March 1st in History

This day in historyMarch 1 is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 305 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 752 BC,  Romulus, legendary first king of Rome, celebrates the first Roman triumph after his victory over the Caeninenses, following The Rape of the Sabine Women.

In 509 BC,  Publius Valerius Publicola, Roman consul, celebrates the first triumph of the Roman Republic after his victory over the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus at the Battle of Silva Arsia.

In 86 BC,  Lucius Cornelius Sulla, at the head of a Roman Republic army, enters Athens, removing the tyrant Aristion who was supported by troops of Mithridates VI of Pontus ending the Siege of Athens and Piraeus.

In 1, BC, Start of revised Julian calendar in Rome.

In 293,  Emperor Diocletian and Maximian appoint Constantius Chlorus and Galerius as Caesars. This is considered the beginning of the Tetrarchy, known as the Quattuor Principes Mundi (“Four Rulers of the World”).

In 317,   Crispus and Constantine II, sons of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and Licinius Iunior, son of Emperor Licinius, are made Caesares

In 350,  Vetranio is asked by Constantina, sister of Constantius II, to proclaim himself Caesar.

In 1457,  The Unitas Fratrum is established in the village of Kunvald, on the Bohemian-Moravian borderland. It is to date the second oldest Protestant denomination.

In 1476,  Forces of the Catholic Monarchs engage the combined Portuguese-Castilian armies of Afonso V and Prince John at the Battle of Toro.

In 1562,  23 Huguenots are massacred by Catholics in Wassy, France, marking the start of the French Wars of Religion.

In 1565,  The city of Rio de Janeiro is founded.

In 1593,  The Uppsala Synod is summoned to confirm the exact forms of the Lutheran Church of Sweden.

In 1628,  Writs issued in February by Charles I of England mandate that every county in England (not just seaport towns) pay ship tax by this date.

In 1633,  Samuel de Champlain reclaims his role as commander of New France on behalf of Cardinal Richelieu.

In 1642,  Georgeana, Massachusetts (now known as York, Maine), becomes the first incorporated city in the United States.

In 1692,  Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and Tituba are brought before local magistrates in Salem Village, Massachusetts, beginning what would become known as the Salem witch trials.

In 1700,  Sweden introduces its own Swedish calendar, in an attempt to gradually merge into the Gregorian calendar, reverts to the Julian calendar on this date in 1712, and introduces the Gregorian Calendar on this date in 1753.

In 1780, Pennsylvania became the first U.S. state to abolish slavery (Vermont abolished it in 1777, but it was still a colony at the time and had not yet joined the Union).

Articles page1.jpgIn 1781,  The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation, paving the way for a federal union (Maryland is the last to ratify).

In 1790, The first United States census is authorized.

In 1793,  French Revolutionary War: Battle of Aldenhoven during the Flanders Campaign.

In 1796,  The Dutch East India Company is nationalized by the Batavian Republic.

In 1803,  Ohio is admitted as the 17th U.S. state.

In 1805,  Justice Samuel Chase is acquitted at the end of his impeachment trial by the U.S. Senate.

In 1809, the Embargo Act is repealed, and President Jefferson signs the Non-Intercourse Act in retaliation for English and French interference in American shipping.

In 1811,  Leaders of the Mameluke dynasty are killed by Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali.

In 1815,  Napoleon returns to France from his banishment on Elba.

In 1815, Dutch law made Sunday a Holy day.

In 1836,  A convention of delegates from 57 Texas communities convenes in Washington-on-the-Brazos, Texas, to deliberate independence from Mexico.

In 1845,  President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the United States to annex the Republic of Texas.

In 1847,  The state of Michigan formally abolishes capital punishment  (except for treason against the state).

In 1852,  Archibald William Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

In 1854,  German psychologist Friedrich Eduard Beneke disappears; two years later his remains are found in a canal near Charlottenburg.

In 1864, Rebecca Lee became the first black woman to receive an American medical degree, from the New England Female Medical College in Boston. Although “no photos or other images” of Crumpler survive, a Boston Globe article described her as “a very pleasant and intellectual woman and an indefatigable church worker. Dr. Crumpler is 59 or 60 years of age, tall and straight, with light brown skin and gray hair.” About marriage, she said the secret to a successful marriage “is to continue in the careful routine of the courting days, till it becomes well understood between the two.” Rebecca Crumpler died on March 9, 1895 in Fairview, Massachusetts, while still residing in Hyde Park. She is buried at the Fairview Cemetery near her residence in Hyde Park. Arthur died in Boston in 1910.

In 1867,  Nebraska becomes the 37th U.S. state; Lancaster, Nebraska is renamed Lincoln and becomes the state capital.

In 1868,  The Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity is founded at the University of Virginia. My Dad was a Pik at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville.

In 1869, Postage stamps depicting scenes were issued for the first time this day. Today, postage stamps depict scenes like ducks, birds, Marilyn Monroe, Elvis and Richard Nixon.

In 1870,  Marshal F.S. López dies during the Battle of Cerro Corá thus marking the end of the Paraguayan War.

In 1872,  Yellowstone National Park is established as the world’s first national park.

In 1873,  E. Remington and Sons in Ilion, New York begins production of the first practical typewriter.

In 1875, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, but it was invalidated by the Supreme Court in 1883.

In 1886,  The Anglo-Chinese School, Singapore is founded by Bishop William Oldham.

In 1886, The Battle of Adowa began Ethiopia between the forces of Emperor Menelik II and Italian troops sent to enforce Italy’s claim to colonial rule. The result was a crushing defeat for Italy, which later agreed to recognize Ethiopian independence.

In 1890, Sherlock Holmes made his U.S. book debut as J.P. Lippincott published the “A Study in Scarlet” by Arthur Conan Doyle. (Jan 6, 1887?).

In 1893,  Electrical engineer Nikola Tesla gives the first public demonstration of radio in St. Louis, Missouri.

In 1893, the Diplomatic Appropriation Act is passed by Congress, authorizing the rank of ambassador (up until then, the highest diplomatic title was minister).

In 1896,  Battle of Adowa: an Ethiopian army defeats an outnumbered Italian force, ending the First Italo-Ethiopian War.

In 1896,  Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity.

In 1901,  The Australian Army is formed.

In 1910,  The worst avalanche in United States history buries a Great Northern Railway train in northeastern King County, Washington, killing 96 people.

In 1912,  Albert Berry makes the first parachute jump from a moving airplane.  This first in-flight parachute jump was from a Benoist plane over Kinlock Field in St. Louis. He jumped from an altitude of 1,500 feet at a speed of 50 mph.

In 1913, the Webb-Kenyon Interstate Liquor Act is passed over Pres. Taft’s veto, stating that no liquor could be shipped into dry states.

In 1914,  The Republic of China joins the Universal Postal Union.

In 1917,  The U.S. government releases the unencrypted text of the Zimmermann Telegram to the public.

In 1919,  March 1st Movement begins in Korea under Japanese rule.

In 1921,  The Australian cricket team captained by Warwick Armstrong becomes the first team to complete a whitewash of The Ashes, something that would not be repeated for 86 years.

In 1921, The Allies reject a $7.5 billion reparations offer in London. German delagations decides to quit all talks.

In 1924, Germany’s prohibition of Communist Party KPD lifted.

In 1927, Bank of Italy becomes a National Bank.

In 1932,  The son of Charles Lindbergh, Charles Augustus Lindbergh III, is kidnapped. (Remains identified as those of the baby were found the following May.) Bruno Richard Hauptman is later convicted and put to death in 1936.

In 1933, bank holidays are declared in six states, effectively preventing runs on bank assets by worried depositors.

In 1936,  The Hoover Dam is completed.

In 1936,  A strike occurs aboard the S.S. California, leading to the demise of the International Seamen’s Union and the creation of the National Maritime Union.

In 1937, the first permanent automobile license plates were issued in Connecticut.

In 1939,  A Japanese Imperial Army ammunition dump explodes at Hirakata, Osaka, Japan, killing 94.

In 1940, “Native Son” by Richard Wright was first published.

In 1941, “Captain America” first appears in a comic book.

In 1941,  World War II: Bulgaria signs the Tripartite Pact, allying itself with the Axis powers as the Nazis occupy Sofia.

In 1941,  W47NV (now known as WSM-FM) begins operations in Nashville, Tennessee becoming the first FM radio station in the U.S..

In 1942, The 3-day Battle of the Java Sea ends as a major U.S. naval defeat.

George S. Rentz;colorrentz.jpgIn 1942,  George S. Rentz, American navy commander (b. 1882) dies. He was a United States Navy chaplain who served during World War I and World War II. For selfless heroism following the loss of USS Houston (CA-30) in the Battle of Sunda Strait, he was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross— the only Navy Chaplain to be so honored during World War II. It was during the abandonment of the sinking Houston that Commander Rentz entered the water and attained partial safety along with other crewmembers on a destroyed airplane’s float. Seeing extreme overcrowding and the fact that the pontoon was taking on water, he attempted to relinquish his space and lifejacket to wounded survivors nearby. He declared “You men are young, I have lived the major part of my life and I am willing to go.” According to Houston survivor Private Jim Gee, no one would oblige the generous, fearless chaplain. Each time Rentz attempted to leave he was brought back by his shipmates. He ultimately relinquished his lifejacket to Seaman First Class Walter L. Beeson, who recounts that Rentz “told me his heart was failing him; told me he couldn’t last much longer.” Following a brief prayer, the Chaplain gave the lifejacket to Beeson, who refused to put it on. Rentz kicked away from the float and disappeared. Gee recalled “No one realized what had happened. It’s just one of those things that one minute he’s there, and the next minute… he wasn’t.” When Beeson realized that Rentz was gone, he put on the lifejacket.  For these actions, Rentz was posthumously awarded the United States Navy’s second highest award for valor, the Navy Cross. Chaplain Rentz had less than one year to serve before retiring. He was one of 800 men who perished out of the original crew of 1,168 aboard Houston. Of the 368 crew members who made it to shore and were captured by the Japanese, 77 would die in captivity. 291 survived to the end of the war.

In 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, having just returned from the Yalta Conference, proclaimed the meeting a success in an address to a joint session of Congress.

In 1945, British 43rd Division under Gen Essame occupies Xanten.

In 1945, US infantry regiment captures Monchengladbach.

In 1946,  The Bank of England is nationalized.

In 1946, Panama accepts its new constitution.

In 1947,  The International Monetary Fund begins financial operations.

In 1950,  Cold War: Klaus Fuchs is convicted of spying for the Soviet Union by disclosing top secret atomic bomb data.

In 1953,  Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin suffers a stroke and collapses; he dies four days later.

In 1954,  Nuclear testing: The Castle Bravo, a 15-megaton hydrogen bomb, is detonated on Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the worst radioactive contamination ever caused by the United States.

In 1954,  Puerto Rican nationalists attack the United States Capitol building, injuring five Representatives.

In 1954, The U.S. exploded a 15 megaton hydrogen bomb in a test at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific.

In 1956,  The International Air Transport Association finalizes a draft of the Radiotelephony spelling alphabet for the International Civil Aviation Organization.

In 1956,  Formation of the East German Nationale Volksarmee

In 1958,  Samuel Alphonsus Stritch is appointed Pro-Prefect of the Propagation of Faith and thus becomes the first American member of the Roman Curia.

In 1961,  American President John F. Kennedy establishes the Peace Corps. The program was established by Executive Order 10924

In 1961,  Uganda becomes self-governing and holds its first elections.

In 1961, BARBIE’ GETS A BOYFRIEND MATTEL introduces the KEN doll

In 1961, The Peace Corps is established by an executive order signed by President John F. Kennedy for U.S. volunteers for service in developing countries. (formally established Sept. 22, 1961). Thousands of Americans will soon volunteer for the toughest job they’ll ever love. announced by televised broadcast March 2, 1961, and authorized by Congress on September 21, 1961, with passage of the Peace Corps Act (Pub.L. 87–293). The act declares the program’s purpose as follows: To promote world peace and friendship through a Peace Corps, which shall make available to interested countries and areas men and women of the United States qualified for service abroad and willing to serve, under conditions of hardship if necessary, to help the peoples of such countries and areas in meeting their needs for trained manpower.

In 1962, THE 1ST K-MART STORE Opened by variety store operator S.S. KRESGE in Garden City, MICHIGAN

In 1962,  American Airlines Flight 1 crashes on take off in New York.

In 1962, In the biggest antitrust case in U.S. history, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company is ordered by a federal court to divest itself of 63 million shares of GM stock.

In 1964,  Villarrica Volcano begins a strombolian eruption causing lahars that destroy half of the town of Coñaripe.

In 1966,  Venera 3 Soviet space probe crashes on Venus becoming the first spacecraft to land on another planet‘s surface.

In 1966,  The Ba’ath Party takes power in Syria.

In 1967, U.S. Rep. Adam Clayton Powell of New York, accused of misconduct, was denied his seat in the 90th Congress. (The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1969 that Powell had to be seated.).

In 1971,  A bomb explodes in a men’s room in the United States Capitol: the Weather Underground claims responsibility.

In 1971, President of Pakistan Yahya Khan indefinitely postpones the pending national assembly session, precipitating massive civil disobedience in East Pakistan.

In 1972,  The Thai province of Yasothon is created after being split off from the Ubon Ratchathani province.

In 1972, Then-California Governor Ronald Reagan pardoned Merle Haggard. The country singer had served time in San Quentin Prison in the late 1950s for attempted burglary.

In 1973,  Black September storms the Saudi embassy in Khartoum, Sudan, resulting in the assassination of three Western hostages.

In 1974,  Watergate scandal: Seven are indicted for their role in the Watergate break-in and charged with conspiracy to obstruct justice. They included John Erlichman, H. R. Haldeman, and John Mitchell.

In 1977, Bank of America adopts the name VISA for their credit cards.

In 1977, the U.S. extends its fishing limits to 200 miles.

In 1981,  Provisional Irish Republican Army member Bobby Sands begins his hunger strike in HM Prison Maze.

In 1985, the Pentagon accepts the theory that an atomic war would cause a nuclear winter.

In 1986, A directive signed by President Reagan went into effect,  making possible the execution of military people convicted of espionage during peacetime.

In 1987, S&H Green Stamps became S&H Green Seals on this day, 90 years after the lick-and-stick stamps were introduced as a way for businesses to bonus their customers — who then used the stamps to buy merchandise from catalog stores.

In 1989,  The United States becomes a member of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.

In 1990,  Steve Jackson Games is raided by the United States Secret Service, prompting the later formation of the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

In 1991, President Bush said “we’ve kicked the Vietnam syndrome once and for all” following the allied victory in the Gulf War. The U.S. Embassy in Kuwait officially reopened.

In 1992,  Bosnia and Herzegovina declares its independence from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

In 1992, Senator Brock Adams abandoned his re-election campaign after eight women accused him in a “Seattle Times” report of sexual abuse and harassment.

In 1993, the toll-free 800 number became portable, meaning a company can keep the same 800 number even if it switched telephone service providers.

In 1993, authorities near Waco, Tecasm continued negotiating with Branch Davidians holed up in their bullet-scarred compound, a day after a furious gun battle between the Davidians and federal agents that left 10 people dead.

In 1994, falling four votes shy of a two-thirds majority, the United States Senate rejected a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution.

In 1995,  Prime Minister of Poland Waldemar Pawlak resigns from parliament and is replaced by ex-communist Józef Oleksy.

In 1995, Disney’s Hilton Head Island Resort opens in South Carolina. It is the first Disney vacation resort built outside California and Florida. It is part of the Disney Vacation Club Resorts.

In 1995,  Yahoo! is incorporated.

In 1995, Somalia militiamen loyal to warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid seized control of the Mogadishu airport after peacekeepers withdrew.

In 1998,  Titanic became the first film to gross over $1 billion worldwide.

In 1998, in Germany, Lower Saxony Governor Gerhard Schroeder won a sweeping re-election that paved the way for his successful campaign to oust Chancellor Helmut Kohl.

In 1998, Key U.S. senators called on President Clinton to reverse course and make ousting President Saddam Hussein a stated U.S. goal in Iraq. “I would say it’s our goal to remove him from power because … as long as he’s there, we’re faced with this enormous challenge,”  Sen. John McCain  said on NBC’s “Meet the Press.”

In 1999, The General Accounting Office released an audit of the Internal Revenue Service which found chronic problems in the agency’s record-keeping.

In 2000,  The Constitution of Finland is rewritten.

In 2000, Hans Blix assumes the position of Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC.

In 2002,  U.S. invasion of Afghanistan: Operation Anaconda begins in eastern Afghanistan.

In 2002,  The Envisat environmental satellite successfully reaches an orbit 800 kilometers (500 mi) above the Earth on its 11th launch, carrying the heaviest payload to date at 8500 kilograms (8.5 tons).

In 2002,  The peseta is discontinued as official currency of Spain and is replaced by the euro (€).

In 2003,  Management of the United States Customs Service and the United States Secret Service move to the United States Department of Homeland Security.

In 2003,  The International Criminal Court holds its inaugural session in The Hague.

In 2004,  Mohammed Bahr al-Uloum becomes President of Iraq.

In 2005,  U.S. Supreme Court rules that the execution of juveniles found guilty of murder is unconstitutional marking a change in “national standards,”.

In 2006,  English-language Wikipedia reaches its one millionth article, Jordanhill railway station.

In 2007,  Tornadoes break out across the southern United States, killing at least 20; eight of the deaths are at a high school in Enterprise, Alabama.

In 2007,  “Squatters” are evicted from Ungdomshuset in Copenhagen, Denmark, provoking the March 2007 Denmark Riots.

In 2008,  The Armenian police clash with peaceful opposition rally protesting against allegedly fraudulent presidential elections 2008, as a result 10 people are killed.

In 2008, Police in Manchester, N.H., were investigating an accident. The driver admitted he had been drinking at a local gay bar, gotten into his car, and then rear-ended another vehicle. “He had a difficult time locating his license in his purse,” said the arresting officer.

The driver, who allegedly wore a cocktail dress with fishnet stockings and high heels, was Boston, Mass., U.S. Bankruptcy Court Judge Robert Somma, 63.

Police say a breath test found his blood alcohol level was .12 percent, 1.5 times the legal limit. Somma told officers he had driven up to New Hampshire when his wife was out of town because no one there knew him. He pleaded no contest to driving while intoxicated.

Somma was appointed to the bench three years ago by President George W. Bush, and has resigned.

Well maybe…..Boston-area bankruptcy lawyers this week waged a letter-writing campaign to urge the 1st U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reject Somma’s resignation. The campaign — reportedly spearheaded by Goodwin Procter partner Michael J. Pappone — yesterday submitted letters to Circuit Executive Gary H. Wente saying, “Recent events do not in any manner diminish Judge Somma’s ability to fulfill his duties and to remain as a highly respected member of the bench with the overwhelming support of the community of bankruptcy practitioners.” Above the Law has the full text of the letter.

Also this week, the New Hampshire newspaper credited with breaking the story is taking heat for reporting the alleged cross-dressing and exposing the judge and his family to embarrassment.

Wait…. the spin is not over yet.

EDGE Boston, a gay news Web site, reports that the newspaper’s decision to turn cross-dressing into headline news is drawing as much scrutiny to the paper as the story brought to the judge. “Reader responses posted on the paper’s Web site have ranged from conscientious objections to vehement outrage,” EDGE contributor Scott Kearnan writes. The judge may have betrayed public safety by driving drunk, Kearnan adds, but should he also have to explain his choice in hosiery?

In 2008,  The Jackson City Council received yesterday afternoon something Councilman Neudecker had already known for about a year and that was revenue was decreasing. The housing market and retail market was slowing down and local government has over extended itself beyond reasonable limits and over the next few years we will be paying heavily for those mistakes. The previous year he had purposed a conservative but not handcuffing budget that took a hard look at both the debt, capital expense and operational funding. Those ideas were ignored by both the Mayor and the council. Neudecker was the lone no vote to approving the budget. He was also the only council member to offer any alternative to runaway spending. So back to this year, Al Laffoon, who warned the council that we could be running deficit budget the previous year, again gave council a rather shaky financial report yesterday afternoon. According to Mr. Laffoon, the city will entertain a 3.1 million dollar deficit. Unlike last year where the council approved a 2.1 million deficit.

Andrew Breitbart by Gage Skidmore 2.jpgIn 2012,  Andrew Breitbart, American journalist and publisher (b. 1969) dies of heart failure. He  was an American conservative publisher,commentator for The Washington Times, author, and occasional guest commentator on various news programs, who served as an editor for the Drudge Report website. He was a researcher for Arianna Huffington, during which time he played a central role in launching her web publication The Huffington Post. He owned, a news aggregation site. He played central roles in the Anthony Weiner sexting scandal, the resignation of Shirley Sherrod, and the ACORN 2009 undercover videos controversy.

In 2014,  At least 29 people are killed and 130 injured in a mass stabbing at Kunming Railway Station in China.


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