October 15th in History

This day in historyOctober 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 77 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays around the World

Christian Feast Day:

National Tree Planting Day (Sri Lanka)

The Equirria or October equus, sacrifice of a horse to Mars. (Roman Empire)

Global Handwashing Day (International)

Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day (Canada and the United States)

Earliest day on which Sweetest Day can fall, while October 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Saturday in October. (Great Lakes Region)

Teachers’ Day (Brazil)

White Cane Safety Day (United States)

History

In 1066,  Edgar the Ætheling proclaimed King of England, but never crowned. Reigned until 10 December 1066.

In 1211,  Battle of the Rhyndacus: The Latin emperor Henry of Flanders defeats the Nicaean emperor Theodore I Lascaris.

In 1529,  The Siege of Vienna ends as the Austrians rout the invading Turks, turning the tide against almost a century of unchecked conquest throughout eastern and central Europe by the Ottoman Empire.

In 1582,  Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.

In 1764,  Edward Gibbon observes a group of friars singing in the ruined Temple of Jupiter in Rome, which inspires him to begin work on The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

In 1783,  The Montgolfier brothershot air balloon marks the first human ascent, by Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, (tethered balloon).

In 1793,  Queen Marie-Antoinette of France is tried and convicted in a swift, pre-determined trial in the Palais de Justice, Paris, and condemned to death the following day.

AlfredMoore.jpgIn 1810,  Alfred Moore, American captain and judge (b. 1755) dies. He was a North Carolina judge who became a justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Moore Square, a park located in the Moore Square Historic District in Raleigh, North Carolina was named in his honor. Moore County, established in 1784, also in the state of North Carolina, is named in his honor. Moore was buried at the St. Philip’s Church near Wilmington. Moore was born in New Hanover County, North Carolina. Moore’s father, Maurice, preceded him in the practice of law and served as a colonial judge in North Carolina. Alfred was sent to Boston to complete his education, but he returned to North Carolina and read law as an apprentice to his father before being admitted to the bar at the age of twenty.

In 1815,  Napoleon I of France begins his exile on Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean.

In 1863,  American Civil War: The H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to sink a ship, sinks during a test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley.

In 1864,  American Civil War: The Battle of Glasgow is fought, resulting in the surrender of Glasgow, Missouri, and its Union garrison, to the Confederacy.

In 1878,  The Edison Electric Light Company begins operation.

In 1880,  Mexican soldiers kill Victorio, one of the greatest Apache military strategists.

In 1888,  The “From Hell” letter sent by Jack the Ripper is received by investigators.

In 1894,  The Dreyfus affair: Alfred Dreyfus is arrested for spying.

In 1904,  The Russian Baltic Fleet leaves Reval, Estonia for Port Arthur during the Russo-Japanese War.

In 1910,  Airship America launched from New Jersey in the first attempt to cross the Atlantic by a powered aircraft.

Mata Hari 2.jpgIn 1917,  World War I: At Vincennes outside of Paris, Dutch dancer Mata Hari is executed by firing squad for spying for the German Empire. She was Margaretha GeertruidaMargreetZelle MacLeod (7 August 1876 – 15 October 1917), better known by the stage name Mata Hari, was a member of the Frisian minority from the Netherlands, and was an exotic dancer and courtesan who was convicted of being a spy and executed by firing squad in France under charges of espionage for Germany during World War I.

In 1928,  The airship, Graf Zeppelin completes its first trans-Atlantic flight, landing at Lakehurst, New Jersey, United States.

HDow1888.jpgIn 1930,  Herbert Henry Dow, Canadian-American businessman, founded the Dow Chemical Company (b. 1866). He was a Canadian born, American chemical industrialist. He was a graduate of Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland, Ohio. His most significant achievement was the founding of the Dow Chemical Company in 1897. He was a prolific inventor of chemical processes, compounds, and products, and was a successful businessman. Herbert Henry Dow was born in 1866 in Belleville, Ontario, the eldest child of the Americans Joseph Henry Dow, an inventor and mechanical engineer in Canada on business, and his wife, who were from Derby, Connecticut. When the infant boy was six weeks old, the family returned to their hometown. They moved again in 1878, this time to Cleveland, Ohio (USA) to follow Joseph’s job with the Derby Shovel Manufacturing Company.

In 1889 Dow received his first patent after inventing a more cost-effective and streamlined process for bromine extraction. He quickly formed his own company but was bankrupt within the year. His associates were impressed with his work and in 1890 helped him to found the Midland Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan. Dow continued his work extracting bromine, and by early 1891 he had invented the Dow process, a method of bromine extraction using electrolysis to oxidize bromide to bromine.

Dow wanted to expand his research of electrolysis to yield other chemicals. His financial backers did not approve of his continued research and fired him from the Midland Chemical Company.  He continued his research, developing a process to extract chloride and caustic soda from sodium chloride.

After seeking funding from potential backers in Cleveland, including family friends and former Case School of Applied Science classmates, Dow secured funds from James T. Pardee, Albert W. Smith, J. H. Osborn, and Cady Staley. In 1895, Dow moved his young family to Ohio and founded the Dow Process Company to develop the production mechanism for his process.  The following year he returned to Midland, where he formed the Dow Chemical Company as successor to the Dow Process Company. The Dow Process Company was incorporated with 57 original stockholders. Within three years, his new company purchased the Midland Chemical Company.

In 1932,  Tata Airlines (later to become Air India) makes its first flight.

In 1934,  The Soviet Republic of China collapses when Chiang Kai-shek‘s National Revolutionary Army successfully encircles Ruijin, forcing the fleeing Communists to begin the Long March.

In 1939,  The New York Municipal Airport (later renamed LaGuardia Airport) is dedicated.

In 1940,  The President of Catalonia, Lluís Companys, is executed by the Spanish dictatorship of Francisco Franco, making him the only European president to have been executed.

In 1944,  The Arrow Cross Party (very similar to Hitler’s NSDAP (Nazi party)) takes power in Hungary.

In 1945,  World War II: The former premier of Vichy France Pierre Laval is shot by a firing squad for treason.

Bundesarchiv Bild 102-13805, Hermann Göring.jpgIn 1946,  Hermann Göring, German general and politician (b. 1893) was sentenced to death by hanging, but died by committing suicide by ingesting cyanide the night before the sentence was to be carried out. was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP). A veteran of World War I as an ace fighter pilot, he was a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite, also known as the “Blue Max”. He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1, the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen, dubbed the “Red Baron”.

A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. He became addicted to morphine after being treated with the drug for his injuries. After helping Adolf Hitler take power in 1933, he became the second-most powerful man in Germany. He founded the Gestapo in 1933, and later gave command of it to Heinrich Himmler. Göring was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe (air force) in 1935, a position he held until the final days of World War II. By 1940, he was at the peak of his power and influence; as minister in charge of the Four Year Plan, he was responsible for much of the functioning of the German economy in the build-up to World War II. Adolf Hitler promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall, a rank senior to all other Wehrmacht commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices.

Göring’s standing with Hitler was greatly reduced by 1942, when the Luftwaffe failed to fulfill its commitments and the German war effort was stumbling on both fronts. Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene and focused on the acquisition of property and artwork, much of which was confiscated from Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler requesting permission to assume control of the Reich. Considering it an act of treason, Hitler removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. After World War II, Göring was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity at the Nuremberg trials.

In 1951,  Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes conducts the very last step of the first synthesis of norethisterone, the progestin that would later be used in one of the first three oral contraceptives.

In 1951,  The first episode of I Love Lucy, an American television sitcom starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance, and William Frawley, airs on the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS).

In 1953,  British nuclear test Totem 1 detonated at Emu Field, South Australia.

In 1954,  Hurricane Hazel devastates the eastern seaboard, killing 95 and causing massive floods as far north as Toronto. As a Category 4 upon landfall, it is the strongest storm on record to strike as far north as North Carolina.

In 1956,  Fortran, the first modern computer language, is shared with the coding community for the first time.

In 1964,  Cole Porter, American composer and songwriter (b. 1891) died of kidney failure on October 15, 1964, in Santa Monica, California, at the age of 73. He was an American composer and songwriter. Born to a wealthy family in Indiana, he defied the wishes of his domineering grandfather and took up music as a profession. Classically trained, he was drawn towards musical theatre. After a slow start, he began to achieve success in the 1920s, and by the 1930s he was one of the major songwriters for the Broadway musical stage. Unlike many successful Broadway composers, Porter wrote the lyrics as well as the music for his songs.

After a serious horseback riding accident in 1937, Porter was left disabled and in constant pain, but he continued to work. His shows of the early 1940s did not contain the lasting hits of his best work of the 1920s and 30s, but in 1948 he made a triumphant comeback with his most successful musical, Kiss Me, Kate. It won the first Tony Award for Best Musical.

Porter’s other musicals include Fifty Million Frenchmen, DuBarry Was a Lady, Anything Goes, Can-Can and Silk Stockings. His numerous hit songs include “Night and Day“, “I Get a Kick Out of You“, “Well, Did You Evah!“, “I’ve Got You Under My Skin“, “My Heart Belongs to Daddy” and “You’re the Top“. He also composed scores for films from the 1930s to the 1950s, including Born to Dance (1936), which featured the song “You’d Be So Easy to Love“, Rosalie (1937), which featured “In the Still of the Night“; High Society (1956), which included “True Love“; and Les Girls (1957).

In 1965,  Vietnam War: The Catholic Worker Movement stages an anti-war rally in Manhattan including a public burning of a draft card; the first such act to result in arrest under a new amendment to the Selective Service Act.

In 1966,  Black Panther Party is created by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale.

In 1969,  Vietnam War; The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam is held in Washington DC and across the US. Over 2 million demonstrate nationally; about 250,000 in the nation’s capital.

In 1970,  Thirty-five construction workers are killed when a section of the new West Gate Bridge in Melbourne collapses.

In 1970,  The domestic Soviet Aeroflot Flight 244 is hijacked and diverted to Turkey.

In 1971,  The start of the 2500-year celebration of Iran, celebrating the birth of Persia.

In 1979,  Black Monday in Malta. The Building of the Times of Malta, the residence of the opposition leader Eddie Fenech Adami and several Nationalist Party clubs are ransacked and destroyed by supporters of the Malta Labour Party.

In 1987,  The Great Storm of 1987 hits France and England.

In 1989,  Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the NHL.

In 1990,  Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to lessen Cold War tensions and open up his nation.

In 1995,  Marco Campos, died in an accident in a International Formula 3000 race at the Circuit de Nevers Magny-Cours circuit, making him the only driver ever killed in the International Formula 3000 series.

In 1997,  The first supersonic land speed record is set by Andy Green in ThrustSSC (United Kingdom), exactly 50 years and 1 day after Chuck Yeager first broke the sound barrier in the Earth’s atmosphere.

In 1997,  The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.

In 2001,  NASA‘s Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter‘s moon Io.

In 2003,  China launches Shenzhou 5, its first manned space mission.

In 2003,  The Staten Island Ferry boat Andrew J. Barberi runs into a pier at the St. George Ferry Terminal in Staten Island, killing 11 people and injuring 43.

In 2005,  A riot in Toledo, Ohio breaks out during a National Socialist/Neo-Nazi protest; over 100 are arrested.

In 2007,  Seventeen activists in New Zealand are arrested in the country’s first post 9/11 anti-terrorism raids.

In 2007, An Australian woman asked that her in vitro fertilization (IVF) result in a single baby but two embryos were mistakenly implanted. Now she wants $A400,000 for the cost of raising the child to adulthood. (“Mother sues doctor over twin birth”, ABC (Australian) News). The local branch of the Australian Medical Association says the law should be changed to prevent damage claims over the birth of unimpaired babies: “We’re very concerned [at] the concept that a healthy life is wrongful.”

In 2008,  The Dow Jones Industrial Average closed down 733.08 points, or 7.87%, the second worst day in the Dow’s history based on a percentage drop.

In 2011,  Global protests break out in 120 cities in 48 countries.

In 2012,  British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond agree on a deal setting out the terms of a referendum on Scottish independence at a meeting in Edinburgh.

In 2013,  A 7.2-magnitude earthquake strikes the Philippines, resulting in more than 215 deaths.

In 2014, Jackson Mayor Jerry Gist relieved Police Chief Gill Kendrick of his duties, effective immediately, and has named Capt. Julian Wiser as the Interim Chief of Police, according to a news release. His reasons for relieving Kendrick are vague as always.

In 2014, In a Case of Judicial over reach….. Yes … Tennessee state law doesn’t give the Judge that authority and neither does the city ordinance which must comply with state law…. Here comes a law suite ready for the making…. Karen Holloway was cited by Lenoir City officials for not keeping up her yard.  Judge Terry Vann handed down a five-day jail sentence.

In 2015, Two Tennessee legislators say they’re out to dispel the notion taxpayer money props up government-owned Internet that competes against private providers. Um…. They also say, too, that AT&T recently accepted millions in government subsidies. Tennessee Sate Reps. Kevin Brooks, R-Cleveland, and Dan Howell, R-Georgetown, are using to push for Tennessee to eliminate a law restricting government-owned networks from expanding beyond municipal lines. They are attempting to lie themselves across the state.

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