Washington, D.C..

In 1958, The District of Columbia’s Bar Association votes to accept African-Americans as member attorneys.

Errol Flynn1.jpgIn 1959, Errol Flynn, Australian actor dies of a heart attack together with cirrhosis of the liverwas an Australian-American actor. He was known for his romantic swashbuckler roles in Hollywood films. (b. 1909). Flynn was born in Hobart, Tasmania, where his father, Theodore Thomson Flynn, was a lecturer (1909) and later professor (1911) of biology at the University of Tasmania. Flynn was born at the Queen Alexandra Hospital in Battery Point. His mother was born Lily Mary Young, but dropped the first names Lily Mary shortly after she was married and changed her name to Marelle. Flynn described his mother’s family as “seafaring folk” and this appears to be where his lifelong interest in boats and the sea originated. Despite Flynn’s claims, the evidence indicates that he was not descended from any of the Bounty mutineers. Married at St. John’s Church of England, Birchgrove, Sydney, on 23 January 1909, both of his parents were native-born Australians of Irish, English and Scottish descent.

In early 1933, Flynn appeared as an amateur actor in the Australian film In the Wake of the Bounty, in the lead role of Fletcher Christian. Later that year he returned to Britain to pursue a career in acting, and soon secured a job with the Northampton Repertory Company at the town’s Royal Theatre (now part of Royal & Derngate), where he worked and received his training as a professional actor for seven months. (Northampton is home to an art-house cinema named after him, the Errol Flynn Filmhouse.) He also performed at the 1934 Malvern Festival and in Glasgow, and briefly in London’s West End.

In 1934 Flynn was dismissed from Northampton Rep. after he threw a female stage manager down a stairwell. He returned to Warner BrothersTeddington Studios in Middlesex where he had worked as an extra in the film I Adore You before going to Northampton. With his new-found acting skills he was cast as the lead in Murder at Monte Carlo (currently a lost film). During its filming he was signed by Warner Bros. and emigrated to America as a contract actor.

In 2003, Chicago Cubs fan Steve Bartman becomes infamously known as the scapegoat for the Cubs losing game 6 of the 2003 National League Championship Series to the Florida Marlins. This has become known as the Steve Bartman incident.

In 2006, The college football brawl between University of Miami and Florida International University leads to suspensions of 31 players of both teams.

In 2014,  A UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying match between the national association football teams of Serbia and Albania had to be abandoned due to serious crowd disburbances.

 

Government and Politics on October 14th

In 1465, Wallachian voivode Radu cel Frumos, younger brother of Vlad Ţepeş, issues a writ from his residence in Bucharest

In 1656, Massachusetts enacts the first punitive legislation against the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). The marriage of church-and-state in Puritanism makes them regard the Quakers as spiritually apostate and politically subversive.

In 1773, The first recorded Ministry of Education, the Komisja Edukacji Narodowej (Polish for Commission of National Education), is formed in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

In 1808, The Republic of Ragusa is annexed by France.

In 1920, Part of Petsamo Province is ceded by the Soviet Union to Finland.

In 1933, Nazi Germany withdraws from The League of Nations.

In 1943, José P. Laurel takes the oath of office as President of the Philippines (Second Philippine Republic).

In 1964, Leonid Brezhnev becomes the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and thereby, along with his allies – such as Alexei Kosygin – the leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), ousting the former monolithic leader Nikita Khrushchev, and sending him into retirement as a nonperson in the USSR.

In 1969, The United Kingdom introduces the British fifty-pence coin, which replaces, over the following years, the British ten-shilling note, in anticipation of the decimalization of the British currency in 1971, and the abolition of the shilling as a unit of currency anywhere in the world.

In 1979, The first Gay Rights March on Washington, D.C., the National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights, demands “an end to all social, economic, judicial, and legal oppression of lesbian and gay people”, and draws 200,000 people.

In 1981, Citing official misconduct in the investigation and trial, Amnesty International charges the U.S. Federal Government with holding Richard Marshall of the American Indian Movement as a political prisoner.

In 1981, Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected as the President of Egypt one week after the assassination of the President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat.

In 1982, U.S. President Ronald Reagan proclaims a War on Drugs.

In 1994, The Palestinian leader, Yasser Arafat, The Prime Minister of Israel, Yitzhak Rabin, and the Foreign Minister of Israel, Shimon Peres, receive the Nobel Peace Prize for their role in the establishment of the Oslo Accords and the framing of the future Palestinian Self Government.

In 2007, Hillary Clinton has a 21-point lead over fellow Democrat Barack Obama in New Hampshire, one of the first states to vote in the nominating process for the 2008 U.S. presidential election, a poll showed on Sunday. In a poll by Marist College Institute for Public Opinion, 41 percent of likely Democratic voters support Clinton followed by 20 percent for Obama, a first-term senator from Illinois. Former Sen. John Edwards was third with 11 percent. All aboard the Hillary Express – This seems timely.

 

War, Crime and Disaster events on October 14th

In 222, Pope Callixtus I is killed by a mob in Rome’s Trastevere after a 5-year reign in which he had stabilized the Saturday fast three times per year, with no food, oil, or wine to be consumed on those days. Callixtus is succeeded by cardinal Urban I.

Harold's death at the Battle of Hastings depicted on the Bayeux tapestryIn 1066, Norman Conquest: Battle of Hastings – In England on Senlac Hill, seven miles from Hastings, the Norman forces of William the Conqueror defeat the English army and kill King Harold II of England, last Anglo-Saxon King of England (b. 1022) The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of William, the Duke of Normandy, and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, about 7 miles (11 kilometres) northwest of Hastings. The death of the childless King Edward the Confessor in January of that year led to a bloody struggle for the throne. After Harold defeated his own brother Tostig and the Norwegian King Harald Hardrada at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in September, William landed his invasion forces in the south of England at Pevensey. Harold marched swiftly to meet him, gathering forces as he went. The English army, with perhaps 10,000 infantry, met an invading force of perhaps 3,500 infantry and 3,500 cavalry and archers. After failing to break the English battle lines, the Normans pretended to flee in panic, then turned on their pursuers. Harold’s death, probably near the end of the battle, led to the retreat and defeat of most of his army and to the Norman conquest of England. William was crowned as king on Christmas Day 1066.

In 1322, Robert the Bruce of Scotland defeats King Edward II of England at Byland, forcing Edward to accept Scotland’s independence.

Depiction of soldiers fighting in close combat in a burning villageIn 1758, Seven Years’ War: Austria defeats Prussia at the Battle of Hochkirk. The Battle of Hochkirch took place on 14 October 1758 during the Third Silesian War, part of the Seven Years’ War. After several weeks of maneuvering for position, an Austrian army commanded by Lieutenant Field Marshal Leopold Joseph von Daunsurprised the Prussian army commanded by Frederick the Great. The Austrians overwhelmed the Prussians and forced a general retreat from the village of Hochkirch, 9 kilometers (6 mi) east of BautzenSaxony. Most historians consider the battle one of Frederick’s greatest blunders. Contrary to the advice of his subordinates, he refused to believe that the cautious Daun would engage him in battle. After a pre-dawn attack, Frederick lost over 30 percent of his army, 5 generals, 70 munitions wagons, and his artillery park. Daun failed to pursue the retreating Prussians, allowing the entire force to escape and regain the momentum over the winter.

In 1773, Just before the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, several of the British East India Company‘s tea ships are set ablaze at the old seaport of Annapolis, Maryland.

In 1805, Battle of Elchingen, France defeats Austria.

In 1806, Battle of Jena-Auerstädt France defeats Prussia.

In 1840, The Maronite leader Bashir II surrenders to the British Army and then is sent into exile on the islands of Malta.

In 1843, The British arrest the Irish nationalist Daniel O’Connell for conspiracy to commit crimes.

In 1863, American Civil War: Battle of Bristoe StationConfederate troops under the command of General Robert E. Lee fail to drive the American Union Army completely out of Virginia.

In 1898, The steamer ship SS Mohegan sinks after impacting the Manacles near Cornwall, United Kingdom, killing 106.

In 1912, While campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the former President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt, is shot and mildly wounded by John Schrank, a mentally-disturbed saloon keeper. With the fresh wound in his chest, and the bullet still within it, Mr. Roosevelt still carries out his scheduled public speech.

In 1913, Senghenydd Colliery Disaster, the United Kingdom’s worst coal mining accident, occurs, and it claims the lives of 439 miners.

In 1915, World War I: The Kingdom of Bulgaria joins the Central Powers.

In 1925, An Anti-French uprising in French-occupied Damascus, Syria. (All French inhabitants flee the city.)

Flying Tiger P-40 Warhawk

In 1938, The first flight of the Curtiss Aircraft Company‘s P-40 Warhawk fighter plane.

In 1939, The German submarine U-47 sinks the British battleship HMS Royal Oak within her harbour at Scapa Flow, Scotland.

In 1940, Balham subway station disaster in London, England, occurs during the Nazi Luftwaffe air raids on Great Britain.

In 1943, Prisoners at the Nazi German Sobibor extermination camp in Poland revolt against the Germans, killing eleven SS guards, and wounding many more. About 300 of the Sobibor Camp’s 600 prisoners escape, and about 50 of these survive the end of the war.

In 1943, The American Eighth Air Force loses 60 B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers in aerial combat during the second mass-daylight air raid on the Schweinfurt ball-bearing factories in western Nazi Germany.

In 1944, Athens, Greece, is liberated by British Army troops entering the city as the Wehrmacht pulls out during World War II. This clears the way for the Greek government-in-exile to return to its historic capital city, with George Papandreou, Sr., as the head-of-government.

Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1973-012-43, Erwin Rommel.jpg

Generalfeldmarschall Erwin Rommel

In 1944, Linked to a plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, Field Marshal Erwin Rommel is forced to commit suicide. He was a German general and military theorist. Popularly known as the Desert Fox, he served as field marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.

Rommel was a highly decorated officer in World War I and was awarded the Pour le Mérite for his actions on the Italian Front. In 1937 he published his classic book on military tactics, Infantry Attacks, drawing on his experiences from World War I. In World War II, he distinguished himself as the commander of the 7th Panzer Division during the 1940 invasion of France. His leadership of German and Italian forces in the North African Campaign established his reputation as one of the most able tank commanders of the war, and earned him the nickname der Wüstenfuchs, “the Desert Fox”. Among his British adversaries he earned a strong reputation for chivalry and the North African campaign has often been called a “war without hate”. He later commanded the German forces opposing the Allied cross-channel invasion of Normandy in June 1944.

Rommel supported the Nazi seizure of power and Adolf Hitler, although his attitude towards Nazi ideology and level of knowledge of the regime’s crimes against humanity remain a matter of debate among scholars. In 1944, Rommel was implicated in the 20 July plot to assassinate Hitler. Due to Rommel’s status as a national hero, Hitler desired to eliminate him quietly. Rommel was given a choice between committing suicide, in return for assurances that his reputation would remain intact and that his family would not be persecuted following his death, or facing a trial that would result in his disgrace and execution; he chose the former and committed suicide using a cyanide pill. Rommel was given a state funeral, and it was announced that he had succumbed to his injuries from the strafing of his staff car in Normandy.

Rommel has become a larger-than-life figure in both Allied and Nazi propaganda, and in postwar popular culture, with numerous authors considering him an apolitical, brilliant commander and a victim of the Third Reich although this assessment is contested by other authors as the Rommel myth. Rommel’s reputation for conducting a clean war was used in the interest of the West German rearmament and reconciliation between the former enemies – the United Kingdom and the United States on one side and the new Federal Republic of Germany on the other. Several of Rommel’s former subordinates, notably his chief of staff Hans Speidel, played key roles in German rearmament and integration into NATO in the postwar era. The German Army’s largest military base, the Field Marshal Rommel Barracks, Augustdorf, is named in his honour.

In 1949, Eleven leaders of the American Communist Party are convicted, after a nine-month trial in a Federal District Court, of conspiring to advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. Federal Government.

In 1949, Chinese Civil War: Chinese Communist forces occupy the city of Guangzhou (Canton), in Guangdong, China.

In 1952, Korean War: United Nations and South Korean forces launch Operation Showdown against Chinese strongholds at the Iron Triangle. The resulting Battle of Triangle Hill is the biggest and bloodiest battle of 1952.

In 1962, The Cuban Missile Crisis begins: A U.S. Air Force U-2 reconnaissance plane and its pilot fly over the island of Cuba and take photographs of Soviet missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads being installed and erected in Cuba.

In 1967, The Vietnam War: The folk singer Joan Baez is arrested concerning a physical blockade of the U.S. Army’s induction center in Oakland, California.

In 1968, Vietnam War: 27 soldiers are arrested at the Presidio of San Francisco in California for their peaceful protest of stockade conditions and the Vietnam War.

In 1968, Vietnam War: The United States Department of Defense announces that the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps will send about 24,000 soldiers and Marines back to Vietnam for involuntary second tours of duty in the combat zone there.

In 1968, An earthquake rated at 6.8 on the Richter Scale destroys the Australian town of Meckering, Western Australia, and it also ruptures all nearby main highways and railroads.

In 1973, In the Thammasat student uprising over 100,000 people protest in Thailand against the Thanom military government; 77 are killed and 857 are injured by soldiers.

In 1983, Maurice Bishop, Prime Minister of Grenada, is overthrown and later executed in a military coup d’état led by Bernard Coard.

In 1998, Eric Robert Rudolph is charged with six bombings including the 1996 Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta, Georgia.

In 2014,  A snowstorm and avalanche in the Nepalese Himalayas triggered by the remnants of Cyclone Hudhud kills 43 people.

In 2014,  Utah State University receives a bomb threat against feminist media critic Anita Sarkeesian, who was to give a lecture the next day.

In 2015,  A suicide bomb attack in Pakistan, kills at least seven people and injures 13 others.

In 2017,  A massive truck bombing in Somalia kills 358 people and injures more than 400 others.

 

Royalty and Religious events on October 14th

In 1318, Edward Bruce, Irish king died (b. 1280)

In 1586, Mary, Queen of Scots, goes on trial for conspiracy against Elizabeth I of England.

In 1956, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the Indian Untouchable caste leader, converts to Buddhism along with 385,000 of his followers (see Neo-Buddhism).

In 1957, Queen Elizabeth II becomes the first Canadian Monarch to open up an annual session of the Canadian Parliament, presenting her Speech from the Throne in Ottawa, Canada.

 

Human Achievement and Science events on October 14th

In 1884, The American inventor, George Eastman, receives a U.S. Government patent on his new paper-strip photographic film.

In 1947, Captain Chuck Yeager of the U.S. Air Force flies a Bell X-1 rocket-powered experimental aircraft, the Glamorous Glennis, faster than the speed of sound – over the high desert of Southern California – and becomes the first pilot and the first airplane to do so in level flight.

In 1958, The American Atomic Energy Commission, with supporting military units, carries out an underground nuclear weapon test at the Nevada Test Site, just north of Las Vegas, Nevada.

In 1966, The city of Montreal, Quebec, begins the operation of its underground Montreal Metro rapid-transit system.

In 1968, The first live telecast from a manned spacecraft, the Apollo 7, launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the U.S.A.

In 1968, Jim Hines of the United States of America becomes the first man ever to break the so-called “ten-second barrier” in the 100-meter sprint in the Summer Olympic Games held in Mexico City with a time of 9.95 seconds.

In 2012, Felix Baumgartner jumps from the stratosphere to try to break the record of the highest freefall jump, at an altitude of 39,068 meters (128,018 ft)In

 

Arts and Prose events on October 14th

In 1888, Louis Le Prince films first motion picture: Roundhay Garden Scene.

Image result for poohIn 1926, The children’s book Winnie-the-Pooh, by A. A. Milne, is first published.

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