October 7th in History

This day in historyOctober 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 85 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

 

History

In 3761 BC,  The epoch reference date epoch (origin) of the modern Hebrew calendar (Proleptic Julian calendar).

In 1403,  Venetian–Genoese wars: The Genoese fleet under a French admiral is defeated by a Venetian fleet.

In 1477,  Uppsala University is inaugurated after receiving its corporate rights from Pope Sixtus IV in February the same year.

In 1513,  Battle of La Motta: Spanish troops under Ramón de Cardona defeat the Venetians.

In 1542,  Explorer Cabrillo discovers Santa Catalina Island off of the California coast.

In 1571,  The Battle of Lepanto is fought, and the Holy League (Spain and Italy) annihilates the Turkish fleet.

In 1577,  George Gascoigne, English soldier, courtier, and poet (b. 1535) dies at Walcot Hall, Barnack, near Stamford, where he was the guest of George Whetstone and was buried in the Whetstone family vault at St John the Baptist’s Church, Barnack. He was an English poet, soldier and unsuccessful courtier. He is considered the most important poet of the early Elizabethan era, following Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey and leading to the emergence of Philip Sidney. He was the first poet to deify Queen Elizabeth I, in effect establishing her cult as a virgin goddess married to her kingdom and subjects. His most noted works include A Discourse of the Adventures of Master FJ (1573), an account of courtly sexual intrigue and one of the earliest English prose fictions; The Supposes, (performed in 1566, printed in 1573), an early translation of Ariosto and the first comedy written in English prose, which was used by Shakespeare as a source for The Taming of the Shrew; the frequently anthologised short poem “Gascoignes wodmanship” (1573); and “Certayne Notes of Instruction concerning the making of verse or ryme in English” (1575), the first essay on English versification

In 1582,  Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

In 1691,  The English royal charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay is issued.

In 1763,  King George III of Great Britain issues British Royal Proclamation of 1763, closing aboriginal lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlements.

In 1776,  Crown Prince Paul of Russia marries Sophie Marie Dorothea of Württemberg.

In 1777,  American Revolutionary War: The Americans defeat the British in the Second Battle of Saratoga, also known as the Battle of Bemis Heights.

A black and white photograph of a two-story colonial home formerly belonging to Francis Nash and, after Nash's death, to William Hooper

Francis Nash’s home in Hillsborough, now known as the Nash-Hooper House

In 1777, Francis Nash (c. 1742 – October 7, 1777) was a brigadier general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. As a lawyer and public official in Hillsborough, North Carolina, he opposed the Regulator Movement, an uprising of settlers in the North Carolina Piedmont between 1765 and 1771. He represented Hillsborough in the General Assembly of colonial North Carolina, and was a delegate to the colony’s first three Patriot provincial congresses. In 1775, he was named lieutenant colonel of the 1st North Carolina Regiment under Colonel James Moore. He was made a brigadier general in 1777 upon Moore’s death, and given command of the North Carolina brigade of the Continental Army under General George Washington. He was wounded at the Battle of Germantown on October 4, 1777, and died several days later. Nash was one of ten Patriot generals to die from wounds received in combat between 1775 and 1781. He is honored by several city and county names, including Nashville, Tennessee.

Patrick Ferguson.jpgIn 1780,  American Revolutionary War: Battle of Kings Mountain: American Patriot militia defeat Loyalist irregulars led by British major Patrick Ferguson in South Carolina. Patrick Ferguson was a Scottish officer in the British Army, an early advocate of light infantry and the designer of the Ferguson rifle. He is best known for his service in the 1780 military campaign of Charles Cornwallis during the American Revolutionary War in the Carolinas, in which he aggressively recruited Loyalists and harshly treated Patriot sympathisers. Some dispute this characterization of Ferguson as showing pro-Patriot bias, however, and other accounts praise him for his humanity and unwillingness to follow orders he considered barbaric.

Ultimately, his activities led to a Patriot militia uprising against him, and he was killed in the Battle of Kings Mountain, at the border between the colonies of North and South Carolina. Leading a group of Loyalists whom he had recruited, he was the only regular army officer participating on either side of the conflict. The victorious Patriot forces desecrated his body in the aftermath of the battle.

George Mason portrait.jpgIn 1792,  George Mason, American politician (b. 1725) dies of natural causes at his home, Gunston Hall. He was an American Patriot, statesman and a delegate from Virginia to the U.S. Constitutional Convention. Along with James Madison, he is called the “Father of the United States Bill of Rights.” For these reasons he is considered one of the “Founding Fathers” of the United States.

Like anti-federalist Patrick Henry, Mason was a leader of those who pressed for the addition of explicit States rights and individual rights to the U.S. Constitution as a balance to the increased federal powers, and did not sign the document in part because it lacked such a statement. His efforts eventually succeeded in convincing the Federalists to add the first ten amendments of the Constitution. These amendments, collectively known as the Bill of Rights, were based on the earlier Virginia Declaration of Rights, which Mason had drafted in 1776.

On the issue of slavery, Mason walked a fine line. Although a slaveholder himself, he found slavery distasteful for a variety of reasons. He wanted to ban further importation of slaves from Africa and prevent slavery from spreading to more states. However, he did not want the new federal government to attempt to ban slavery where it already existed, because he anticipated that such an act would be difficult and controversial.

In 1800,  French corsair Robert Surcouf, commander of the 18-gun ship La Confiance, captures the British 38-gun Kent inspiring the traditional French song Le Trente-et-un du mois d’août.

In 1826,  The Granite Railway begins operations as the first chartered railway in the U.S.

In 1828,  Morea Expedition: The city of Patras, Greece, is liberated by the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese under General Maison.

In 1840,  Willem II becomes King of the Netherlands.

Edgar Allan Poe daguerreotype crop.pngIn 1849,  Edgar Allan Poe, American author and poet (b. 1809) dies. He was an American author, poet, editor, and literary critic, considered part of the American Romantic Movement. Best known for his tales of mystery and the macabre, Poe was one of the earliest American practitioners of the short story, and is generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre. He is further credited with contributing to the emerging genre of science fiction.  He was the first well-known American writer to try to earn a living through writing alone, resulting in a financially difficult life and career.

Born in Boston, he was the second child of two actors. His father abandoned the family in 1810, and his mother died the following year. Thus orphaned, the child was taken in by John and Frances Allan, of Richmond, Virginia. Although they never formally adopted him, Poe was with them well into young adulthood. Tension developed later as John Allan and Edgar repeatedly clashed over debts, including those incurred by gambling, and the cost of secondary education for the young man. Poe attended the University of Virginia for one semester but left due to lack of money. Poe quarreled with Allan over the funds for his education and enlisted in the Army in 1827 under an assumed name. It was at this time his publishing career began, albeit humbly, with an anonymous collection of poems, Tamerlane and Other Poems (1827), credited only to “a Bostonian”. With the death of Frances Allan in 1829, Poe and Allan reached a temporary rapprochement. Later failing as an officer’s cadet at West Point and declaring a firm wish to be a poet and writer, Poe parted ways with John Allan.

Poe switched his focus to prose and spent the next several years working for literary journals and periodicals, becoming known for his own style of literary criticism. His work forced him to move among several cities, including Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York City. In Baltimore in 1835, he married Virginia Clemm, his 13-year-old cousin. In January 1845 Poe published his poem, “The Raven“, to instant success. His wife died of tuberculosis two years after its publication. For years, he had been planning to produce his own journal, The Penn (later renamed The Stylus), though he died before it could be produced. On October 7, 1849, at age 40, Poe died in Baltimore; the cause of his death is unknown and has been variously attributed to alcohol, brain congestion, cholera, drugs, heart disease, rabies, suicide, tuberculosis, and other agents.

Poe and his works influenced literature in the United States and around the world, as well as in specialized fields, such as cosmology and cryptography. Poe and his work appear throughout popular culture in literature, music, films, and television. A number of his homes are dedicated museums today. The Mystery Writers of America present an annual award known as the Edgar Award for distinguished work in the mystery genre

In 1862,  Royal Columbian Hospital (RCH) opens as the first hospital in the Canadian province of British Columbia

In 1864,  American Civil War: Bahia Incident: USS Wachusett illegally captures the CSS Florida Confederate raider while in port in Bahia, Brazil in violation of Brazilian neutrality.

In 1868,  Cornell University holds opening day ceremonies; initial student enrollment is 412, the highest at any American university to that date.

In 1870,  Franco-Prussian WarSiege of Paris: Leon Gambetta flees Paris in a hot-air balloon.

In 1879,  Germany and Austria-Hungary sign the “Twofold Covenant” and create the Dual Alliance.

Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr c1879.jpgIn 1894,  Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., American physician, author, and poet (b. 1809) dies. He was an American physician, poet, professor, lecturer, and author based in Boston. A member of the Fireside Poets, his peers acclaimed him as one of the best writers of the day. His most famous prose works are the “Breakfast-Table” series, which began with The Autocrat of the Breakfast-Table (1858). He was also an important medical reformer.

Born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Holmes was educated at Phillips Academy and Harvard College. After graduating from Harvard in 1829, he briefly studied law before turning to the medical profession. He began writing poetry at an early age; one of his most famous works, “Old Ironsides“, was published in 1830 and was influential in the eventual preservation of the USS Constitution. Following training at the prestigious medical schools of Paris, Holmes was granted his M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1836. He taught at Dartmouth Medical School before returning to teach at Harvard and, for a time, served as dean there. During his long professorship, he became an advocate for various medical reforms and notably posited the controversial idea that doctors were capable of carrying puerperal fever from patient to patient. Holmes retired from Harvard in 1882 and continued writing poetry, novels and essays until his death in 1894.

Surrounded by Boston’s literary elite—which included friends such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and James Russell Lowell—Holmes made an indelible imprint on the literary world of the 19th century. Many of his works were published in The Atlantic Monthly, a magazine that he named. For his literary achievements and other accomplishments, he was awarded numerous honorary degrees from universities around the world. Holmes’s writing often commemorated his native Boston area, and much of it was meant to be humorous or conversational. Some of his medical writings, notably his 1843 essay regarding the contagiousness of puerperal fever, were considered innovative for their time. He was often called upon to issue occasional poetry, or poems written specifically for an event, including many occasions at Harvard. Holmes also popularized several terms, including “Boston Brahmin” and “anesthesia“.

In 1912,  The Helsinki Stock Exchange sees its first transaction.

In 1916,  Georgia Tech defeats Cumberland University 222–0 in the most lopsided college football game in American history.

In 1919,  KLM, the flag carrier of the Netherlands, is founded. It is the oldest airline still operating under its original name.

In 1924,  Andreas Michalakopoulos becomes Prime Minister of Greece for a short period of time.

In 1929,  Photios II becomes Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.

In 1933,  Air France is inaugurated, after being formed by a merger of 5 French airlines.

In 1940,  World War II: the McCollum memo proposes bringing the United States into the war in Europe by provoking the Japanese to attack the United States.

In 1942,  World War II: The October Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins as United States Marine Corps forces attack Imperial Japanese Army units along the Matanikau River.

In 1944,  World War II: During an uprising at Birkenau concentration camp, Jewish prisoners burn down the crematoria.

In 1949,  The communist German Democratic Republic (East Germany) is formed.

In 1955,  American poet Allen Ginsberg performs his poem Howl for the first time at the Six Gallery in San Francisco.

In 1958,  President of Pakistan Iskander Mirza, with the support of General Ayub Khan and the army, suspends the 1956 constitution, imposes martial law, and cancels the elections scheduled for January 1959.

In 1958,  The U.S. manned space-flight project is renamed Project Mercury.

In 1959,  U.S.S.R. probe Luna 3 transmits the first ever photographs of the far side of the Moon.

In 1960,  Nigeria joins the United Nations.

In 1963,  John F. Kennedy signs the ratification of the Partial Test Ban Treaty.

In 1971,  Oman joins the United Nations.

In 1976,  Hua Guofeng becomes Mao Zedong‘s successor as chairman of Communist Party of China, following the latter’s death barely a month earlier.

In 1977,  The adoption of the Fourth Soviet Constitution.

In 1985,  The Achille Lauro is hijacked by Palestine Liberation Organization.

In 1985,  The Mameyes landslide kills close to 300 in the worst landslide in North American history.

In 1987,  Sikh nationalists declares the independence of Khalistan from India; it is not internationally recognized.

In 1988,  An Inupiaq hunter discovers three gray whales trapped under the ice in Barrow, Alaska, US; the situation becomes a multinational effort to free the whales.

In 1991,  Croatian War of Independence: Bombing of Banski dvori in Zagreb kills one civilian.

In 1993,  The flood of ’93 ends at St. Louis, Missouri, 103 days after it began, as the Mississippi River falls below flood stage.

In 1996,  The Fox News Channel begins broadcasting.

In 1998,  Matthew Shepard, a gay student at the University of Wyoming, is found tied to a fence after being beaten by two young adults in Laramie, Wyoming.

In 2001,  The U.S. invasion of Afghanistan begins with an air assault and covert operations on the ground.

In 2003,  A historic recall election takes place in the U.S. State of California in which the sitting Governor Gray Davis, a Democrat, is overwhelmingly voted out of office. Actor, bodybuilder and Republican candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger is elected to be the 38th Governor of California over fellow Republican Tom McClintock and Democrat Cruz Bustamante who at the time was the sitting Lt. Governor of California. This is the first recall election in the history of the State of California in which a sitting Governor has been successfully recalled from office.

In 2004, Kenneth John “Ken” Bigley is murdered by beheading. He was a British civil engineer who was kidnapped in the al-Mansour district of Baghdad, Iraq, on 16 September 2004, along with his colleagues Jack Hensley and Eugene Armstrong, both United States citizens. The three men were working for Gulf Supplies and Commercial Services, a Kuwaiti company working on reconstruction projects in Iraq. The men knew their home was being watched and realized they were in grave danger when their Iraqi house guard informed them he was quitting due to being threatened by militias for protecting American and British workers. Bigley and the two Americans decided it was worth the risk and continued to live in the house. All were subsequently decapitated.

On 18 September, the Tawhid and Jihad (“Oneness of God and Jihad“) Islamic extremist group, led by Jordanian Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, released a video of the three men kneeling in front of a Tawhid and Jihad banner. The kidnappers said they would kill the men within 48 hours if their demands for the release of Iraqi women prisoners held by coalition forces were not met. Armstrong was killed on 20 September when the deadline expired, Hensley 24 hours later, and Bigley over two weeks later, despite the attempted intervention of the Muslim Council of Britain and the indirect intervention of the British government. Videos of the killings were posted on websites and blogs.

In 2007, the Jackson Sun this morning discussed three areas that might help reduce crime within this city.

  1. neighborhood revitalization
  2. Young people who have fallen into gang activity, illegal drug and alcohol use, school truancy, failure in school and lack of adult supervision are a major factor in the local crime scene. The task force must tackle this problem, but it won’t be easy. Lack of parenting skills, sometime for generations, is a huge social problem. It will take intensive, and likely expensive, programs to address these problems.
  3. Problems faced by returning convicts include lack of jobs, drug and alcohol problems, alienation from family, lack of a place to live, lack of transportation, loss of medication after incarceration, health problems and lack of job skills and education.

 

2008TC3-groundpath-rev.pngIn 2008,  Asteroid 2008 TC3 impacts the Earth over Sudan. It was an 80 metric tons (80 long tons; 90 short tons), 4.1 meters (13 ft) diameter asteroid[2] that entered Earth’s atmosphere on October 7, 2008. It exploded at an estimated 37 kilometers (23 mi) above the Nubian Desert in Sudan. Some 600 meteorites, weighing a total of 10.5 kilograms (23.1 lb), were recovered; many of these belonged to a rare type known as ureilites, which contain, among other minerals,nanodiamonds. It was the first time that an asteroid impact had been predicted prior to its entry into the atmosphere as a meteor.

In 2015, The Obama administration is moves ahead with its controversial program requiring doctors to switch to electronic health records or face fees, resisting calls from both parties to delay implementation.

In 2016,  In the wake of Hurricane Matthew, the death toll rises to 800.

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