June 30th in History

This day in historyJune 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 184 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 350,  Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the usurper Magnentius, in Rome.

In 1422,  Battle of Arbedo between the duke of Milan and the Swiss cantons.

In 1520,  Spanish conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés fight their way out of Tenochtitlan.

In 1521,  Spanish forces defeat a combined French and Navarrese army at the Battle of Noáin during the Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre.

In 1559,  King Henry II of France is mortally wounded in a jousting match against Gabriel de Montgomery.

In 1651,  The Deluge: Khmelnytsky Uprising – the Battle of Beresteczko ends with a Polish victory.

Wenceslas Hollar - William Oughtred.jpgIn 1660,  William Oughtred, English mathematician (b. 1575) dies. He was an English mathematician and Anglican minister. After John Napier invented logarithms, and Edmund Gunter created the logarithmic scales (lines, or rules) upon which slide rules are based, it was Oughtred who first used two such scales sliding by one another to perform direct multiplication and division; and he is credited as the inventor of the slide rule in 1622. Oughtred also introduced the “×” symbol for multiplication as well as the abbreviations “sin” and “cos” for the sine and cosine functions.

In 1688,  The Immortal Seven issue the Invitation to William (continuing the English rebellion from Rome), which would culminate in the Glorious Revolution.

In 1692, The Massachusetts General Court condemned four women to death as witches.

In 1758,  Seven Years’ War: The Battle of Domstadtl takes place.

James Edward Oglethorpe by Alfred Edmund Dyer.jpgIn 1785,  James Oglethorpe, English general and politician, 1st Colonial Governor of Georgia (b. 1696) dies. He was a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain’s poor, especially those in debtors’ prisons, in the New World.  In 1728, three years before conceiving the Georgia colony, Oglethorpe chaired a Parliamentary committee on prison reform. The committee documented horrendous abuses in three debtors’ prisons. As a result of the committee’s actions, many debtors were released from prison with no means of support. Oglethorpe viewed this as part of the larger problem of urbanization, which was depleting the countryside of productively employed people and depositing them in cities, particularly London, where they often became impoverished or resorted to criminal activity. In order to address this problem, Oglethorpe and a group of associates, many of whom served on the prison committee, petitioned in 1730 to form the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America. The petition was finally approved in 1732, and the first group of colonists, led by Oglethorpe, departed for the New World in November.

In 1794,  Native American forces under Blue Jacket attack Fort Recovery.

In 1805,  The U.S. Congress organizes the Michigan Territory.

In 1812, Congress authorizes the first Treasury notes (first of five war issues).

In 1834, a huge tract of land was set aside exclusively for Indians and it was officially named “Indian Territory.” That didn’t last. Today we call it Oklahoma.

In 1859,  French acrobat Charles Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on a tightrope.

In 1860,  The 1860 Oxford evolution debate at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History takes place.

In 1862, Day 6 of 7 Days-Battle of White Oak Swamp VA (Frayser’s Farm).

In 1864,  U.S. President Abraham Lincoln grants Yosemite Valley to California for “public use, resort and recreation”.

In 1870, Ada H. Kepley of Effingham, Illinois became America’s first female law school graduate from the Union College of Law in Chicago.

In 1882,  Charles J. Guiteau is hanged in Washington, D.C. for the assassination of U.S. President James Garfield.

In 1886,  The first transcontinental train trip across Canada departs from Montreal. It arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia on July 4.

In 1886, the U.S. Forest Service is organized.

In 1892,  The Homestead Strike begins near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

In 1893, The Excelsior diamond (blue-white, 995 carats) is discovered.

In 1894, London’s Tower Bridge across the River Thames was officially opened.

In 1894, Korea declares independence from China, asks for Japanese aid.

In 1896, the first electric stove is patented by W. S. Hadaway in New York City.

In 1899,  E. D. E. N. Southworth, American author (b. 1819) dies. She was an American writer of more than 60 novels in the latter part of the 19th century. Her best known work was The Hidden Hand. It first appeared in serial form in the New York Ledger in 1859, and was serialized twice more (1868–69, 1883) before first appearing in book form in 1888. It features Capitola Black, a tomboyish antagonist that finds herself in a myriad of adventures. Southworth stated that nearly every adventure of her heroine came from real life. Most of Southworth’s novels deal with the Southern United States during the post-American Civil War era. She wrote over sixty; some of them were translated into German, French, Chinese, Icelandic and Spanish; in 1872 an edition of thirty-five volumes was published in Philadelphia.

In 1905,  Albert Einstein publishes the article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, in which he introduces special relativity.

In 1906,  The United States Congress passes the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act.

In 1908,  The Tunguska event occurs in remote Siberia.

In 1912,  The Regina Cyclone hits Regina, Saskatchewan, killing 28. It remains Canada’s deadliest tornado event.

In 1914, Mahatma Gandhi’s first arrest, in campaign for Indian equal rights in South Africa.

In 1917,  World War I: Greece declares war on the Central Powers.

In 1921,  U.S. President Warren G. Harding appoints former President William Howard Taft Chief Justice of the United States.

In 1921, Documents were signed forming the Radio Corporation of America, better known as RCA. RCA soon rivaled its main competitor, General Electric (GE).

In 1922,  In Washington D.C., U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes and Dominican Ambassador Francisco J. Peynado sign the Hughes-Peynado agreement, which ends the United States occupation of the Dominican Republic.

In 1934,  The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler‘s violent “blood purge” of his political rivals in Germany, takes place. Among those killed was one-time Hitler ally Ernst Roehm, leader of the Nazi storm troopers.

In 1935,  The Senegalese Socialist Party holds its first congress.

In 1936,  Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia appeals for aid to the League of Nations against Italy‘s invasion of his country.

In 1936, the 40-hour work week federal law is approved.

In 1936, the novel “Gone with the Wind” by Margaret Mitchell was published in New York.

In 1937,  The world’s first emergency telephone number, 999, is introduced in London

Heinkel he 176 san diego air and space museum.jpgIn 1939, Heinkel He 176 rocket plane flies for first time, at Peenemunde. It was the world’s first aircraft to be propelled solely by a liquid-fuelled rocket, making its first powered flight  June 1939 with Erich Warsitz at the controls. It was a private venture by the Heinkel company in accordance with director Ernst Heinkel‘s emphasis on developing technology for high-speed flight. The performance of the He 176 was not spectacular, but it did provide “proof of concept” for rocket propulsion. All documents regarding the He 176 were destroyed during the war. The often quoted performance data of the aircraft, such as a speed reaching 750 km/h, as well as some of the drawings, are not based on sound documents. Only two true pictures of the He 176 have survived which were probably taken in Peenemünde during tests

In 1940, the U.S. Fish And Wildlife Service was established.

In 1940, “Brenda Starr“, the red-headed star reporter cartoon strip was introduced by Dale Messick. Although set in ChicagoBrenda Starr, Reporter initially was the only Chicago Tribune Syndicate strip not to appear in the Chicago Tribune newspaper. When the strip debuted on June 30, 1940, it was relegated to a comic book supplement that was included with the Sunday Chicago Tribune.[1] Soon the strip appeared in the Sunday paper and a daily strip was added in 1945. During the 1950s, at the height of its popularity, the strip appeared in 250 newspapers. In 2010, the strip appeared in 65 newspapers with 36 being international papers.

In 1940, German troops occupied the Channel Island of Guernsey. Before the occupation, 80% of Guernsey children had been evacuated to England to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never reunited with their families. The occupying German forces deported over 1,000 Guernsey residents to camps in southern Germany, notably to the Lager Lindele (Lindele Camp) near Biberach an der Riß and to LaufenGuernsey was very heavily fortified during World War II, out of all proportion to the island’s strategic value. Life for the civilians on the island was very difficult, especially after June 1944 when the island was under siege. German defences remain a lasting reminder of those times.

In 1940, the U.S. Weather Bureau becomes part of the Commerce Department.

In 1942, 60 years ago, US Mint in New Orleans ceases operation.

In 1943, Gen MacArthur begins Operation Cartwheel (island-hopping).

In 1944,  World War II: The Battle of Cherbourg ends with the fall of the strategically valuable port to American forces.

In 1944, Allies land on Vogelkop, New Guinea.

In 1953,  The first Chevrolet Corvette rolls off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan. That early ‘Vette sold for $3,250. Today, a basic model sells for ten times that — and more.

In 1956,  A TWA Super Constellation and a United Airlines DC-7 collide above the Grand Canyon in Arizona and crash, killing all 128 on board both planes. It is the worst-ever aviation disaster at that point in time.

In 1959,  A United States Air Force F-100 Super Sabre from Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, crashes into a nearby elementary school, killing 11 students plus six residents from the local neighborhood.

In 1960,  Congo gains independence from Belgium.

In 1960, US stops sugar import from Cuba.

Lee De Forest.jpgIn 1961Lee De Forest, American inventor, invented the audion tube (b. 1873) dies. He was an American inventor with over 180 patents to his credit. He named himself the “Father of Radio,” with this famous quote, “I discovered an Invisible Empire of the Air, intangible, yet solid as granite,”. In 1906 De Forest invented the Audion, the first triode vacuum tube and the first electrical device which could amplify a weak electrical signal and make it stronger. The Audion, and vacuum tubes developed from it, founded the field of electronics and dominated it for 40 years, making radio broadcasting, television, and long-distance telephone service possible, among many other applications. For this reason De Forest has been called one of the fathers of the “electronic age”. He is also credited with one of the principal inventions that brought sound to motion pictures. He was involved in several patent lawsuits, and spent a substantial part of his income from his inventions on legal bills. He had four marriages and 25 companies. He was indicted for mail fraud, but later was acquitted. De Forest was a charter member of the Institute of Radio Engineers. DeVry University was originally named DeForest Training School by its founder Dr. Herman A. DeVry, who was a friend and colleague of De Forest. De Forest was a conservative Republican and fervent anti-communist and anti-fascist. In 1932, he had voted for Franklin Roosevelt, in the midst of the Great Depression, but later came to resent him, calling Roosevelt America’s “first Fascist president.” In 1949, he “sent letters to all members of Congress urging them to vote against socialized medicine, federally subsidized housing, and an excess profits tax.” In 1952, he wrote newly elected Vice President Richard Nixon, urging him to “prosecute with renewed vigor your valiant fight to put out Communism from every branch of our government.” In December 1953, he cancelled his subscription to The Nation, accusing it of being “lousy with Treason, crawling with Communism.”

In 1963,  Ciaculli massacre: a car bomb, intended for Mafia boss Salvatore Greco, kills seven police officers and military personnel near Palermo.

In 1966,  The National Organization for Women, the United States’ largest feminist organization, is founded.

In 1968,  Pope Paul VI issues the Credo of the People of God.

In 1969,  Nigeria bans Red Cross aid to Biafra.

In 1971,  The crew of the Soviet Soyuz 11 spacecraft are killed when their air supply escapes through a faulty valve.

In 1971,  Ohio ratifies the 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, reducing the voting age to 18, thereby putting the amendment into effect.

In 1972,  The first leap second is added to the UTC time system.

In 1973, the largest merchant ship built in the U.S., the 1094-foot, 230,000-ton supertanker “Brooklyn,” is christened at the Brooklyn Naval Yard.

In 1974Mrs. Alberta King was shot and killed on June 30, 1974 by a 23-year-old black man named Marcus Wayne Chenault as she sat at the organ of the Ebenezer Baptist Church. Chenault was a deranged gunman from Ohio who stated that he shot King because “all Christians are my enemies.” Chenault claimed that he had decided that black ministers were a menace to black people, and that his original target had been Martin Luther King, Sr, but decided to shoot his wife instead because she was close to him. During the shooting, one of the church’s deacons, Edward Boykin, was also killed, and a woman was wounded. Chenault was sentenced to death; although this sentence was upheld on appeal, he was later resentenced to life in prison, partially as a result of the King family’s opposition to the death penalty.

In 1974,  The Baltimore municipal strike of 1974 begins.

In 1977,  The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization disbands.

In 1982, 20 years ago, the time limit for the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution expired, with proponents falling short of the 3 additional states needed to ratify it.

In 1985,  Thirty-nine American hostages from the hijacked TWA Flight 847 are freed in Beirut after being held for 17 days.

Hostess twinkies tweaked.jpgIn 1985, The creator of the Twinkie, James A. Dewar, died on this day. Mr. Dewar created the treat in 1930. Many say that Twinkies will stay fresh almost forever. In fact, many bomb shelters in the 1960s were furnished with stockpiles of Hostess Twinkies just for that reason. He started as a delivery boy in 1920 by delivering pastries by horse-drawn cart. Dewar eventually rose up through the ranks to be a plant manager. In 1931, Dewar’s plant was making strawberry shortcakes but only during strawberry season. Dewar came up with an idea to create a shortcake with cream on the inside instead of strawberries. Having seen a billboard for a shoe company called the “Twinkle Toe Shoe Co.” he was inspired to call his shortcake invention a “Twinkie”

Today, more than 45 billion of the soft, cream-filled sponge cakes have been sold.

In 1986,  The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Bowers v. Hardwick that states can outlaw homosexual acts between consenting adults.

In 1987,  The Royal Canadian Mint introduces the $1 coin, known as the Loonie.

The decommissioned More Hall Annex in 2009

The decommissioned More Hall Annex in 2009

In 1988, The More Hall Annex was a nuclear research building on the campus of the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington. Built in 1961, it housed a small research reactor until June 30, 1988, operating at a peak of 100 kilowatts thermal (kWt), and was decommissioned in 2007. The building was designed in the Brutalist architectural style by UW faculty members, using reinforced concrete walls. Large windows overlooking the reactor room allowed observation from the outside, in an attempt to demonstrate the safety of nuclear energy. The building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2009, after a campaign led by an architecture student in response to a demolition proposal from the university. Despite a lawsuit from preservation groups and the City of Seattle, the university began demolition of the building in July 2016. It will be replaced by a new computer science building that is expected to open in 2019.

In 1989, the NY State Legislature passed the Staten Island secession bill.

In 1990,  East Germany and West Germany merge their economies.

In 1991,  Westboro Baptist Church in Topeka, Kansas, starts “The Great Gage Park Decency Drive” picketing the park, starting their notorious picketing campaign that would later include funerals of AIDS victims and fallen American military.

In 1994, Pre-trial hearings open in LA against OJ Simpson.

In 1994, the Supreme Court ruled that judges can bar even peaceful demonstrators from getting too close to abortion clinics.

In 1997,  The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People’s Republic of China.

In 1998,  Philippine Vice President Joseph Estrada is sworn in as the 13th President of the Philippines.

In 1998, Linda Tripp, whose tape-and-tell friendship with Monica Lewinsky spurred a White House crisis, spent six hours testifying before a grand jury in Washington.

In 1999, Clinton crony Webster Hubbell, a former associate U.S. attorney general, pleaded guilty to reduced charges in the Whitewater land deal scandal.

Chet Atkins.jpgIn 2001,  Chet Atkins, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer (b. 1924) dies at his home in Nashville, Tennessee, at the age of 77. He was known as “Mr. Guitar” and “The Country Gentleman“, was an American musician, occasional vocalist, songwriter, and record producer, who along with Owen Bradley and Bob Ferguson, among others, created the country music style that came to be known as the Nashville sound, which expanded country music’s appeal to adult pop music fans. He was primarily known as a guitarist. He also played the mandolin, fiddle, banjo, and ukulele.

Atkins’s signature picking style was inspired by Merle Travis. Other major guitar influences were Django ReinhardtGeorge BarnesLes Paul, and, later, Jerry Reed. His distinctive picking style and musicianship brought him admirers inside and outside the country scene, both in the United States and abroad. Atkins spent most of his career at RCA Victor and produced records for the BrownsHank SnowPorter WagonerNorma JeanDolly PartonDottie WestPerry ComoFloyd CramerElvis Presley, the Everly BrothersEddy ArnoldDon GibsonJim ReevesJerry ReedSkeeter DavisWaylon Jennings, and many others.

Rolling Stone credited Atkins with inventing the “popwise ‘Nashville sound’ that rescued country music from a commercial slump,” and ranked him number 21 on their list of “The 100 Greatest Guitarists Of All Time.” Among many other honors, Atkins received 14 Grammy Awards and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. He also received nine Country Music Association awards for Instrumentalist of the Year. He was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, and the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum.

In 2010,  Benigno Aquino III was sworn into office as the 15th President of the Philippines.

In 2011,  United Nations Security Council Resolution 1994 is adopted.

In 2013,  Mass protests are held in Egypt.

In 2013,  Nineteen firefighters die controlling a wildfire in Yarnell, Arizona.

In 2015,  A Hercules C-130 military aircraft with 113 people on board crashes in a residential area in the Indonesian city of Medan, resulting in at least 116 deaths.

In 2016,  Rodrigo Duterte was sworn into office as the 16th President of the Philippines.

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