January 25th in History

This day in historyJanuary 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 340 days remaining until the end of the year (341 in leap years).

Holidays

History

In AD 41,  After a night of negotiation, Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate.

In 750,  In the Battle of the Zab, the Abbasid rebels defeat the Umayyad Caliphate, leading to overthrow of the dynasty.

In 1348,  A strong earthquake strikes the South Alpine region of Friuli in modern Italy, causing considerable damage to buildings as far away as Rome.

In 1494,  Alfonso II becomes King of Naples.

In 1533,  Henry VIII of England secretly marries his second wife Anne Boleyn.

In 1554,  Founding of São Paulo city, Brazil.

In 1573,  Battle of Mikatagahara: In Japan, Takeda Shingen defeats Tokugawa Ieyasu.

In 1575,  Luanda, the capital of Angola, is founded by the Portuguese navigator Paulo Dias de Novais.

In 1704,  The Battle of Ayubale results in the destruction of most of the Spanish missions in Florida.

In 1751,  Paul Dudley, American lawyer and politician (b. 1675) died. He was  Attorney-General of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, was the son of colonial governor Joseph Dudley and grandson of one of the colony’s founders, Thomas Dudley. Paul was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts. After graduating from The Roxbury Latin School and then Harvard in 1690 (at the age of 15), he studied law at the Temple in London, and became attorney-general of Massachusetts (1702 to 1718). He was associate justice of the Superior Court of Judicature (the highest court) of that province from 1718 to 1745, and chief justice from 1745 until his death in January 1751/2. He was a member of the Royal Society (London), to whose Transactions he contributed several valuable papers on the natural history of New England, as well as the founder of the Dudleian lectures on religion at Harvard University. He died in Roxbury, and is buried in the Eliot Burying Ground next to his father and grandfather. Dudley was an investor in the Equivalent Lands. Along with his brother, William, he was the first proprietor and namesake of Dudley, Massachusetts.

In 1755,  Moscow University is established on Tatiana Day.

In 1765,  Port Egmont, the first British settlement in the Falkland Islands at the southern tip of South America, is founded.

In 1787,  Shays’ Rebellion: The rebellion’s largest confrontation, outside the Springfield Armory, results in the killing of four rebels and the wounding of twenty.

In 1791,  The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act of 1791 and splits the old Province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada.

In 1792,  The London Corresponding Society is founded.

In 1858,  The Wedding March by Felix Mendelssohn is played at the marriage of Queen Victoria‘s daughter, Victoria, and Friedrich of Prussia, and becomes a popular wedding recessional.

In 1879,  The Bulgarian National Bank is founded.

In 1881,  Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company.

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Konstantin Thon

In 1881,  Konstantin Thon, Russian architect, designed the Grand Kremlin Palace and Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (b. 1794) died.  He was an official architect of Imperial Russia during the reign of Nicholas I. Konstantin, born in St. Petersburg to the family of a German jeweller, was one of three Thon brothers who all rose to become notable architects. He studied at the Imperial Academy of Arts (1803–15) under the Empire Style architect Andrey Voronikhin, best remembered for his work on the Kazan Cathedral, situated right in the middle of the Nevsky Prospekt. He studied Italian art in Rome from 1819 to 1828, and on his return home was admitted to the academy as its member (1830) and professor (1833). In 1854, he was appointed rector of the architectural division of the academy. Thon first attracted public attention with his sumptuous design for the interiors of the Academy building on the Neva embankment. In 1827, he submitted to the tsar his project of St Catherine church at the Obvodnyi Canal, the first ever design in the Russian Revival style. Nicholas I, who felt disaffected with the prevailing Neoclassicism of Russian architecture, remarked that “Russians have their own great art traditions and don’t need to cringe before Rome”. Thon’s project was to become a revered model for other churches in St Petersburg and across Russia.

In 1890,  Nellie Bly completes her round-the-world journey in 72 days.

In 1909,  Richard Strauss‘s opera Elektra receives its debut performance at the Dresden State Opera.

In 1915,  Alexander Graham Bell inaugurates U.S. transcontinental telephone service, speaking from New York to Thomas Watson in San Francisco.

In 1918,  Ukraine declares independence from Bolshevik Russia.

In 1919,  The League of Nations is founded.

In 1924,  The 1924 Winter Olympics opens in Chamonix, in the French Alps, inaugurating the Winter Olympic Games.

In 1932,  Second Sino-Japanese War: The Chinese National Revolutionary Army begins its defense of Harbin.

In 1937,  The Guiding Light debuts on NBC radio from Chicago. In 1952 it moves to CBS television, where it remains until Sept. 18, 2009.

In 1941,  Pope Pius XII elevates the Apostolic Vicariate of the Hawaiian Islands to the dignity of a diocese. It becomes the Roman Catholic Diocese of Honolulu.

In 1942,  World War II: Thailand declares war on the United States and United Kingdom.

In 1945,  World War II: The Battle of the Bulge ends.

In 1946,  The United Mine Workers rejoins the American Federation of Labor.

In 1947,  Thomas Goldsmith Jr. files a patent for a cathode ray tubeamusement device

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Al Capone-around 1935

In 1947,  Al Capone, American mobster (b. 1899) died. He was an American gangster who led a Prohibition-era crime syndicate. The Chicago Outfit, which subsequently also became known as the “Capones”, was dedicated to smuggling and bootlegging liquor, and other illegal activities, such as prostitution, in Chicago from the early 1920s to 1931. Born in the borough of Brooklyn in New York City to Italian immigrants, Capone became involved with gang activity at a young age after having been expelled from school at age 14. In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago to take advantage of a new opportunity to make money smuggling illegal alcoholic beverages into the city during Prohibition. He also engaged in various other criminal activities, including bribery of government figures and prostitution. Despite his illegitimate occupation, Capone became a highly visible public figure. He made donations to various charitable endeavors using the money he made from his activities, and was viewed by many to be a “modern-day Robin Hood”. Capone’s public reputation was damaged in the wake of his supposed involvement in the 1929 Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre, when seven rival gang members were executed. Capone was convicted on federal charges of tax evasion in 1931 and sentenced to federal prison; he was released on parole in 1939. His incarceration included a term at the then-new Alcatraz federal prison. In the final years of Capone’s life, he suffered mental and physical deterioration due to late-stage neurosyphilis, which he had contracted in his youth. On January 25, 1947, he died from cardiac arrest after suffering a stroke.

In 1949,  At the Hollywood Athletic Club the first Emmy Awards are presented.

In 1955,  The Soviet Union ends the state of war with Germany.

In 1960,  The National Association of Broadcasters reacts to the “payola” scandal by threatening fines for any disc jockeys who accept money for playing particular records.

In 1961,  In Washington, D.C. John F. Kennedy delivers the first live presidential television news conference.

In 1969,  Brazilian Army captain Carlos Lamarca deserts in order to fight against the military dictatorship, taking with him 10 machine guns and 63 rifles.

In 1971,  Charles Manson and three female “Family” members are found guilty of the 1969 Tate-LaBianca murders.

In 1971,  Idi Amin leads a coup deposing Milton Obote and becomes Uganda‘s president.

In 1979,  Pope John Paul II starts his first official papal visits outside Italy to the Bahamas, Dominican Republic and Mexico.

In 1980,  Mother Teresa is honored with India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna

In 1981,  Jiang Qing, the widow of Mao Zedong, is sentenced to death.

In 1986,  The National Resistance Movement topples the government of Tito Okello in Uganda.

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Ava Gardner

In 1990,  Ava Gardner, American actress (b. 1922) died. She was an American actress. She was signed to a contract by MGM Studios in 1941 and appeared mainly in small roles until she drew attention with her performance in The Killers (1946). She became one of Hollywood’s leading actresses and was considered one of the most beautiful women of her day. She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her work in Mogambo (1953). She appeared in several high-profile films from the 1950s to 1970s, including The Hucksters (1947), Show Boat (1951), The Snows of Kilimanjaro (1952), The Barefoot Contessa (1954), Bhowani Junction (1956), On the Beach (1959), Seven Days in May (1964), The Night of the Iguana (1964), The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean (1972), Earthquake (1974), and The Cassandra Crossing (1976). Gardner continued to act regularly until 1986, four years before her death in London in 1990 at the age of 67. She is listed 25th among the American Film Institute‘s Greatest Female Stars.

In 1993,  Five people are shot outside the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia. Two are killed and three wounded.

In 1994,  The Clementine space probe launches.

In 1994,  Stephen Cole Kleene, American mathematician (b. 1909) died. He was an American mathematician. One of many distinguished students of Alonzo Church, Kleene, along with Alan Turing, Emil Post, and others, is best known as a founder of the branch of mathematical logic known as recursion theory, which subsequently helped to provide the foundations of theoretical computer science. Kleene’s work grounds the study of which functions are computable. A number of mathematical concepts are named after him: Kleene hierarchy, Kleene algebra, the Kleene star (Kleene closure), Kleene’s recursion theorem and the Kleene fixpoint theorem. He also invented regular expressions, and made significant contributions to the foundations of mathematical intuitionism.

In 1995,  The Norwegian rocket incident: Russia almost launches a nuclear attack after it mistakes Black Brant XII, a Norwegian research rocket, for a US Trident missile.

In 1996,  Billy Bailey becomes the last person to be hanged in the USA.

In 1998,  During a historic visit to Cuba, Pope John Paul II demands political reforms and the release of political prisoners while condemning US attempts to isolate the country.

In 1998,  A suicide attack by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam on Sri Lanka‘s Temple of the Tooth kills eight and injures 25 others.

In 1999,  A 6.0 Richter scale earthquake hits western Colombia killing at least 1,000.

In 2003,  2003 Invasion of Iraq: A group of people leave London, England, for Baghdad, Iraq, to serve as human shields, intending to prevent the U.S.-led coalition troops from bombing certain locations.

In 2004,  Opportunity rover (MER-B) lands on surface of Mars.

In 2005,  A stampede at the Mandhradevi temple in Maharashtra, India kills at least 258.

In 2006,  Three independent observing campaigns announce the discovery of OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb through gravitational microlensing, the first cool rocky/icy extrasolar planet around a main-sequence star.

In 2006,  Mexican professional wrestler Juana Barraza is arrested in connection with the serial killing of at least 10 elderly women.

In 2008, State Sen. Jim Kyle is pulling back legislation that would have allowed temporary replacements for sitting lawmakers who are incapacitated. The legislation was specifically in response to State Sen. Ophelia Ford’s situation. Ford has been unable to attend the legislative session because of a prolonged illness. Kyle said he is pulling the bill because the Attorney General declared it would have been unconstitutional.

In 2008, Lawmakers in the Tennessee state legislature approved a change to a state constitutional amendment that would nullify a state Supreme Court decision misusing the privacy clause in it to create an unlimited right to abortion. The state’s pro-life group supported the change and says the amendment makes it more likely to get support. Sen. Douglas Henry, a pro-life Democrat, offered an amendment to SJR 127 making clear that, even in the cases of rape and incest, the legislature would determine the state’s abortion law instead of the state courts. However, the amendment left out a provision concerning abortion in very rare cases to save the mother’s life and a second amendment was necessary to correct the original one. Tennessee Right to Life stated on Thursday that both amendments were added on bipartisan 29-3 votes with Sens. Roy Herron, Beverly Marrero of Memphis and Thelma Harper of Nashville voting against them.

In 2008, Dean Hrbacek, the former mayor of Sugar Land, Texas, and at that time was running for the U.S. House of Representatives, mailed a campaign brochure to voters. Those who looked closely could see that in the photo of the candidate, his head didn’t quite fit on the body, which is noticeably slimmer than Hrbacek’s. Campaign officials admitted the Republican’s photo was faked — they had a nice head shot of Hrbacek, but not a full-length photo needed for the brochure, so they pasted his head on someone else’s body. Hrbacek, due to his notoriety, collected only 10.5 percent of the vote to finish in fifth place….Voters are well used to politicians who don’t have their heads on straight.

In 2011,  The first wave of the Egyptian revolution begins in Egypt, with a series of street demonstrations, marches, rallies, acts of civil disobedience, riots, labour strikes, and violent clashes in Cairo, Alexandria, and throughout other cities in Egypt.

In 2013,  At least 50 people are killed and 120 people are injured in a prison riot in Barquisimeto, Venezuela.

In 2015, A clash in Mamasapano, Maguindanao in the Philippines killing 44 members of Special Action Force (SAF), at least 18 from Moro Islamic Liberation Front and five from Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters.

In 2016, House Speaker Beth Harwell, R-Nashville, called for a review of the General Assembly’s sexual harassment policy after a Tennessean investigation found that the existing rules foster an environment mired in secrecy that allows harassment by elected officials to go unchecked. In a statement, Harwell said that she is “disappointed that staffers and others who are regularly at the Capitol do not feel comfortable coming forward” with complaints about sexual harassment. Under federal law, sexual harassment could fall under the category of hate crime.

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