June 3rd in History

This day in historyJune 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 211 days remaining until the end of the year




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Nepotianus on a coin bearing his claimed title of Augustus

In 350,  The Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, proclaims himself Roman Emperor, entering Rome at the head of a group of gladiators.

In 713,  The Byzantine emperor Philippicus is blinded, deposed and sent into exile by conspirators of the Opsikion army in Thrace. He is succeeded by Anastasios II, who begins the reorganization of the Byzantine army.

In 1140,  The French scholar Peter Abelard is found guilty of heresy.

In 1326,  The Treaty of Novgorod delineates borders between Russia and Norway in Finnmark.

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Hernando de Soto

In 1539,  Hernando de Soto claims Florida for Spain.

In 1608,  Samuel de Champlain completes his third voyage to New France at Tadoussac, Quebec.

In 1621,  The Dutch West India Company receives a charter for New Netherland.

In 1658,  Pope Alexander VII appoints François de Laval vicar apostolic in New France.

In 1665,  James Stuart, Duke of York (later to become King James II of England), defeats the Dutch fleet off the coast of Lowestoft.

In 1781,  Jack Jouett begins his midnight ride to warn Thomas Jefferson and the Virginia legislature of an impending raid by Banastre Tarleton.

In 1839,  In Humen, China, Lin Tse-hsü destroys 1.2 million kg of opium confiscated from British merchants, providing Britain with a casus belli to open hostilities, resulting in the First Opium War.

In 1861,  American Civil War: Battle of Philippi (also called the Philippi Races) – Union forces rout Confederate troops in Barbour County, Virginia, now West Virginia, in first land battle of the War.

Stephen A Douglas - headshot.jpgIn 1861,  Stephen A. Douglas, American politician (b. 1813) died from typhoid fever.  He was an American politician from Illinois and the designer of the Kansas–Nebraska Act. He was a U.S. Representative, a U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party nominee for President in the 1860 election, losing to Republican Abraham Lincoln. Douglas had previously defeated Lincoln in a Senate contest, noted for the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. He was nicknamed the “Little Giant” because he was short in physical stature, but a forceful and dominant figure in politics. Douglas was well known as a resourceful party leader, and an adroit, ready, skillful tactician in debate and passage of legislation. He was a champion of the Young America movement which sought to modernize politics and replace the agrarian and strict constructionist orthodoxies of the past. Douglas was a leading proponent of democracy, and believed in the principle of popular sovereignty: that the majority of citizens should decide contentious issues such as slavery and territorial expansion. As chairman of the Committee on Territories, Douglas dominated the Senate in the 1850s. He was largely responsible for the Compromise of 1850 that apparently settled slavery issues; however, in 1854 he reopened the slavery question with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which opened some previously prohibited territories to slavery under popular sovereignty. Opposition to this led to the formation of the Republican Party.

In 1862,  A 3000-strong riot occurred at Wardsend Cemetery in the Sheffield, England, against rumours of bodysnatching from the grounds.

In 1863, Gen. Lee with 75,000 Confederates launches his second invasion of the North, heading into Pennsylvania in a campaign that will soon lead to Gettysburg.

In 1864,  American Civil War: Battle of Cold Harbor – Union forces attack Confederate troops in Hanover County, Virginia. A a costly mistake by Grant results in 7,000 Union casualties in twenty minutes during an offensive against fortified Rebels at Cold Harbor in Virginia. Many of the Union soldiers in the failed assault had predicted the outcome, including a dead soldier from Massachusetts whose last entry in his diary was, “June 3, 1864, Cold Harbor, Virginia. I was killed.”

In 1866,  The Fenians are driven out of Fort Erie, Ontario, into the United States.

In 1871, The Obocock Bank in Corydon, IA, was relieved of the sum of $15,000 in cash on this day by 24-year-old Jesse James and his gang of outlaws.

In 1875, the First Transmission By Voice was by Alexander Graham Bell. His “harmonic telegraph” instrument send a twanging sound from a reed vibrated by Bell’s voice along wires to Watson. Although the instrument transmitted voicelike sounds, the words were not recognizable.

In 1884, Hugh Anderson was elected mayor of the city of Jackson, TN. He was an American lawyer, businessman and politician. Anderson joined the Democratic Party. He served as a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1878 to 1881. He served as the long-term mayor of Jackson, Tennessee. He served as the Lieutenant Governor of Tennessee in 1915. Anderson died on March 1, 1915 in Nashville, Tennessee.

In 1885,  In the last military engagement fought on Canadian soil, the Cree leader, Big Bear, escapes the North-West Mounted Police.

In 1888,  The poemCasey at the Bat“, by Ernest Lawrence Thayer, is published in the San Francisco Examiner.

In 1889,  The transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway is completed.

In 1889,  The first long-distance electric power transmission line in the United States is completed, running 14 miles (23 km) between a generator at Willamette Falls and downtown Portland, Oregon.

In 1899,  Johann Strauss II, Austrian composer (b. 1825) dies with Pleura-pneumonia. He  also known as Johann Baptist Strauss or Johann Strauss, Jr., the Younger, or the Son (German: Sohn), was an Austrian composer of light music, particularly dance music and operettas. He composed over 400 waltzes, polkas, quadrilles, and other types of dance music, as well as several operettas and a ballet. In his lifetime, he was known as “The Waltz King”, and was largely then responsible for the popularity of the waltz in Vienna during the 19th century. Strauss had two younger brothers, Josef and Eduard Strauss, who became composers of light music as well, although they were never as well known as their elder brother. Some of Johann Strauss’s most famous works include The Blue Danube, Kaiser-Walzer, Tales from the Vienna Woods, and the Tritsch-Tratsch-Polka. Among his operettas, Die Fledermaus and Der Zigeunerbaron are the best known.

In 1916,  The National Defense Act is signed into law, increasing the size of the United States National Guard by 450,000 men.

In 1925, Goodyear airship “Pilgrim” makes first flight (first with enclosed cabin).

In 1935,  One thousand unemployed Canadian workers board freight cars in Vancouver, British Columbia, beginning a protest trek to Ottawa, Ontario.

In 1937,  The Duke of Windsor marries Wallis Simpson.

In 1940,  World War II: The Luftwaffe bombs Paris.

In 1940,  World War II: The Battle of Dunkirk ends with a German victory and with Allied forces in full retreat.

In 1940,  Franz Rademacher proposes plans to make Madagascar the “Jewish homeland”, an idea that had first been considered by 19th century journalist Theodor Herzl.

In 1941,  World War II: The Wehrmacht razes the Greek village of Kandanos to the ground, killing 180 of its inhabitants.

In 1942,  World War II: Japan begins the Aleutian Islands Campaign by bombing Unalaska Island.

In 1942, World War II, Battle of Midway Island begins: first major battle won by airpower, Japan’s first major defeat in WW II, the turning point in war in Pacific. Four Japanese aircraft carriers—Akagi, Kaga, Soryu and Hiryu, all part of the six-carrier force that had attacked Pearl Harbor six months earlier—and a heavy cruiser were sunk at a cost of the carrier Yorktown and a destroyer. After Midway and the exhausting attrition of the Solomon Islands campaign, Japan’s capacity to replace its losses in materiel (particularly aircraft carriers) and men (especially well-trained pilots) rapidly became insufficient to cope with mounting casualties, while the United States’ massive industrial capabilities made American losses far easier to bear.

In 1943,  In Los Angeles, California, white U.S. Navy sailors and Marines clash with Latino youths in the Zoot Suit Riots.

In 1946, US Supreme court rules race separation on buses, unconstitutional.

In 1948, Korczak Ziolkowski begins sculpture of Crazy Horse near Mt Rushmore.

In 1949, Wesley Anthony Brown becomes the first black midshipman to graduate from the U.S. Naval Academy.

In 1950,  The first successful ascent of an Eight-thousander; the summit of Annapurna is reached by Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal.

In 1959,  Singapore was declared a self-governing state even though it was still a part of the British Empire.

In 1962,  At Paris Orly Airport, an Air France Boeing 707 overruns the runway and explodes when the crew attempts to abort takeoff, killing 130.

In 1963,  The Buddhist crisis: Soldiers of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam attack protesting Buddhists in Huế, South Vietnam, with liquid chemicals from tear-gas grenades, causing 67 people to be hospitalised for blistering of the skin and respiratory ailments.

In 1965,– The launch of Gemini 4, the first multi-day space mission by a NASA crew. Ed White, a crew member, performs the first American spacewalk.

In 1968,  Valerie Solanas, the author of SCUM Manifesto, attempts to assassinate Andy Warhol by shooting him three times.

In 1969,  Melbourne–Evans collision: off the coast of South Vietnam, the Australian aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne cuts the U.S. Navy destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in half.

In 1973,  A Soviet supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 crashes near Goussainville, France, killing 14, the first crash of a supersonic passenger aircraft.

Ozzie and Harriet Nelson 1964.JPGIn 1975,  Ozzie Nelson, American actor, bandleader, producer, and director (b. 1906) died of liver cancer. He was an American band leader, actor, television director and producer. Nelson originated and starred in The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, a radio and long-running television series with his wife Harriet and two sons David and Ricky Nelson. In the 1940s, Nelson began to look for a way to spend more time with his family, especially his growing sons. Besides band appearances, he and Harriet had been regulars on Red Skelton‘s radio show. He developed and produced his own radio series, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet. The show went on the air in 1944, with their sons played by actors until 1949, and in 1952 it moved over to television (the radio version continued for another two years). The show starred the entire family, and America watched Ozzie and Harriet raise their boys. Nelson was producer and co-writer of the entire series. He was very hands-on and involved with every aspect of the radio and then TV program. His last television show was in the fall of 1973 and entitled Ozzie’s Girls, and lasted for a year. Syndicated only, the premise was Ozzie and Harriet renting their sons’ former room to two college girls (one caucasian, one African American), and concerned the Nelsons’ efforts at adjusting to living with two young women, after having raised two sons. For his contribution to the television industry, Ozzie Nelson has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6555 Hollywood Boulevard. He has an additional star with his wife at 6260 Hollywood Boulevard for their contribution to radio.

In 1979,  A blowout at the Ixtoc I oil well in the southern Gulf of Mexico causes at least 3,000,000 barrels (480,000 m3) of oil to be spilled into the waters, the second-worst accidental oil spill ever recorded.

In 1980,  The 1980 Grand Island tornado outbreak. Seven tornadoes hit Grand Island, Nebraska, which take five lives, 357 single-family homes, 33 mobile homes, 85 apartments, 49 businesses and cause $300 million in damages all told, according to statistics compiled on the deadly storm by the National Weather Service and the American Red Cross.

In 1982,  The Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov, is shot on a London street. He survives but is permanently paralysed.

In 1983, Gordon Kahl, a militant tax protestor wanted in the slayings of two U.S. marshals in North Dakota, was killed in a gun battle with law-enforcement officials near Smithville, Ark. that also claimed the life of Lawrence County Sheriff Gene Matthews.

In 1984,  Operation Blue Star, a military offensive, is launched by the Indian government at Harmandir Sahib, also known as the Golden Temple, the holiest shrine for the Sikhs, in Amritsar. The operation continues until June 6, with casualties, most of them civilians, in excess of 5,000.

In 1989,  The government of China sends troops to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.

In 1989, Ural Mountains: Liquified petroleum gas leaking from a pipeline running alongside the Trans-Siberian railway near Uta, 720 miles east of Moscow, exploded and destroyed two passing passenger trains. About 500 travelers were killed and 723 injured of an estimated 1,200 passengers on both trains.

In 1991,  Mount Unzen erupts in Kyūshū, Japan, killing 43 people, all of them either researchers or journalists.

In 1992,  Aboriginal Land Rights are granted in Australia in Mabo v Queensland (No 2), a case brought by Eddie Mabo.

In 1992,  Undeclared presidential candidate Ross Perot announced he’d hired Hamilton Jordan and Edward Rollins to help steer his campaign.

In 1998,  Eschede train disaster: an ICE high-speed train derails in Lower Saxony, Germany, causing 101 deaths.

In 2006,  The union of Serbia and Montenegro comes to an end with Montenegro‘s formal declaration of independence.

JamesArness.jpgIn 2011,  James Arness, American actor (d. 1923) died of natural causes. He was an American actor, best known for portraying Marshal Matt Dillon in the television series Gunsmoke for 20 years. Arness has the distinction of having played the role of Dillon in five separate decades: 1955 to 1975 in the weekly series, then in Gunsmoke: Return to Dodge (1987) and four more made-for-TV Gunsmoke movies in the 1990s. In Europe Arness reached cult status for his role as Zeb Macahan in the western series How the West Was Won. His younger brother was actor Peter Graves. Though identified with westerns, Arness also appeared in two science fiction films, The Thing from Another World (in which he portrayed the title character) and Them!. He was a close friend of John Wayne and co-starred with him in Big Jim McLain, Hondo, Island in the Sky, and The Sea Chase, and starred in Gun the Man Down for Wayne’s company.

In 2012,  A Dana Air McDonnell Douglas MD-83 crashes into a residential neighborhood in Lagos, Nigeria, killing 163 people.

In 2013,  At least 120 people are killed in a fire at a poultry plant in Northeast China.

In 2013,  The trial of United States Army private Bradley Manning (later known as Chelsea Manning) for leaking classified material to WikiLeaks begins in Fort Meade, Maryland.

In 2014, Sen. Thad Cochran trailed Tea-Party-backed challenger Chris McDaniel by less than 1 percent in a bitter and expensive Republican primary vote in Mississippi on Tuesday. The too-close-to-call race could be headed for a runoff in three weeks in one of the more intense examples of the struggle for control of the GOP. The Tea Party won one in Iowa, where conservative state Sen. Joni Ernst won a five-way Republican Senate primary. [The Washington Post, Politico]

In 2014, The Jackson City Council meet this day this day in June to consideration of a lease agreement  between the city of Jackson, Tennessee, and Delta Enrichment Life Training Academy for the lease of the Bennett Center located at 96 O’Neal Street, Jackson, Tennessee. This is a new extended agreement for 15 years. The center has been in operation several years at that location. The lease amount is $1.00 annual. Another will be the consideration of a contract for the labor and material required for the construction of ten tennis courts at the Tennis Complex Project which is located near Ashport Road. One they will not be voting on is the ordinance created by council that required council to create a committee that would review the city charter every four years. For some reason it just past by the Mayor’s desk.

In 2015, Senator Alexander Reshuffles His Deck of Cards and Slips A New ESEA Out From Under the Table. MEDICAID, Birth to Age 21, is EXPANDED in Senator Alexander’s and Congressman Kline’s fast-tracked effort to force through the Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Backdoor politics are being used to expand ObamaCare using education legislation and MEDICAID in the schools. This agenda is moving forward, without citizens’ knowledge and without state legislatures understanding the entire agenda of the Reauthorization of ESEA, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. This legislation expands MEDICAID services in the schools, ages birth to 21, extending MEDICAID in a Universal Pre-Kindergarten, birth through Kindergarten, heralded by Senator Murray (D WA) and Senator Bob Casey (D PA). (Read: Open Letter to Senator Bob Casey, Pennsylvania)

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