November 8th in History

This day in historyNovember 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 53 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

Christian Feast Day:

Earliest day on which Father’s Day can fall, while November 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Sunday in November. (Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Earliest day on which Remembrance Sunday can fall, while November 14 is the latest; celebrated on the second Sunday in November. (United Kingdom)

One of the Mundus patet (Roman Empire)

Synaxis of the Archangel Michael and the other Bodiless Powers of Heaven (Eastern Orthodox Church)

World Urbanism Day (International)

History

In 960,  Battle of Andrassos: Byzantines under Leo Phokas the Younger score a crushing victory over the Hamdanid Emir of Aleppo, Sayf al-Dawla

In 1278,  Tran Thanh Tong, the second emperor of the Tran Dynasty, decide to pass the throne to his crown prince Tran Kham, take up the post of Retired Emperor.

In 1342,  Birth of Julian of Norwich, English saint (d. 1416)

In 1519,  Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with a great celebration.

In 1520,  Stockholm Bloodbath begins: A successful invasion of Sweden by Danish forces results in the execution of around 100 people.

In 1576,  Eighty Years’ War: Pacification of Ghent – The States-General of the Netherlands meet and unite to oppose Spanish occupation.

In 1602,  The Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford is opened to the public.

Monochrome engravingIn 1605,  Robert Catesby, ringleader of the Gunpowder Plotters, is killed. He was the leader of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.

Most probably born in Warwickshire, Catesby was educated in nearby Oxford. His family were prominent recusant Catholics, therefore presumably to avoid swearing the Oath of Supremacy he left college before taking his degree. He married a Protestant in 1593 and fathered two children, one of whom survived and was baptised in a Protestant church, but in 1598, following the deaths of his father and wife, he may have reverted to Catholicism. In 1601 he took part in the Essex Rebellion but was captured and fined, after which he sold his estate at Chastleton.

The Protestant James I, who became King of England in 1603, was less tolerant of Catholicism than its followers had hoped. Catesby therefore planned to kill him by blowing up the House of Lords with gunpowder, the prelude to a popular revolt during which a Catholic monarch would be restored to the English throne. Early in 1604 he began to recruit other Catholics to his cause, including Thomas Wintour, John Wright, Thomas Percy, and Guy Fawkes. Described latterly as a charismatic and influential man, as well as a religious zealot, over the following months he helped bring a further eight conspirators into the plot, whose naissance was planned for 5 November 1605. A letter sent anonymously to William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, alerted the authorities, and on the eve of the planned explosion, during a search of Parliament, Fawkes was found guarding the barrels of gunpowder. News of his arrest caused the other plotters to flee London, warning Catesby along their way.

With a much-diminished group of followers, Catesby made a stand at Holbeche House in Staffordshire, against a 200-strong company of armed men. He was shot and later found dead, clutching a picture of the Virgin Mary. As a warning to others, his body was exhumed and his head exhibited outside Parliament.

In 1620,  The Battle of White Mountain takes place near Prague, ending in a decisive Catholic victory in only two hours.

In 1644,  The Shunzhi Emperor, the third emperor of the Qing Dynasty, is enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming Dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China.

John-milton.jpgIn 1674,  John Milton, English poet and philosopher (b. 1608) died of kidney failure on 8 November 1674 and was buried in the church of St Giles Cripplegate, Fore Street, London. According to an early biographer, his funeral was attended by “his learned and great Friends in London, not without a friendly concourse of the Vulgar.” A monument by John Bacon the Elder was added in 1793.

He was an English poet, polemicist, man of letters, and a civil servant for the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667), written in blank verse.

Milton’s poetry and prose reflect deep personal convictions, a passion for freedom and self-determination, and the urgent issues and political turbulence of his day. Writing in English, Latin, Greek, and Italian, he achieved international renown within his lifetime, and his celebrated Areopagitica (1644)—written in condemnation of pre-publication censorship—is among history’s most influential and impassioned defences of free speech and freedom of the press.

William Hayley‘s 1796 biography called him the “greatest English author,” and he remains generally regarded “as one of the preeminent writers in the English language,” though critical reception has oscillated in the centuries since his death (often on account of his republicanism). Samuel Johnson praised Paradise Lost as “a poem which…with respect to design may claim the first place, and with respect to performance, the second, among the productions of the human mind”, though he (a Tory and recipient of royal patronage) described Milton’s politics as those of an “acrimonious and surly republican”.

In 1745,  Charles Edward Stuart invades England with an army of ~5000 that would later participate in the Battle of Culloden.

In 1836, Birth of Milton Bradley, American businessman, founded the Milton Bradley Company (d. 1911)

In 1837,  Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which later becomes Mount Holyoke College.

In 1847,  Birth of Bram Stoker, Irish author (d. 1912)

In 1861,  American Civil War: The “Trent Affair” – The USS San Jacinto stops the British mail ship Trent and arrests two Confederate envoys, sparking a diplomatic crisis between the UK and US.

Doc HollidayatAge20.jpgIn 1887,  Doc Holliday, American dentist and poker player (b. 1851) dies at 10 am on November 8, 1887. He was 36. he nurses said that his last words were, “This is funny.” He always figured he would be killed someday with his boots on. Wyatt Earp did not learn of Holliday’s death until two months afterward.

Holiday was an American gambler, gunfighter, dentist, and a good friend of gambler and lawman Wyatt Earp. He is most well-known for his role as a Deputy U.S. Marshal in the events leading up to and following the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.

At age 20, Holliday earned a degree in dentistry from the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery. He set up practice in Atlanta, Georgia but he was soon diagnosed with tuberculosis, the same disease that had claimed his mother when he was 15. Hoping the climate in the American Southwest would ease his symptoms, he moved to that region and became a gambler, a reputable profession in that day. Over the next few years he had a number of armed confrontations that earned him a reputation as a deadly gunman. While in Texas, he saved Wyatt Earp’s life and they became friends. In 1880, he joined the Earps in Prescott, Arizona, and then in Tombstone. On October 26, 1881, after many months of threats and attacks on his character, Holliday was deputized by Virgil Earp. The lawmen attempted to disarm five Cowboys which turned into the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.

In 1889, Montana is admitted as the 41st U.S. state.

In 1892,  The New Orleans general strike begins, uniting black and white American trade unionists in a successful four-day general strike action for the first time.

In 1895,  While experimenting with electricity, Wilhelm Röntgen discovers the X-ray.

In 1898,  The Wilmington Insurrection of 1898, the only instance of an attempted coup d’etat in American history.

In 1901,  Bloody clashes take place in Athens following the translation of the Gospels into demotic Greek.

In 1917,  The People’s Commissars give authority to Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin.

In 1923,  Beer Hall Putsch: In Munich, Adolf Hitler leads the Nazis in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow the German government.

In 1933,  Great Depression: New Deal – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveils the Civil Works Administration, an organization designed to create jobs for more than 4 million unemployed.

In 1936,  Spanish Civil War: Francoist troops fail in their effort to capture Madrid, but begin the 3-year Siege of Madrid afterwards.

In 1937,  The Nazi exhibition Der ewige Jude (“The Eternal Jew”) opens in Munich.

In 1939,  Venlo Incident: Two British agents of SIS are captured by the Germans.

In 1939,  In Munich, Adolf Hitler narrowly escapes the assassination attempt of Georg Elser while celebrating the 16th anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch.

In 1940,  Greco-Italian War: The Italian invasion of Greece fails as outnumbered Greek units repulse the Italians in the Battle of Elaia–Kalamas.

In 1942,  World War II: Operation TorchUnited States and United Kingdom forces land in French North Africa.

In 1942, World War II: French resistance coup in Algiers, in which 400 civilian French patriots neutralize Vichyist XIXth Army Corps after 15 hours of fighting, and arrest several Vichyst generals, allowing the immediate success of Operation Torch in Algiers.

In 1950,  Korean War: United States Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown, while piloting an F-80 Shooting Star, shoots down two North Korean MiG-15s in the first jet aircraft-to-jet aircraft dogfight in history.

In 1957,  Operation Grapple X, Round C1: the United Kingdom conducts its first successful hydrogen bomb test over Kiritimati in the Pacific.

In 1960, John F. Kennedy defeats Richard Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century to become the 35th president of the United States.

In 1965,  The British Indian Ocean Territory is created, consisting of Chagos Archipelago, Aldabra, Farquhar and Des Roches islands.

In 1965,  The Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965 is given Royal Assent, formally abolishing the death penalty in the United Kingdom.

In 1965,  The 173rd Airborne is ambushed by over 1,200 Viet Cong in Operation Hump during the Vietnam War, while the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment fight one of the first set-piece engagements of the war between Australian forces and the Vietcong at the Battle of Gang Toi.

In 1966,  Former Massachusetts Attorney General Edward Brooke becomes the first African American elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction.

In 1966,  U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs into law an antitrust exemption allowing the National Football League to merge with the upstart American Football League.

In 1968,  The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic is signed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by standardising the uniform traffic rules among the signatories.

In 1973,  The right ear of John Paul Getty III is delivered to a newspaper together with a ransom note, convincing his father to pay 2.9 million USD.

In 1976,  A series of earthquakes spreads panic in the city of Thessaloniki, which is evacuated.

In 1977,  Manolis Andronikos, a Greek archaeologist and professor at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, discovers the tomb of Philip II of Macedon at Vergina.

In 1978,  Norman Rockwell, American painter and illustrator (b. 1894) dies of emphysema at age 84 in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. First Lady Rosalynn Carter attended his funeral. He was a 20th-century American painter and illustrator. His works enjoy a broad popular appeal in the United States for their reflection of American culture. Rockwell is most famous for the cover illustrations of everyday life he created for The Saturday Evening Post magazine over nearly five decades. Among the best-known of Rockwell’s works are the Willie Gillis series, Rosie the Riveter, The Problem We All Live With, Saying Grace, and the Four Freedoms series. He also is noted for his 64-year relationship with the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), during which he produced covers for their publication Boys’ Life, calendars, and other illustrations. These works include popular images that reflect the Scout Oath and Scout Law such as The Scoutmaster, A Scout is Reverent, and A Guiding Hand among many others.

In 1987,  Remembrance Day Bombing: A Provisional IRA bomb explodes in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland during a ceremony honouring those who had died in wars involving British forces. Twelve people are killed and sixty-three wounded.

In 2002,  Iraq disarmament crisis: UN Security Council Resolution 1441 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously approves a resolution on Iraq, forcing Saddam Hussein to disarm or face “serious consequences”.

In 2004,  War in Iraq: More than 10,000 U.S. troops and a small number of Iraqi army units participate in a siege on the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.

Basil Poledouris.jpgIn 2006,  Basil Poledouris, American composer and conductor (b. 1945) dies on November 8, 2006, in Los Angeles, California, aged 61, from cancer. He was an American music composer who concentrated on the scores for films and television shows. Poledouris won the Emmy Award for Best Musical Score for work on part four of the TV miniseries Lonesome Dove in 1989. He is best known for scores such as Conan the Barbarian (1982), RoboCop (1987), Spellbinder (1988), The Hunt for Red October (1990), RoboCop 3 and Starship Troopers (1997).

In 2011,  The potentially hazardous asteroid 2005 YU55 passed 0.85 lunar distances from Earth (about 324,600 kilometres or 201,700 miles), the closest known approach by an asteroid of its brightness since 2010 XC15 in 1976.

In 2012,  Potentially the greatest and biggest love in known universe between Demi-god Jole and Mortal Fio occurred on 8th of November when they had their first kiss ever on planet Earth. This kiss was catalyst for irreversible chain of events which lead them into Dark Ages and later into Renaissance. It is common belief that Jole & Fio are going to lead humanity into new era of human evolution. Scientifically is proven that both Jole and Fio carry supreme DNK genome. In theory combination of their genomes will produce 2 extra chromosomes in DNK structure, giving human spices total of 48 chromosomes necessary for next step in evolution. Just wanting to see if you are keeping up…

In 2013,  Typhoon Haiyan, one of the strongest tropical cyclones ever recorded, strikes the Visayas region of the Philippines. The storm left at least 6,340 people dead with over 1,000 still missing, and caused S$2.86 billion (USD) in damage.

In 2016,  Donald Trump is elected 45th President of the United States defeating Hillary Clinton. She is the fifth presidential candidate in U.S. history to win the popular vote but lose the election.

In 2016,  Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi announces withdrawal of ₹500 and ₹1000 denomination banknotes effective midnight, making 86% of the currency in circulation invalid.

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