November 28th in History

This day in historyNovember 28 is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 33 days remaining until the end of the year. There is one less day till Christmas.



In 587Treaty of Andelot: King Guntram of Burgundy recognizes Childebert II as his heir.

In 936,  Shi Jingtang is enthroned as the first emperor of the Later Jin Dynasty by Emperor Taizong of Liao, following a revolt against Emperor Fei of Later Tang.

In 1095,  On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

In 1443,  Skanderbeg and his forces liberate Kruja in Middle Albania and raise the Albanian flag.

In 1520,  After navigating through a strait at the southern end of South America, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

In 1582,  In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay a £40 bond for their marriage licence.

In 1627,  The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Navy has its greatest and last victory in the Battle of Oliwa.

In 1660,  At Gresham College, 12 men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray decide to found what is later known as the Royal Society.

In 1661, Born The Hon. Edward Hyde, the only child of Henry, Viscount Cornbury (1638–1709), eldest son of the 1st Earl of Clarendon and the former Theodosia Capell (1640–1662), daughter of Arthur Capell, 1st Baron Capell of Hadham, and sister of the 1st Earl of Essex, he was the nephew of Lady Anne Hyde, Duchess of York, wife of the future King James II. From the age of nine, since his father has just remarried to the heiress Flower Backhouse, he lived at Swallowfield in Berkshire and he matriculated at Oxford on 23 January 1675, a month after his father had succeeded as 2nd Earl of Clarendon, making him Viscount Cornbury. He entered the Royal Regiment of Dragoons, and became a Tory Member of Parliament for Wiltshire from 1685–1696 and for Christchurch 1695–1701. He was Master of the Horse to Prince George of Denmark, and a Page of Honour to King James II at his Coronation. He was one of the first commanders to desert the King in 1688, taking with him as many troops as he could.

Also in 1688, Lord Cornbury married, in a clandestine ceremony, Katherine O’Brien, daughter of Henry, Lord Ibrackan, eldest son of the 7th Earl of Thomond, who succeeded her mother in 1702 as 8th Baroness Clifton. Lady Cornbury died in New York on 11 August 1706 and is buried at Trinity Church, New York.

He became Governor of New York and New Jersey from 1701 to 1708, in which position he earned a very foul repute. It is said that his character and conduct were equally abhorred in both hemispheres. He was imprisoned for debt at the time of his father’s death, when he succeeded as 3rd Earl of Clarendon. He was Envoy Extraordinary to Hanover in 1714.

Lord Clarendon died at Chelsea, in obscurity and debt, and was buried on 5 April 1723 in Westminster Abbey. Although his eldest son, Edward, Viscount Cornbury, predeceased him without children (the Earldom passing on his death to his cousin, the 2nd Earl of Rochester), by his daughter Theodosia, who married John Bligh (later the 1st Earl of Darnley), he is ancestor of many alive today, including actor Cary Elwes, and Sarah, Duchess of York.

In 1666,  At least 3000 men of the Scottish Royal Army led by Tam Dalyell of the Binns defeat about 900 Covenanter rebels in the Battle of Rullion Green.

William Blake by Thomas Phillips.jpg

William Blake by Thomas Phillips

In 1757,  William Blake, English poet and painter (d. 1827) was born. He was an English poet, painter and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age.

In 1785,  The Treaty of Hopewell is signed.

William Whipple by Walter Gilman Page, 1897.jpg

William Whipple by Walter Gilman Page, 1897

In 1785,  William Whipple, American general and politician (b. 1730) dies of heart complications in 1785, aged 55. He was a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of New Hampshire. Whipple was a member of the Continental congress from 1776 through 1779.[1] Before becoming a politician, Whipple worked as both a ship’s captain and a merchant. He was a prominent and wealthy member of society until he became a member of the new Hampshire Provincial congress. In 1775, he was elected to represent his town at the Provincial Congress that met in Exeter, New Hampshire. In 1776 New Hampshire dissolved the Royal government and reorganized with a House of Representatives and an Executive Council. Whipple became a Council member, and a member of the Committee of Safety, and was elected to the Continental Congress, serving through 1779. Whipple signed the Declaration of Independence while representing New Hampshire at the Continental Congress. Whipple was also the second cousin of fellow signatory, Stephen Hopkins.

Baron Steuben by Peale, 1780.jpg

Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, by Charles Willson Peale

In 1794,Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, Prussian army officer (b. 1730) died this day. He was a Prussian-born military officer who served as inspector general and Major General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is credited with being one of the fathers of the Continental Army in teaching them the essentials of military drills, tactics, and disciplines. He wrote the Revolutionary War Drill Manual, the book that served as the standard United States drill manual until the War of 1812. He served as General George Washington‘s chief of staff in the final years of the war.

In 1811,  Beethoven‘s Piano Concerto No. 5 in E-flat major, Op. 73, premieres at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig.

In 1814,  The Times in London is for the first time printed by automatic, steam powered presses built by the German inventors Friedrich Koenig and Andreas Friedrich Bauer, signaling the beginning of the availability of newspapers to a mass audience.

In 1821,  Panama Independence Day: Panama separates from Spain and joins Gran Colombia.

In 1843,  Ka Lā Hui: Hawaiian Independence Day – The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.

Portrait of Washington Irving by John Wesley Jarvis, from 1809

In 1859,  Washington Irving, American historian and author (b. 1783) dies of a heart attack in his bedroom at Sunnyside at the age of 76. Legend has it that his last words were: “Well, I must arrange my pillows for another night. When will this end?” He was buried under a simple headstone at Sleepy Hollow cemetery on December 1, 1859.

He was an American author, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short storiesRip Van Winkle” (1819) and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” (1820), both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. His historical works include biographies of George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and Muhammad, and several histories of 15th-century Spain dealing with subjects such as Christopher Columbus, the Moors and the Alhambra. Irving served as the U.S. ambassador to Spain from 1842 to 1846.

He made his literary debut in 1802 with a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle, written under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle. After moving to England for the family business in 1815, he achieved international fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. in 1819–20. He continued to publish regularly — and almost always successfully — throughout his life, and just eight months before his death (at age 76, in Tarrytown, New York), completed a five-volume biography of George Washington.

Irving, along with James Fenimore Cooper, was among the first American writers to earn acclaim in Europe, and Irving encouraged American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe. Irving was also admired by some European writers, including Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Francis Jeffrey, and Charles Dickens. As America’s first genuine internationally best-selling author, Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate profession, and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement.

In 1862,  American Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General James G. Blunt defeat General John Marmaduke‘s Confederates.

In 1866Henry Bacon, American architect, designed the Lincoln Memorial (d. 1924) was born

In 1885,  Bulgarian victory in the Serbo-Bulgarian War preserves the Unification of Bulgaria.

In 1893,  Women vote in a national election for the first time: the New Zealand general election.

In 1895,  The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago‘s Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately 10 hours.

In 1905,  Irish nationalist Arthur Griffith founds Sinn Féin as a political party with the main aim of establishing a dual monarchy in Ireland.

In 1907,  In Haverhill, Massachusetts, scrap-metal dealer Louis B. Mayer opens his first movie theater.

In 1909, Sergei Rachmaninoff makes the debut performance of his Piano Concerto No. 3, considered to be one of the most technically challenging piano concertos in the standard classical repertoire.

In 1910,  Eleftherios Venizelos, leader of the Liberal Party, wins the Greek elections again.

In 1912,  Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.

In 1914,  World War I: Following a war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.

In 1917,  The Estonian Provincial Assembly declares itself the sovereign power of Estonia.

In 1918,  Bukovina votes for the union with the Kingdom of Romania.

In 1919,  Lady Astor is elected as a Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. She is the first woman to sit in the House of Commons. (Countess Markievicz, the first to be elected, refused to sit.)

In 1920,  Irish War of Independence: Kilmichael Ambush – The Irish Republican Army ambush a convoy of British Auxiliaries and kill seventeen.

In 1925,  The Grand Ole Opry begins broadcasting in Nashville, Tennessee as WSM Barn Dance.

In 1942,  In Boston, Massachusetts, a fire in the Cocoanut Grove nightclub kills 491 people.

In 1943,  World War II: Tehran ConferenceU.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran, Iran to discuss war strategy.

Dwight Davis, Bain bw photo portrait.jpgIn 1945,  Dwight F. Davis, American tennis player and politician, 49th United States Secretary of War (b. 1879) died in Washington, D.C. He is best remembered as the founder of the Davis Cup international tennis competition. was educated at Washington University Law School, though he was never a practicing attorney. He was, however, politically active in his home town of St. Louis and served as the city’s public parks commissioner from 1911 to 1915. During his tenure, he expanded athletic facilities and created the first municipal tennis courts in the United States. He served President Calvin Coolidge as Assistant Secretary of War (1923–25) and as Secretary of War (1925–29). He then served as Governor General of the Philippines (1929–32) under Herbert Hoover. His first wife, Helen Brooks, whom he married in 1905, died in 1932.  He married Pauline Sabin in 1936. He wintered in Florida from 1933 until his death, living at Meridian Plantation, near Tallahassee.

In 1958,  Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community.

In 1960,  Mauritania becomes independent of France.

In 1964,  Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.

In 1964,  Vietnam War: National Security Council members agree to recommend that U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson adopt a plan for a two-stage escalation of bombing in North Vietnam.

In 1965,  Vietnam War: In response to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson’s call for “more flags” in Vietnam, Philippines President Elect Ferdinand Marcos announces he will send troops to help fight in South Vietnam.

In 1966,  Michel Micombero overthrows the monarchy of Burundi and makes himself the first president.

In 1971,  Fred Quilt, a leader of the Tsilhqot’in First Nation suffers severe abdominal injuries allegedly caused by Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers; he dies two days later.

In 1971,  Wasfi al-Tal, Prime Minister of Jordan, is assassinated by the Black September unit of the Palestine Liberation Organization.

photographIn 1972,  Last executions in Paris, of the Clairvaux Mutineers, Roger Bontems and Claude Buffet, guillotined at La Sante Prison. (Bontems had been found innocent of murder by the court, but as Buffet’s accomplice is condemned to death anyway.) The chief executioner is Andre Obrecht.

In 1975,  East Timor declares its independence from Portugal.

In 1979,  Air New Zealand Flight 901, a DC-10 operated sightseeing flight over Antarctica, crashes into Mount Erebus, killing all 257 people on board.

In 1980,  Iran–Iraq War: Operation Morvarid – Over 70% of Iraqi Navy was destroyed by Iranian Navy in The Persian Gulf. The Iranian Navy’s Day.

In 1981,  Our Lady of Kibeho: Schoolchildren in Kibeho, Rwanda, experience the first of a series of Marian apparitions.

In 1987,  South African Airways Flight 295 crashes into the Indian Ocean, killing all 159 people on board.

In 1989,  Cold War: Velvet Revolution – In the face of protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announces it will give up its monopoly on political power.

In 1991,  South Ossetia declares independence from Georgia.

In 2002,  Suicide bombers blow up an Israeli-owned hotel in Mombasa, Kenya; their colleagues fail in their attempt to bring down Arkia Israel Airlines Flight 582 with surface-to-air-missiles.

Leslie Nielsen.jpgIn 2010, 84-year-old Leslie Nielsen dies in his sleep from pneumonia around 5:30 pm EST surrounded by family and friends. He was a Canadian actor, comedian, and producer. He appeared in more than 100 films and 150 television programs, portraying more than 220 characters. Nielsen was born in Regina, Saskatchewan. He enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force and later worked as a disc jockey before receiving a scholarship to study theatre at the Neighborhood Playhouse. Making his acting debut in 1950, appearing in 46 live television programs a year. Nielsen made his film debut in 1956, with supporting roles in several drama, western, and romance films produced between the 1950s and the 1970s.

Although his performances in the films Forbidden Planet and The Poseidon Adventure gave him standing as a serious actor, Nielsen later gained enduring recognition for his deadpan comedy roles during the 1980s, after being cast against type for the Zucker, Abrahams and Zucker comedy film Airplane!. In his comedy roles, Nielsen specialized in portraying characters oblivious to and complicit in their absurd surroundings. His appearance in Airplane! marked Nielsen’s turning point, making him “the [Laurence] Olivier of spoofs” according to film critic Roger Ebert, and leading to further success in the genre with The Naked Gunfilm series, based on the earlier short-lived television series Police Squad! in which Nielsen also starred. Nielsen received a variety of awards and was inducted into the Canada and Hollywood Walks of Fame.

Zig Ziglar at Get Motivated Seminar, Cow Palace 2009-3-24 3.JPGIn 2012,   Zig Ziglar, American soldier and author (b. 1926) died from pneumonia at a hospital in Plano, Texas. He was an American author, salesman, and motivational speaker. He served in the United States Navy during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. He was in the Navy V-12 Navy College Training Program and attended the University of South Carolina in Columbia, South Carolina. In 1944, he met his wife, Jean, in the capital city of Mississippi, Jackson; he was seventeen and she was sixteen. They married in late 1946. Ziglar later worked as a salesman in a succession of companies. In 1968, he became a vice president and training director for the Automotive Performance company, moving to Dallas, Texas.

Ziglar integrated Christianity into his motivational work. He was also an open Republican who endorsed former Governor Mike Huckabee for his party’s presidential nomination in 2008.

In 2013,  A 5.6 earthquake in Iran kills seven people and injures 45.

In 2014,  Gunmen set off three bombs at the central mosque in the northern city of Kano killing at least 120 people.

In 2016,  A chartered Avro RJ85 plane carrying at least 81 people, including the Chapecoense football team, crashes near MedellínColombia.

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