November 27th in History

This day in historyNovember 27 is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 34 days remaining until the end of the year. There are 27 Days before Christmas.



In AD 25Luoyang is declared capital of the Eastern Han Dynasty by Emperor Guangwu of Han.

L'Image et le Pouvoir - Buste cuirassé de Marc Aurèle agé - 3.jpg

Bust of Marcus Aurelius in the Musée Saint-Raymond, Toulouse.

In 176,  Emperor Marcus Aurelius grants his son Commodus the rank of Imperator and makes him Supreme Commander of the Roman legions.

In 395,  Rufinus, praetorian prefect of the East, is murdered by Gothic mercenaries under Gainas.

In 511,  King Clovis I dies at Paris (Lutetia) and is buried in the Abbey of St. Genevieve. The Merovingian Dynasty is continued by his four sons — Theuderic I, Chlodomer, Childebert I and Chlothar I — who divide the Frankish Kingdom and rule from the capitals at Metz, Orléans, Paris and Soissons.

In 602,  Emperor Maurice is forced to watch his five sons be executed before being beheaded himself; their bodies are thrown into the sea and their heads are exhibited in Constantinople.

In 1095,  Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.

In 1295,  The first elected representatives from Lancashire are called to Westminster by King Edward I to attend what later became known as “The Model Parliament“.

In 1703,  The first Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703.

In 1727,  The foundation stone to the Jerusalem’s Church in Berlin is laid.

In 1807,  The Portuguese Royal Family leaves Lisbon to escape from Napoleonic troops.

In 1809,  The Berners Street hoax was perpetrated by Theodore Hook in the City of Westminster, London.

In 1815,  Adoption of Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland.

In 1830,  St. Catherine Laboure experiences a vision of the Blessed Virgin standing on a globe, crushing a serpent with her feet, and emanating rays of light from her hands.

In 1835,  James Pratt and John Smith are hanged in London; they are the last two to be executed for sodomy in England.

In 1839,  In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.

In 1843,  Elizabeth Stride, Swedish victim of Jack the Ripper (d. 1888) was born. What a thing to be known for!

In 1856,  The Coup of 1856 leads to Luxembourg‘s unilateral adoption of a new, reactionary constitution.

In 1863,  American Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio Penitentiary and return safely to the South.

In 1863,  American Civil War: Battle of Mine RunUnion forces under General George Meade position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee.

In 1868,  American Indian Wars: Battle of Washita RiverUnited States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an attack on Cheyenne living on reservation land.

In 1886,  German judge Emil Hartwich sustains fatal injuries in a duel, which would become the background for “Effi Briest“, a classic work of German literature.

In 1894,  Konosuke Matsushita, Japanese businessman, founded Panasonic (d. 1989) born this day.

In 1895,  At the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after he dies.

In 1901,  The U.S. Army War College is established.

In 1912,  Spain declares a protectorate over the north shore of Morocco.

In 1924,  In New York City, the first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.

Evelyn Preer.jpgIn 1932, Evelyn Preer, American actress and singer (b. 1896) dies of double pneumonia on November 27, 1932 in Los Angeles, at the age of 36 due to post-childbirth complications after she gave birth to her only child, daughter Edeve Thompson. Preer met her husband Edward Thompson when they were both acting with the Lafayette Players in Chicago. They married in 1924 while in Nashville, Tennessee. Her husband, Edward Cullen, continued as a popular leading man and “heavy” in numerous race films throughout the 1930s and 1940s, and died in 1960. Edeve Thompson entered holy orders, becoming a Roman Catholic nun, Sister Francesca Thompson, and was an assistant dean at Fordham University. She was a pioneering black stage and screen actress and blues singer of the 1910s through the early 1930s. Evelyn was known within the black community as “The First Lady of the Screen.”

She was the first black actress to earn celebrity and popularity. She appeared in ground-breaking films and stage productions, such as the first play by a black playwright to be produced on Broadway, and the first New York-style production with a black cast in California in 1928, in a revival of a play adapted from Somerset Maugham‘s Rain.

Preer was also an accomplished vocalist. She performed in cabaret and musical theater, where she was occasionally backed by such diverse musicians as Duke Ellington and Red Nichols early in their careers. Preer was regarded by many as the greatest actress of her time. Only her film by Micheaux and three shorts survive.

Baby face nelson.pngIn 1934,  Bank robber Baby Face Nelson dies in a shoot-out with the FBI. His real name was Lester Joseph Gillis but he was known under the pseudonym George Nelson, and was an American bank robber in the 1930s. Gillis was better known as Baby Face Nelson, a name given to him due to his youthful appearance and small stature. Usually referred to by criminal associates as “Jimmy”, Nelson entered into a partnership with John Dillinger, helping him escape from prison in the famed Crown Point, Indiana Jail escape, and was later labeled along with the remaining gang members as public enemy number one.

Gillis was responsible for the murder of several people, and killed more FBI agents in the line of duty than any other person — three. Nelson was shot by FBI agents and died after a shootout often termed The Battle of Barrington.

In 1940,  In Romania, the ruling party Iron Guard arrests and executes over 60 of exiled King Carol II of Romania‘s aides, including former minister Nicolae Iorga.

In 1940,  World War II: At the Battle of Cape Spartivento, the Royal Navy engages the Regia Marina in the Mediterranean Sea.

In 1942,  World War II: At Toulon, the French navy scuttles its ships and submarines to keep them out of Nazi hands.

In 1944,  World War II: An explosion at a Royal Air Force ammunition dump at Fauld, Staffordshire kills seventy people.

In 1945,  CARE (then the Cooperative for American Remittances to Europe) was founded to a send CARE Packages of food relief to Europe after World War II.

In 1954,  Alger Hiss is released from prison after serving 44 months for perjury.

In 1963,  The Convention on the Unification of Certain Points of Substantive Law on Patents for Invention is signed at Strasbourg.

In 1965,  Vietnam War: The Pentagon tells U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations are to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.

In 1968,  Penny Ann Early became the first woman to play major professional basketball, in an ABA game Kentucky Colonels vs. Los Angeles Stars.

In 1971,  The Soviet space program‘s Mars 2 orbiter releases a descent module. It malfunctions and crashes, but it is the first man-made object to reach the surface of Mars.

Ford, arms folded, in front of a United States flag and the Presidential seal.

Ford, arms folded, in front of a United States flag and the Presidential seal.

In 1973, The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States Senate votes 92 to 3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on December 6, the House confirmed him 387 to 35).

In 1975,  The Provisional IRA assassinates Ross McWhirter, after a press conference in which McWhirter had announced a reward for the capture of those responsible for multiple bombings and shootings across England.

In 1978,  In San Francisco, California, city mayor George Moscone and openly gay city supervisor Harvey Milk are assassinated by former supervisor Dan White.

In 1978,  The Kurdish party PKK is founded in the city of Riha (Urfa) in Turkey.

In 1983,  Avianca Flight 011, a Boeing 747 crashes near Madrid‘s Barajas Airport, killing 181.

In 1984,  Under the Brussels Agreement signed between the governments of the United Kingdom and Spain, the former agreed to enter into discussions with Spain over Gibraltar, including sovereignty.

As preacher Casy in The Grapes of Wrath (1940)

In 1988,  John Carradine, American actor (b. 1906) dies from multiple organ failure at Fatebenefratelli Hospital in Milan, Italy, on November 27, 1988. Hours before he was stricken, he had climbed the 328 steep steps of Milan’s Gothic cathedral, the Duomo. According to David Carradine, he had just finished a film in South Africa and was about to begin a European tour. David was with him, reading Shakespeare to him, when he succumbed to his condition. His body was later buried at sea between the California coast and Catalina Island. He was an American actor, best known for his roles in horror filmsWesterns, and Shakespearean theatre. A member of Cecil B. DeMille‘s stock company and later John Ford‘s company, he was one of the most prolific character actors in Hollywood history. He was married four times, had five children, and was the patriarch of the Carradine family, including four of his sons and four of his grandchildren who are or were also actors. Carradine’s deep, resonant voice earned him the nickname “The Voice”.

In 1989,  Avianca Flight 203, a Boeing 727, explodes in mid-air over Colombia, killing all 107 people on board and three people on the ground. The Medellín Cartel claimed responsibility for the attack.

In 1991,  The United Nations Security Council adopts Security Council Resolution 721, leading the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.

In 1992, For the second time in a year, military forces try to overthrow president Carlos Andres Perez in Venezuela.

In 1997,  Twenty-five are killed in the second Souhane massacre in Algeria.

In 1999,  The left-wing Labour Party takes control of the New Zealand government with leader Helen Clark becoming the first elected female Prime Minister in New Zealand’s history.

In 2001,  A hydrogen atmosphere is discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on an extrasolar planet.

In 2004,  Pope John Paul II returns the relics of Saint John Chrysostom to the Eastern Orthodox Church.

In 2005,  The first partial human face transplant is completed in Amiens, France.

In 2006,  The Canadian House of Commons approves a motion tabled by Prime Minister Stephen Harper recognizing the Québécois as a nation within Canada.

In 2007, I really got a kick out of this one, “Bronx Lawmaker Emerges as Savior of the Cupcake.” Why would the cupcake need a savior? The Sun explains:

When he first heard that several Long Island school districts were forbidding parents from bringing the frosted treats to their children’s birthday parties, [Assemblyman Michael] Benjamin never anticipated that his decision to take action would forever brand him as the nation’s leading cupcake advocate.

“I was ticked that people had the temerity of banning food products,” he said in a recent interview. In his opinion, the Long Island superintendents were “robbing children of pleasant childhood memories.”

His solution was, of course, a legislative one. He cranked out a bill to make cupcakes the official state children’s snack and thereby thwart the bans.

The cupcake ban, of course, is touted as a measure to combat obesity, and of course one should gainsay the importance of good health. But is it really necessary to stamp out everything fun? Why not just let the kids burn off those calories with a rousing game of dodgeball?

In 2008,  XL Airways Germany Flight 888T: An Airbus A320 performing a flight test crashes near the French commune of Canet-en-Roussillon, killing all seven people on board.

In 2009,  A bomb explodes on the Nevsky Express train between Moscow and Saint Petersburg, derailing it and causing 28 deaths and 96 injuries.

In 2015,  An active shooter inside a Planned Parenthood facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA, shoots at least four members of the Colorado Springs Police Department. One officer later dies. Two civilians were also killed, and six injured. The shooter later surrendered.


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