October 22nd in History

This day in historyOctober 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 70 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays:

 

Earliest day on which Labour Day can fall, while October 28 is the latest; celebrated on the fourth Monday in October (New Zealand)

Earliest day on which Make a Difference Day can fall, while October 28 is the latest; celebrated on the fourth Saturday in October (United States)

Fechner Day, celebrated by Psychophysicists

International Stuttering Awareness Day (International)

National Santri Day (Indonesia)

History

In 4004 BC,  The world was created at approximately six o’clock in the evening, according to the Ussher chronology.

In 451,  The Chalcedonian Creed, regarding the divine and human nature of Jesus, is adopted by the Council of Chalcedon, an ecumenical council.

In 1575, Foundation of Aguascalientes.

Unfinished portrait of Daniel Boone by Chester Harding 1820.jpgIn 1734, Daniel Boone, American explorer and hunter (born this day / died 1820) was an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky, which was then part of Virginia but on the other side of the mountains from the settled areas. Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775 Boone blazed his Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Mountains from North Carolina and Tennessee into Kentucky. There he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 European people migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone.

In 1746, The College of New Jersey (later renamed Princeton University) receives its charter.

In 1878, The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton.

In 1924, Toastmasters International is founded.

In 1926, J. Gordon Whitehead sucker punches magician Harry Houdini in the stomach in Montreal, precipitating his death.

In 1928, Phi Sigma Alpha fraternity is founded at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras Campus.

In 1966, The Supremes become the first all-female music group to attain a No. 1 selling album (The Supremes A’ Go-Go).

 

Government and Politics on April 2nd

In 794, Emperor Kanmu relocates the Japanese capital to Heiankyo (now Kyoto).

In 1784, Russia founds a colony on Kodiak Island, Alaska.

Sam Houston c1850-crop.jpg

Sam Houston, c. 1850

In 1836, Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.

In 1866, A plebiscite ratifies the annexation of Veneto and Mantua to Italy, occurred three days before, on October 19.

In 1964, Canada: A Multi-Party Parliamentary Committee selects the design which becomes the new official Flag of Canada.

In 1976, Red Dye No. 4 is banned by the US Food and Drug Administration after it is discovered that it causes tumors in the bladders of dogs. The dye is still used in Canada.

In 1981, The United States Federal Labor Relations Authority votes to decertify the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization for its strike the previous August.

In 2006, A Panama Canal expansion proposal is approved by 77.8% of voters in a National referendum held in Panama.

In 2019,  Same-sex marriage is legalised, and abortion is decriminalised in Northern Ireland as a result of the Northern Ireland Assembly not being restored.

 

War, Crime and Disaster events on April 2nd

In 362, The temple of Apollo at Daphne, outside Antioch, is destroyed in a mysterious fire.

In 1383, The 1383-1385 Crisis in Portugal: King Fernando dies without a male heir to the Portuguese throne, sparking a period of civil war and disorder.

In 1633, Battle of southern Fujian sea: The Ming dynasty defeats the Dutch East India Company.

In 1707, Scilly naval disaster: four British Royal Navy ships run aground near the Isles of Scilly because of faulty navigation. Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell and thousands of sailors drown.

Fort Mercer is located in Gloucester County, New Jersey

Map of Gloucester County, New Jersey

In 1777, American Revolutionary War: American defenders of Fort Mercer on the Delaware River repulse repeated Hessian attacks in the Battle of Red Bank.

In 1790, Warriors of the Miami tribe under Chief Little Turtle defeat United States troops under General Josiah Harmar at the site of present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana, in the Northwest Indian War.

In 1859, Spain declares war on Morocco.

In 1877, The Blantyre mining disaster in Scotland kills 207 miners.

In 1895, In Paris an express train derails after overrunning the buffer stop, crossing almost 30 metres (100 ft) of concourse before crashing through a wall and falling 10 metres (33 ft) to the road below.

In 1907, Panic of 1907: A run on the stock of the Knickerbocker Trust Company sets events in motion that will lead to a depression.

In 1910, Dr. Crippen is convicted at the Old Bailey of poisoning his wife and is subsequently hanged at Pentonville Prison in London.

In 1923, The royalist Leonardopoulos–Gargalidis coup d’état attempt fails in Greece, discrediting the monarchy and paving the way for the establishment of the Second Hellenic Republic.

In 1934, In East Liverpool, Ohio, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents shoot and kill notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd.

In 1941, World War II: French resistance member Guy Môquet and 29 other hostages are executed by the Germans in retaliation for the death of a German officer.

Australian soldiers with captured Japanese flag

Australian soldiers with captured Japanese flag

In 1942, The Battle of Goodenough Island was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II fought between 22 and 27 October 1942. Japanese forces had been stranded on Goodenough IslandPapua, during the Battle of Milne Bay. Aircraft and ships headed from Milne Bay to Buna and vice versa had to pass close to Goodenough Island, and a presence on the island could provide warning of enemy operations. The island also had flat areas suitable for the construction of emergency airstrips. The Allies attacked the island prior to the Buna campaign. A force consisting of the Australian 2/12th Battalion and attached units landed on the southern tip at Mud Bay and Taleba Bay on 22 October and, following a short but heavy fight, during which the Australians found it difficult to advance, the Japanese forces withdrew to Fergusson Island on 27 October. The island was developed by the Allies after the battle and became a major base for operations later in the war.

In 1943, World War II: in the Second firestorm raid on Germany, the Royal Air Force conducts an air raid on the town of Kassel, killing 10,000 and rendering 150,000 homeless.

In 1946, Soviet Operation Osoaviakhim takes place.

In 1957, Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.

In 1962, Cuban Missile Crisis: US President John F. Kennedy, after internal counsel from Dwight D. Eisenhower, announces that American reconnaissance planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered a naval “quarantine” of the Communist nation.

In 1963, A BAC One-Eleven prototype airliner crashes in UK with the loss of all on board.

In 1972, Vietnam War: In Saigon, Henry Kissinger and South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu meet to discuss a proposed cease-fire that had been worked out between Americans and North Vietnamese in Paris. I had already started my 1st year at MSU and 3rd year in college.

In 1983, Two correctional officers are killed by inmates at the United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois. The incident inspires the Supermax model of prisons.

In 1999, Maurice Papon, an official in the Vichy France government during World War II, is jailed for crimes against humanity.

In 2005, Tropical Storm Alpha forms in the Atlantic Basin, making the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season the most active Atlantic hurricane season on record with 22 named storms.

In 2007, Raid on Anuradhapura Air Force Base is carried out by 21 Tamil Tiger commandos. All except one died in this attack. Eight Sri Lankan Air Force planes are destroyed and 10 damaged.

In 2014,  Michael Zehaf-Bibeau attacks the Parliament of Canada in Ottawa, Canada, killing a soldier and injuring three other people.

In 2015,  A teacher and a student are killed, and 2 students injured, in an attack at a high school in Trollhättan, Sweden.

 

Royalty and Religious events on April 2nd

In 451, The Council of Chalcedon adopts the Chalcedonian Creed regarding the divine and human nature of Jesus Christ.

In 1844, The Great Anticipation: Millerites, followers of William Miller, anticipate the end of the world in conjunction with the Second Advent of Christ. The following day became known as the Great Disappointment.

In 1978, Papal inauguration of Pope John Paul II.

 

Human Achievement and Science events on April 2nd

In 1730, Construction of the Ladoga Canal is completed.

In 1797, André-Jacques Garnerin makes the first recorded parachute jump from one thousand meters (3,200 feet) above Paris.

In 1875, First telegraphic connection in Argentina.

In 1879, Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13½ hours before burning out).

In 1927, Nikola Tesla introduces six new inventions including a motor with onephase electricity

In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but turns down the honor.

In 1966, The Soviet Union launches Luna 12.

In 1968, Apollo program: Apollo 7 safely splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean after orbiting the Earth 163 times.

In 1975, The Soviet unmanned space mission Venera 9 lands on Venus.

In 2008, India launches its first unmanned lunar mission Chandrayaan-1.

 

Arts and Prose events on April 2nd

In 1883, The Metropolitan Opera House in New York City opens with a performance of Gounod’s Faust.

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