October 5th in History

This day in historyOctober 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 87 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 456,  The Visigoths under king Theodoric II, acting on orders of the Roman emperor Avitus, invade Iberia with an army of Burgundians, Franks and Goths, led by the kings Chilperic I and Gondioc. They defeat the Suebi under king Rechiar on the river Urbicus near Astorga (Gallaecia).

In 610,  Coronation of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius.

In 816,  King Louis the Pious is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by the Pope.

In 869,  The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about patriarch Photius of Constantinople.

In 1143,  King Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognises Portugal as a Kingdom.

In 1450,  Jews are expelled from Lower Bavaria by order of Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria.

In 1550,  Foundation of Concepción, city in Chile.

In 1582,  Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

In 1607,  Assassins sent by the Pope attempt to kill Venetian statesman and scientist Paolo Sarpi.

In 1665,  The University of Kiel is founded.

In 1789,  French Revolution: Women of Paris march to Versailles in the March on Versailles to confront Louis XVI of France about his refusal to promulgate the decrees on the abolition of feudalism, demand bread, and have the King and his court moved to Paris.

In 1793,  French Revolution: Christianity is disestablished in France.

The Marquess CornwallisIn 1805,  Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, English general and politician, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (b. 1738) dies. He was styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown ended significant hostilities in North America. He also served as a civil and military governor in Ireland and India; in both places he brought about significant changes, including the Act of Union in Ireland, and the Cornwallis Code and the Permanent Settlement in India.

Born into an aristocratic family and educated at Eton and Cambridge, Cornwallis joined the army in 1757, seeing action in the Seven Years’ War. Upon his father’s death in 1762 he became Earl Cornwallis and entered the House of Lords. From 1766 until 1805 he was Colonel of the 33rd Regiment of Foot. He next saw military action in 1776 in the American War of Independence. Active in the advance forces of many campaigns, in 1780 he inflicted an embarrassing defeat on the American army at the Battle of Camden, though he surrendered his army at Yorktown in October 1781 after an extended campaign through the Southern states which was marked by disagreements between him and his superior, General Sir Henry Clinton (which became public knowledge after the war).

Despite this defeat, Cornwallis retained the confidence of successive British governments and continued to enjoy an active career. Knighted in 1786, he was in that year appointed to be Governor General and commander-in-chief in India. There he enacted numerous significant reforms within the East India Company and its territories, including the Cornwallis Code, part of which implemented important land taxation reforms known as the Permanent Settlement. From 1789 to 1792 he led British and Company forces in the Third Anglo-Mysore War to defeat the Mysorean ruler Tipu Sultan.

Returning to Britain in 1794, Cornwallis was given the post of Master-General of the Ordnance. In 1798 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant and Commander-in-chief of Ireland, where he oversaw the response to the 1798 Irish Rebellion, including a French invasion of Ireland, and was instrumental in bringing about the Union of Great Britain and Ireland. Following his Irish service Cornwallis was the chief British signatory to the 1802 Treaty of Amiens, and was reappointed to India in 1805. He died in India not long after his arrival.

Tecumseh02.jpgIn 1813,  Battle of the Thames in Canada; Americans defeat British and kill Shawnee leader Tecumseh.

In 1857,  The City of Anaheim, California is founded.

In 1864,  The Indian city of Calcutta is almost totally destroyed by a cyclone; 60,000 die.

In 1869,  The Saxby Gale devastates the Bay of Fundy region of Maritime Canada. The storm had been predicted over a year before by a British naval officer.

In 1877,  Chief Joseph surrenders his Nez Perce band to General Nelson A. Miles.

In 1880,  Jacques Offenbach, German-French cellist and composer (b. 1819) dies in Paris in 1880 at the age of 61. His cause of death was certified as heart failure brought on by acute gout. He was a German-born French composer, cellist and impresario of the romantic period. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann. He was a powerful influence on later composers of the operetta genre, particularly Johann Strauss, Jr. and Arthur Sullivan. His best-known works were continually revived during the 20th century, and many of his operettas continue to be staged in the 21st. The Tales of Hoffman remains part of the standard opera repertory.

Born in Cologne, the son of a synagogue cantor, Offenbach showed early musical talent. At the age of 14, he was accepted as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but found academic study unfulfilling and left after a year. From 1835 to 1855 he earned his living as a cellist, achieving international fame, and as a conductor. His ambition, however, was to compose comic pieces for the musical theatre. Finding the management of Paris’s Opéra-Comique company uninterested in staging his works, in 1855 he leased a small theatre in the Champs-Élysées. There he presented a series of his own small-scale pieces, many of which became popular.

In 1858, Offenbach produced his first full-length operetta, Orphée aux enfers (“Orpheus in the Underworld”), which was exceptionally well received and has remained one of his most played works. During the 1860s, he produced at least 18 full-length operettas, as well as more one-act pieces. His works from this period included La belle Hélène (1864), La vie parisienne (1866), La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein (1867) and La Périchole (1868). The risqué humour (often about sexual intrigue) and mostly gentle satiric barbs in these pieces, together with Offenbach’s facility for melody, made them internationally known, and translated versions were successful in Vienna, London and elsewhere in Europe.

Offenbach became associated with the Second French Empire of Napoleon III; the emperor and his court were genially satirised in many of Offenbach’s operettas. Napoleon III personally granted him French citizenship and the Légion d’Honneur. With the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Offenbach found himself out of favour in Paris because of his imperial connections and his German birth. He remained successful in Vienna and London, however. He re-established himself in Paris during the 1870s, with revivals of some of his earlier favourites and a series of new works, and undertook a popular U.S. tour. In his last years he strove to finish The Tales of Hoffmann, but died before the premiere of the opera, which has entered the standard repertory in versions completed or edited by other musicians.

In 1895,  The first individual time trial for racing cyclists is held on a 50-mile course north of London.

In 1903,  Sir Samuel Griffith is appointed the first Chief Justice of Australia and Sir Edmund Barton and Richard O’Connor are appointed as foundation justices.

In 1905,  Wilbur Wright pilots Wright Flyer III in a flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes, a world record that stood until 1908.

In 1910,  In a revolution in Portugal the monarchy is overthrown and a republic is declared.

In 1911,  The Kowloon–Canton Railway (split into MTR East Rail Line and Guangshen Railway now) commences service between Kowloon and Canton.

In 1914,  World War I: first aerial combat resulting in an intentional fatality.

In 1915,  Bulgaria enters World War I as one of the Central Powers.

In 1921,  Baseball: The World Series is broadcast on the radio for the first time.

In 1930,  British Airship R101 crashes in France en route to India on its maiden voyage.

In 1936,  The Jarrow March sets off for London.

In 1938,  In Nazi Germany Jews’ passports were invalidated, and those who needed a passport for emigration purposes were given one marked with the letter J (Jude – Jew).

In 1943,  Ninety-eight American POW’s executed by Japanese forces on Wake Island.

In 1944,  Royal Canadian Air Force pilots shoot down the first German jet fighter over France.

In 1944Suffrage is extended to women in France.

In 1945,  Hollywood Black Friday: A six-month strike by Hollywood set decorators turns into a bloody riot at the gates of Warner Brothers‘ studios.

In 1947,  The first televised White House address is given by U.S. President Harry S. Truman.

In 1948,  The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake kills 110,000.

In 1953,  The first documented recovery meeting of Narcotics Anonymous is held.

Flooding on the Humber River

Flooding on the Humber River

In 1954, Hurricane Hazel was the deadliest and costliest hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm was named by the US Weather Bureau on October 5. In Haiti, 40% of the coffee trees and 50% of the cacao crop were lost, and at least 400 people were killed. Hazel struck North Carolina near Calabash on October 15 as a Category 4 hurricane. It destroyed most of the waterfront dwellings near its point of impact, including about 80% of those in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Heading north along the Atlantic coast of the United States, it caused $281 million in damage and 95 fatalities. Hazel struck Canada as an extratropical storm, raising the death toll by 81 people. Its effects were unprecedented in and around Toronto, due to a combination of heavy rainfall during the preceding weeks, the storm’s unexpected retention of power and a lack of experience in dealing with tropical storms. Rivers and streams overflowed, causing over C$135 million of damage. The storm’s name was later retired from use for North Atlantic hurricanes.

In 1955,  Disneyland Hotel opens to the public in Anaheim, California.

In 1962,  Dr. No, the first in the James Bond film series, is released.

In 1962The Beatles‘ first single, “Love Me Do” backed with “P.S. I Love You“, is released in the United Kingdom.

In 1966,  Near Detroit, Michigan, there is a partial core meltdown at the Enrico Fermi demonstration nuclear breeder reactor.

In 1968,  Police baton civil rights demonstrators in Derry, Northern Ireland – considered to mark the beginning of The Troubles.

In 1969,  The first episode of Monty Python’s Flying Circus airs on BBC One.

In 1970,  The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is founded.

In 1970,  Montreal: British Trade Commissioner James Cross is kidnapped by members of the FLQ terrorist group, triggering the October Crisis.

In 1973,  Signature of the European Patent Convention.

In 1974,  Guildford pub bombings: bombs planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) kill four British soldiers and one civilian.

In 1975,  Operation Primicia: terrorist attack against a Military Regiment at Formosa, Argentina.

In 1982,  Chicago Tylenol murders: Johnson & Johnson initiates a nationwide product recall in the United States for all products in its Tylenol brand after several bottles in Chicago are found to have been laced with cyanide, resulting in seven deaths.

In 1984,  Marc Garneau becomes the first Canadian in space, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger.

In 1986,  Israeli secret nuclear weapons are revealed. The British newspaper The Sunday Times runs Mordechai Vanunu‘s story on its front page under the headline: “Revealed — the secrets of Israel’s nuclear arsenal”.

Hal B. Wallis.jpgIn 1986,  Hal B. Wallis, American film producer (b. 1898) dies of complications of diabetes in Rancho Mirage, California, at the age of 88. He was an American film producer. He is best remembered for producing Casablanca (1942), The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938), and True Grit (1969), along with many other major films for Warner Bros. featuring such film stars as Humphrey BogartBette Davis, and Errol Flynn. Later on, for a long period, he was connected with Paramount Pictures and oversaw films featuring Dean MartinJerry LewisElvis Presley, and John Wayne.  In a career that spanned more than 50 years, he was involved with the production of more than 400 feature-length movies. He received 16 Academy Award producer nominations for Best Picture, winning for Casablanca in 1943.

In 1988,  The Chilean opposition coalition Concertación (center-left) defeats Augusto Pinochet in his re-election attempt and a general election is called the following year.

In 1988,  The Brazilian Constitution is ratified by the Constituent Assembly.

In 1990,  After one hundred and fifty years The Herald broadsheet newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, is published for the last time as a separate newspaper.

In 1991,  An Indonesian military transport crashes after takeoff from Jakarta killing 137.

In 1991,  The first official version of the Linux kernel, version 0.02, is released.

In 1999,  The Ladbroke Grove rail crash in west London kills 31 people.

In 2000,  Mass demonstrations in Belgrade lead to resignation of Serbian strongman Slobodan Milošević. These demonstrations are often called the Bulldozer Revolution.

In 2001,  Barry Bonds surpassed Mark McGwire‘s single-season home run total with his milestone 71st and 72nd home runs.

In 2011,  In the Mekong River massacre, two Chinese cargo boats are hijacked and 13 crew members murdered in the lawless Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia.

Jobs smiling and holding an iPhoneIn 2011,  Steve Jobs, American businessman, co-founder and of Apple Inc. (b. 1955) dies due to complications from a relapse of his previously treated islet-cell neuroendocrine pancreatic cancer,  resulting in respiratory arrest. He was an American entrepreneur, marketer, and inventor who was the co-founder, chairman, and CEO of Apple Inc. Through Apple, he is widely recognized as a charismatic and design-driven pioneer of the personal computer revolution and for his influential career in the computer and consumer electronics fields, transforming “one industry after another, from computers and smartphones to music and movies.” Jobs also co-founded and served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios; he became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company in 2006, when Disney acquired Pixar. Jobs was among the first to see the commercial potential of Xerox PARC‘s mouse-driven graphical user interface, which led to the creation of the Apple Lisa and, a year later, the Macintosh. He also played a role in introducing the LaserWriter, one of the first widely available laser printers, to the market.

 

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