January 6th in History

This day in historyJanuary 6 is the sixth day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 359 days remaining until the end of the year (360 in leap years).


In 1066,  Harold Godwinson (or Harold II) is crowned King of England.

In 1118,  Reconquista: Alfonso the Battler conquers Zaragoza.

In 1205,  Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans.

In 1322,  Stephen Uroš III is crowned King of Serbia.

In 1355,  Charles I of Bohemia is crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy as King of Italy in Milan.

In 1449,  Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor at Mystras.

In 1492,  Ferdinand and Isabella The Catholic Monarchs enter Granada, completing the Reconquista.

In 1540,  King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves.

In 1579,  The Union of Arras is signed.

In 1661,  English Restoration: The Fifth Monarchists unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London, England.

In 1690,  Joseph, son of Emperor Leopold I, becomes King of the Romans.

In 1721,  The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings.

In 1781,  In the Battle of Jersey, the British defeat the last attempt by France to invade Jersey.

In 1809,  Combined British, Portuguese and colonial Brazilian forces begin the Invasion of Cayenne during the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1838,  Alfred Vail demonstrates a telegraph system using dots and dashes (this is the forerunner of Morse code).

In 1839,  The most damaging storm in 300 years sweeps across Ireland, damaging or destroying more than 20% of the houses in Dublin.

In 1853,  President-elect of the United States Franklin Pierce and his family are involved in a train wreck near Andover, Massachusetts.

In 1870,  The inauguration of the Musikverein in Vienna, Austria.

Jubilee-jim-fisk.jpgIn 1872,  James Fisk, American businessman (b. 1834) died. He known variously as “Big Jim,” “Diamond Jim,” and “Jubilee Jim” – was an American stockbroker and corporate executive who has been referred to as one of the “robber barons” of the Gilded Age. In 1864 Fisk became a stockbroker in New York, and was employed by Daniel Drew as a buyer. He aided Drew in the Erie War against Cornelius Vanderbilt for control of the Erie Railroad. This resulted in Fisk and Jay Gould becoming members of the Erie directorate, and subsequently, a well-planned raid netted Fisk and Gould control of the railroad. The association with Gould continued until Fisk’s death. Fisk and Gould carried financial buccaneering to extremes: their program included an open alliance with New York politician Boss Tweed, the wholesale bribery of legislatures, and the buying of judges. Their attempt to corner the gold market culminated in the fateful Black Friday of September 24, 1869. Though many investors were ruined, Fisk and Gould escaped significant financial harm.

In 1893,  The Washington National Cathedral is chartered by Congress. The charter is signed by President Benjamin Harrison.

In 1900,  Second Boer War: Having already sieged the fortress at Ladysmith, Boer forces attack it, but are driven back by British defenders.

In 1907,  Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center for working class children in Rome, Italy.

In 1912,  New Mexico is admitted as the 47th U.S. state.

In 1912,  German geophysicist Alfred Wegener first presents his theory of continental drift.

T Roosevelt.jpgIn 1919,  Theodore Roosevelt, American politician, 26th President of the United States (b. 1858) dies. He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his “cowboy” persona and robust masculinity.  He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the first incarnation of the short-lived Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party of 1912. Before becoming President, he held offices at the city, state, and federal levels. Roosevelt’s achievements as a naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier are as much a part of his fame as any office he held as a politician. Roosevelt was 42 years old when sworn in as President of the United States in 1901, making him the youngest president ever. Roosevelt was also the first of only three sitting presidents to have won the Nobel Peace Prize. The teddy bear is named for him, despite his contempt for being called “Teddy”.

In 1921,  Formation of the Iraqi Army.

In 1929,  King Alexander of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes suspends his country‘s constitution (the January 6th Dictatorship).

In 1929,  Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta, India to begin her work among India‘s poorest and sick people.

In 1930,  The first diesel-engined automobile trip is completed, from Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York, New York.

In 1931,  Thomas Edison submits his last patent application.

Charley O'Leary (1908 Detroit Free Press portrait).jpgIn 1941,  Charley O’Leary, American baseball player (b. 1882) died. He was a Major League Baseball shortstop who played eleven seasons with the Detroit Tigers (1904–1912), St. Louis Cardinals (1913), and St. Louis Browns (1934). Born in Chicago, Illinois into a family of 16 children (11 boys), O’Leary worked at age 16 for a clothing company and played on the company’s semi-pro baseball team. His talent as a middle infielder and scrappy hitter came to the attention of Charles Comiskey, owner of the White Sox. Though there is no independent verification, O’Leary reportedly signed briefly with the White Sox, only to have his arm broken from a pitched ball thrown by ‘fireballer‘ and Hall of Famer, Rube Waddell. According to official sources, O’Leary debuted in the Major Leagues on April 14, 1904 with the Tigers. He was Detroit’s starting shortstop from 1904–1907 and became a backup shortstop and utility infielder from 1908-1912. In the offseason, O’Leary and teammate Germany Schaefer, known as one of baseball’s zaniest characters, worked as a comic vaudeville act. The O’Leary/Schaefer vaudeville act is said to have inspired two MGM musicals: the forgotten 1930 film They Learned About Women, featuring the noted vaudeville act Van and Schenck, and Busby Berkeley’s last film, Take Me Out to the Ballgame (1949), with Gene Kelly and Frank Sinatra.

In 1941,  United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms speech in the State of the Union address.

In 1947,  Pan American Airlines becomes the first commercial airline to schedule a flight around the world.

In 1949,  Victor Fleming, American director (b. 1883) died. He was an American film director, cinematographer, and producer. His most popular films were The Wizard of Oz (1939), and Gone with the Wind (1939), for which he won an Academy Award for Best Director. Fleming holds the achievement of being the only film director to have two films listed in the top 10 of the American Film Institute‘s prestigious 2007 AFI’s 100 Years…100 Movies list.

In 1950,  The United Kingdom recognizes the People’s Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with the UK in response.

In 1951,  Ganghwa massacre: Korean War.

In 1953,  The first Asian Socialist Conference opens in Rangoon, Burma.

In 1960,  National Airlines Flight 2511 is destroyed in mid-air by a bomb, while en route from New York City to Miami, Florida.

In 1960,  The Associations Law comes into force in Iraq, allowing registration of political parties.

In 1967,  Vietnam War: United States Marine Corps and ARVN troops launch “Operation Deckhouse Five” in the Mekong River delta.

In 1974,  In response to the 1973 oil crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly four months early in the United States.

In 1978,  The Crown of St. Stephen (also known as the Holy Crown of Hungary) is returned to Hungary from the United States, where it was held after World War II.

In 1989,  Satwant Singh and Kehar Singh are sentenced to death for conspiracy in the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi; the two men are executed the same day.

In 1992,  President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia flees the country as a result of the military coup.

In 1993,  Indian Border Security Force units kill 55 Kashmiri civilians in Sopore, Jammu and Kashmir, in revenge after militants ambushed a BSF patrol.

In 1994,  Nancy Kerrigan is clubbed on the knee at the U.S. Figure Skating Championships in Detroit, Michigan.

In 1995,  A chemical fire in an apartment complex in Manila, Philippines, leads to the discovery of plans for Project Bojinka, a mass-terrorist attack.

In 2001,  Congress certifies George W. Bush winner of 2000 elections.

In 2005,  American Civil Rights Movement: Edgar Ray Killen is arrested as a suspect in the 1964 murders of three civil rights workers.

In 2005,  A train collision in Graniteville, South Carolina, releases about 60 tons of chlorine gas.

In 2009,  Israel conducts an assault on Gaza. Operation Cast Lead

In 2012, 26 people are killed and 63 wounded when a suicide bomber blows himself up at a police station in Damascus.

Arthur Jackson 1955.jpg

Art Jackson with the 1955 Winchester Trophy at Camp Perry, Ohio.

In 2015,  Arthur Jackson, American lieutenant and target shooter (b. 1918) dies at the age of 96. He was an American competitive sport shooter. In his international career, he captured numerous medals across three Summer Olympic Games, three ISSF World Shooting Championships, and two editions of the Pan American Games. He began shooting in the seventh grade and joined the rifle team at Brooklyn Technical High School in 1934. He competed in local and regional tournaments prior to World War II, during which he worked at the Sperry Corporation and later served as a bombardier in the Pacific Theater of Operations. His first international tournament was the 1948 Summer Olympics and his last was the 1956 edition, at which point he began a career in public service with the Central Intelligence Agency in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. He stopped competing at the international level in 1957 and retired from the CIA at the end of 1974. After several years as an instructor and coach, he continued participating in smaller tournaments through the 1990s.

In 2015, “Stocks declined on Monday as the price of oil continued to fall, with the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunging more than 300 points 1.86 percent; on the first full week of trading in 2015… Oil prices, meanwhile, have dropped below $50 per barrel for the first time since 2009. White House press secretary Josh Earnest told reporters that he was ‘hesitant’ to say whether the stock market decline was because of the oil prices. ‘We’re always monitoring the impact that any sort of policy area would have on the economy. So it’s certainly something that we’re watching,’ Earnest said.”

In 2016, North Korea declares that nuclear weapons testing of thermonuclear weapon has done

In 2017,  Five people are killed and six others injured in a mass shooting at Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport in Broward County, Florida.

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