October 10th in History

This day in historyOctober 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 82 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 19 AD,  Roman general Germanicus suddenly dies in Antioch under mysterious circumstances. Roman historian Tactius records that Germanicus was poisoned by Syrian Governor Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso under orders from Roman emperor Tiberius.

Stone statue of a man wearing a mitre and holding a staff topped by a cross. His other hand is held upright, palm facing out.In 644, Paulinus died 10 October 644 at Rochester, where he was buried in the sacristy of the church.was a Roman missionary and the first Bishop of York. A member of the Gregorian mission sent in 601 by Pope Gregory I to Christianize the Anglo-Saxons from their native Anglo-Saxon paganism, Paulinus arrived in England by 604 with the second missionary group. Little is known of Paulinus’ activities in the following two decades.

After some years spent in Kent, perhaps in 625, Paulinus was consecrated a bishop. He accompanied Æthelburg of Kent, sister of King Eadbald of Kent, on her journey to Northumbria to marry King Edwin of Northumbria, and eventually succeeded in converting Edwin to Christianity. Paulinus also converted many of Edwin’s subjects and built some churches. One of the women Paulinus baptised was a future saint, Hilda of Whitby. Following Edwin’s death in 633, Paulinus and Æthelburg fled Northumbria, leaving behind a member of Paulinus’ clergy, James the Deacon. Paulinus returned to Kent, where he became Bishop of Rochester. He received a pallium from the pope, symbolizing his appointment as Archbishop of York, but too late to be effective. After his death in 644, Paulinus was canonized as a saint and is now venerated in the Eastern OrthodoxRoman Catholic, and Anglican Churches.

In 680,  Battle of Karbala: Hussain bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad, is decapitated by forces under Caliph Yazid I. This is commemorated by Muslims as Aashurah.

In 732,  Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, the leader of the Franks, Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. The governor of Cordoba, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, is killed during the battle.

In 1471,  Battle of Brunkeberg in Stockholm: Sten Sture the Elder, the Regent of Sweden, with the help of farmers and miners, repels an attack by Christian I, King of Denmark.

In 1575,  Battle of Dormans: Roman Catholic forces under Duke Henry of Guise defeat the Protestants, capturing Philippe de Mornay among others.

In 1580,  Over 600 Papal soldiers land at Dún an Óir, Ireland to support a rebellion.

In 1582,  Because of the implementation of the Gregorian calendar this day does not exist in this year in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.

In 1631,  An Electorate of Saxony army takes over Prague.

In 1760,  In a treaty with the Dutch colonial authorities, the Ndyuka people of Suriname – descended from escaped slaves – gain territorial autonomy.

In 1780,  The Great Hurricane of 1780 kills 20,000–30,000 in the Caribbean.

Kruger in 1900Paul Kruger (Born 10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904) was one of the dominant political and military figures in 19th-century South Africa, and President of the South African Republic from 1883 to 1900. He was the face of the Boer cause against Britain during the Second Boer War of 1899–1902. As a child in the late 1830s, he took part in the Great Trek of people migrating east, away from the British Cape Colony. He witnessed the signing of the Sand River Convention with Britain in 1852 and over the next decade played a prominent role in the forging of the South African Republic, leading its commandos and resolving disputes between the rival Boer leaders and factions. After the South African Republic was annexed by Britain as the Transvaal, he became the leading figure in the movement to restore its independence, culminating in the Boers’ victory in the First Boer War of 1880–81 and Britain’s recognition of the republic as a fully independent state. During his presidency, tensions with Britain increased as thousands of predominantly British settlers arrived with the Witwatersrand Gold Rush. His portrait is on the Krugerrand, a gold bullion coin still being produced.

In 1845,  In Annapolis, Maryland, the Naval School (later renamed the United States Naval Academy) opens with 50 midshipman students and seven professors.

In 1846,  Triton, the largest moon of the planet Neptune, is discovered by English astronomer William Lassell.

In 1860,  The original cornerstone of the University of the South is laid in Sewanee, Tennessee.

In 1868,  Carlos Céspedes issues the Grito de Yara from his plantation, La Demajagua, proclaiming Cuba‘s independence

In 1871,  The Great Chicago Fire: Chicago burns after a barn accident. The fire lasts from October 8 to October 10.

William H. Seward portrait - restoration.jpgIn 1872,  William H. Seward, American lawyer and politician, 24th United States Secretary of State (b. 1801) dies in Auburn, New York. He  was United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869, who also served as Governor of New York and United States Senator. A determined opponent of the spread of slavery in the years leading up to the American Civil War, he was a dominant figure in the Republican Party in its formative years. Although regarded as the leading contender for the party’s presidential nomination in 1860, he was defeated by Abraham Lincoln.

Seward was born in southeastern New York to a landowner who owned slaves. He became a lawyer, moving to the Western New York town of Auburn. Seward was elected to the New York State Senate in 1830 as an Anti-Mason. Four years later, he became the Whig Party‘s gubernatorial nominee. Though he was not successful in that race, he was elected governor in 1838, winning a second two-year term in 1840. After several years practicing law in Auburn, he was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1849.

Seward’s strong stances and provocative words against slavery brought him hatred in the South. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1855, and soon joined the nascent Republican Party, becoming one of its leading figures. As the 1860 presidential election cycle approached, he was regarded as the leading candidate for the Republican nomination. Several factors, including his vocal opposition to slavery, his support for immigrants and Catholics, and his association with editor and political boss Thurlow Weed, combined to defeat him. Although devastated by his loss, he campaigned for Lincoln, who was elected, and who appointed him Secretary of State.

Seward did his best to stop the southern states from seceding; once that failed, he devoted himself wholeheartedly to the Union cause. His firms stance against foreign intervention in the Civil War helped deter Britain and France from interfering in the conflict and possibly gaining the independence of the Confederate States. He was a target of the 1865 assassination plot that killed Lincoln, and was seriously wounded by conspirator Lewis Powell. Seward remained loyally at his post through the presidency of Andrew Johnson, and was responsible for the Alaska purchase. His contemporary Carl Schurz described Seward as “one of those spirits who sometimes will go ahead of public opinion instead of tamely following its footprints.”

Brullov AKTolstoy.jpgIn 1875,  Aleksey Konstantinovich Tolstoy, Russian author, poet, and playwright (b. 1817) dies. He was a Russian poet, novelist and playwright, considered to be the most important nineteenth-century Russian historical dramatist, primarily on the strength of his dramatic trilogy The Death of Ivan the Terrible (1866), Tsar Fyodor Ioannovich (1868), and Tsar Boris ( 1870). He also gained fame for his satirical works, published under his own name (History of the Russian State from Gostomysl to Timashev, The Dream of Councillor Popov) and under the collaborational pen name of Kozma Prutkov. His fictional works include the novella The Vampire (1841), and the historical novel Prince Serebrenni (1862).

Aleksey was a member of the Tolstoy family, and a second cousin of Leo Tolstoy. Due to his mother’s closeness with the court of the Tsar, Aleksey was admitted to the future Alexander II‘s childhood entourage and became “a comrade in games” for the young Crown Prince. As a young man Tolstoy traveled widely, including trips to Italy and Germany, where he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Tolstoy began his education at home under the tutelage of his uncle the writer Antony Pogorelsky, under whose influence he first became interested in writing poetry, and a number of other teachers. In 1834 Tolstoy enrolled in the Moscow Foreign Ministry State Archive as a student. In December 1835 he completed exams (in English, French and German languages and literature, Latin, World and Russian history, and Russian statistics) at the University of Moscow.

Throughout the 1840s Tolstoy led a busy high society life, full of pleasure trips, salon parties and balls, hunting sprees and fleeting romances. He also spent many years in state service as a bureaucrat and diplomat. In 1856, on the day of his Coronation, Alexander II appointed Tolstoy one of his personal aide-de-adjutants. Tolstoy served as an infantry major in the Crimean War. He eventually left state service in the early 1860s to pursue his literary career. He died in 1875 of a self-administered lethal dose of morphine at his Krasny Rog estate in the Chernigov Governorate.

In 1897,  German chemist Felix Hoffmann discovers an improved way of synthesizing acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin).

In 1910,  Tau Epsilon Phi: Tau Epsilon Phi Fraternity is founded on the campus of Columbia University in New York City, New York.

In 1911,  The Wuchang Uprising leads to the demise of Qing Dynasty, the last Imperial court in China, and the founding of the Republic of China.

Jackdaniel.jpgIn 1911,  Jack Daniel, American businessman, founded Jack Daniel’s (b. 1849) died from blood poisoning at Lynchburg, Tennessee. He was an American distiller and the founder of Jack Daniel’s Tennessee whiskey distillery.

Jack was the youngest of ten children born to Calaway and Lucinda (née Cook) Daniel. Jack Daniel’s paternal grandparents immigrated to America in the late 18th century. His grandfather Joseph “Job” Daniel was born in Wales, while his grandmother, Elizabeth Calaway, was born in Scotland. He was of Welsh, Scots-Irish and Scottish descent.

According to one source, he was born in January 1849, in or around Lynchburg, Tennessee. A town fire had destroyed the courthouse records, and conflicting dates on his and his mother’s headstones have left his date of birth in question. His mother died shortly after his birth, most likely due to complications from the childbirth. On June 26, 1851, his father remarried and then had another three children with his stepmother Matilda Vanzant.

Jack was raised in the Primitive Baptist church

In 1913,  President Woodrow Wilson triggers the explosion of the Gamboa Dike thus ending construction on the Panama Canal.

In 1920,  The Carinthian Plebiscite determines that the larger part of Carinthia should remain part of Austria.

In 1928,  Chiang Kai-Shek becomes Chairman of the Republic of China.

In 1933,  United Airlines Chesterton Crash: A United Airlines Boeing 247 is destroyed by sabotage, the first such proven case in the history of commercial aviation.

In 1935,  A coup d’état by the royalist leadership of the Greek Armed Forces takes place in Athens. It overthrows the government of Panagis Tsaldaris and establishes a regency under Georgios Kondylis, effectively ending the Second Hellenic Republic.

In 1938,  The Munich Agreement cedes the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany.

In 1941, The 70th Infantry Division of the British Army fought during the Western Desert Campaign of the Second World War. On 10 October 1941 the 6th Infantry Division was re-created as the 70th in an attempt to deceive Axis intelligence concerning the strength of the British military in the Middle East. At the Siege of Tobruk, the division relieved the mainly Australian garrison, which had been defending the port for almost seven months. Under daily aerial and artillery attacks, the division defended the port and conducted nightly offensive patrols against German and Italian positions. Two men from attached units were awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions there during Operation Crusader. The division was withdrawn to Egypt for refitting at the end of 1941, and then placed in reserve. It was transferred to India when Japan entered the war, where it was considered the most experienced and best-trained British formation available in Asia, until its disbandment in November 1943.

In 1942,  The Soviet Union establishes diplomatic relations with Australia.

In 1943,  Double Tenth Incident in Japanese-controlled Singapore

In 1944,  Holocaust: 800 Gypsy children are murdered at Auschwitz concentration camp.

In 1945,  The Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang signed a principle agreement in Chongqing about the future of post-war China. Later, the pact is commonly referred to as the Double-Ten Agreement.

In 1953,  Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of Korea is concluded in Washington D.C.

In 1957,  U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower apologizes to the finance minister of Ghana, Komla Agbeli Gbdemah, after he is refused service in a Dover, Delaware restaurant.

In 1957,  The Windscale fire in Cumbria, U.K. is the world’s first major nuclear accident.

In 1963,  France cedes control of the Bizerte naval base to Tunisia.

In 1964,  The opening ceremony of the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, is broadcast live in the first Olympic telecast relayed by geostationary communication satellite.

In 1967,  The Outer Space Treaty, signed on January 27 by more than sixty nations, comes into force.

In 1970,  Fiji becomes independent.

In 1970,  In Montreal, Quebec, a national crisis hits Canada when Quebec Vice-Premier and Minister of Labour Pierre Laporte becomes the second statesman kidnapped by members of the FLQ terrorist group.

In 1971,  Sold, dismantled and moved to the United States, London Bridge reopens in Lake Havasu City, Arizona.

In 1973,  Vice President of the United States Spiro Agnew resigns after being charged with federal income tax evasion.

Ludwig von Mises.jpgIn 1973,  Ludwig von Mises, Ukrainian-American economist and sociologist (b. 1881) dies. He was a philosopher, Austrian School economist, sociologist, and classical liberal. He became a prominent figure in the Austrian School of economic thought and is best known for his work on praxeology, a study of human choice and action. Fearing a Nazi takeover of Switzerland, where he was living at the time, Mises emigrated to the United States in 1940. Mises’ thought has exerted significant influence on the libertarian movement in the United States in the mid-20th century. Mises wrote and lectured extensively on behalf of classical liberalism.

In 1975,  Papua New Guinea joins the United Nations.

In 1980,  A magnitude 7.3 earthquake occurs in the Algerian town of El Asnam. 3,500 die and 300,000 are left homeless.

In 1980,  FMLN was founded in El Salvador.

In 1985,  United States Navy F-14 fighter jets intercept an Egyptian plane carrying the hijackers of the Achille Lauro cruise ship, and force it to land at a NATO base in Sigonella, Sicily where they are arrested.

In 1986,  An earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter Scale strikes San Salvador, El Salvador, killing an estimated 1,500 people.

In 1997,  An Austral Airlines DC-9-32 crashes and explodes near Nuevo Berlin, Uruguay, killing 74.

In 1998,  A Lignes Aériennes Congolaises Boeing 727 is shot down by rebels in Kindu, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing 41 people.

In 2006, I had my first run in with Johnny Williams, Executive Director of Public Services.  It appeared that his idea of quality work and mine clashed.  It also appears he has a rather broad view of private property and public easements. This was favorable settled in Charles Farmers office that day.

In 2008,  The 10 October 2008 Orakzai bombing kills 110 and injures 200 more.

In 2009,  Armenia and Turkey sign protocols in Zurich, Switzerland to open their borders.

In 2010,  The Netherlands Antilles are dissolved as a country.

Rico Harris.jpgIn 2014, Rico Omarr Harris (born May 19, 1977; disappeared October 10, 2014) is an American former professional basketball player. A high school standout in his native Southern California, he later led Los Angeles City College (LACC) to its first state junior college title in 1997. After his college career, he played for some International Basketball League teams, and later with the Harlem Globetrotters. By October 2014, Harris had relocated to Seattle with a longtime girlfriend and had applied for a job there. He never arrived there from a trip from mother’s home in Alhambra to complete the move; he was last heard from when he left a message for his girlfriend. The call was traced to the Sacramento area, and his abandoned car was found in a Yolo County park several days later. While there were some possible sightings up to a week afterwards, but none have been confirmed beyond a cell phone video the night of his disappearance, and extensive searches since have failed to find any trace of him in the area. His disappearance has been featured on a segment of the Investigation Discovery series Disappeared.

In 2015,  Twin bomb blasts in the Turkish capital Ankara near the main train station leave at least 102 people dead and over 400 wounded.

In 2018,  Hurricane Michael makes landfall in the Florida Panhandle as a catastrophic Category 5 hurricane. It kills 57 people in the United States, 45 in Florida, and causes an estimated $25.1 billion in damage.

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