October 24th in History

This day in historyOctober 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 68 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays:

History October 24th

In AD 69,  Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus, the commander of the Danube armies, loyal to Vespasian, defeat the forces of Emperor Vitellius.

In 1147,  After a siege of 4 months crusader knights led by Afonso Henriques reconquered Lisbon.

In 1260,  The Cathedral of Chartres is dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX of France; the cathedral is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In 1260, Saif ad-Din Qutuz, Mamluk sultan of Egypt, is assassinated by Baibars, who seizes power for himself.

In 1360,  The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War.

Hans Holbein the Younger - Jane Seymour, Queen of England - Google Art Project.jpgIn 1537,  Jane Seymour, English wife of Henry VIII of England (b. 1508)  died of postnatal complications less than two weeks after the birth of her only child, a son who reigned as Edward VI. She was Queen of England from 1536 to 1537 as the third wife of King Henry VIII. She succeeded Anne Boleyn as queen consort following the latter’s execution for high treason, incest and adultery in May 1536.  She was the only one of Henry’s wives to receive a queen’s funeral, and his only consort to be buried beside him in St. George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle. She was the only wife of Henry VIII whose son survived infancy.

In 1590,  John White, the governor of the second Roanoke Colony, returns to England after an unsuccessful search for the “lost” colonists.

In 1641,  Sir Felim O’Neill of Kinard the leader of the Irish Rebellion issues his Proclamation of Dungannon justifying the uprising and declaring continued loyalty to Charles I

In 1648,  The Peace of Westphalia is signed, marking the end of the Thirty Years’ War.

In 1795,  Partitions of Poland: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is completely divided among Austria, Prussia, and Russia.

In 1812Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Maloyaroslavets takes place near Moscow.

In 1851,  William Lassell, discovers the moons Umbriel, and Ariel, orbiting Uranus.

Daniel Webster - circa 1847.jpgIn 1852,  Daniel Webster, American lawyer and politician, 14th United States Secretary of State (b. 1782) died on October 24, 1852, at his home in Marshfield, Massachusetts, after falling from his horse and suffering a crushing blow to the head, complicated by cirrhosis of the liver, which resulted in a cerebral hemorrhage. He was a leading American senator representing Massachusetts and statesman during the era of the Second Party System. He was the outstanding spokesman for American nationalism with powerful oratory that made him a key Whig leader. He spoke for conservatives, and led the opposition to Democrat Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party. He was a spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry, but not for the common people who composed the base of his enemies in Jacksonian Democracy. “He was a thoroughgoing elitist, and he reveled in it,” says biographer Robert Remini. During his 40 years in national politics, Webster served in the House of Representatives for 10 years (representing New Hampshire), in the Senate for 19 years (representing Massachusetts), and was appointed the United States Secretary of State under three presidents.

One of the highest-regarded courtroom lawyers of the era, Webster shaped several key U.S. Supreme Court cases which established important constitutional precedents that bolstered the authority of the federal government. As a diplomat he is best known for negotiatiant the Webster-Ashburton Treaty with Great Britain; it established the definitive eastern border between the United States and Canada. Chiefly recognized for his Senate tenure, Webster was a key figure in the institution’s “Golden days”. Webster was the Northern member of the “Great Triumvirate“, with his colleagues Henry Clay from the West (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun from the South (South Carolina). His “Reply to Hayne” in 1830 has been regarded as one of the greatest speeches in the senate’s history.

As with his fellow Whig Henry Clay, Webster wanted to see the Union preserved and civil war averted. They both worked for compromises to stave off the sectionalism that threatened war between the North and the South. Webster tried and failed three times to become President of the United States. In 1957, a Senate Committee selected Webster as one of the five greatest U.S. Senators with Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Robert La Follette, and Robert Taft

In 1857,  Sheffield F.C., the world’s oldest association football club still in operation, is founded in Sheffield, England.

In 1861,  The First Transcontinental Telegraph line across the United States is completed, spelling the end for the 18-month-old Pony Express.

In 1901,  Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to go over Niagara Falls, in a barrel.

In 1911,  Orville Wright, remains in the air 9 minutes and 45 seconds in a Wright Glider, at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina.

In 1912,  First Balkan War: The Battle of Kumanovo concludes with the Serbian victory against the Ottoman Empire.

HarryHoudini1899.jpgIn 1926,  Harry Houdini‘s last performance, which is at the Garrick Theater in Detroit

In 1929,  “Black Thursdaystock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange.

In 1930,  A bloodless coup d’état in Brazil ousts Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa, the last President of the First Republic. Getúlio Vargas is then installed as “provisional president.”

In 1931,  The George Washington Bridge opens to public traffic.

Schultz dutch mug.jpgIn 1935,  Dutch Schultz, American mobster (b. 1902)  was shot at the Palace Chophouse at 12 East Park Street in Newark, New Jersey, which he was using as his new headquarters. Two bodyguards and Schultz’s accountant were also killed. He was a New York City-area GermanJewish American mobster of the 1920s and 1930s who made his fortune in organized crime-related activities, including bootlegging alcohol and the numbers racket. Weakened by two tax evasion trials led by prosecutor Thomas Dewey, Schultz’s rackets were also threatened by fellow mobster Lucky Luciano. In an attempt to avert his conviction, Schultz asked the Commission for permission to kill Dewey, which they refused. When Schultz disobeyed them and attempted to kill him anyway, the Commission ordered his murder in 1935

In 1943,  The Provisional Government of Free India formally declared war on Britain and the United States of America.

In 1944,  World War II: The Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku and the battleship Japanese battleship Musashi are sunk by American aircraft in the Battle of Leyte Gulf.

Louis renault 1926.jpgIn 1944,  Louis Renault, French businessman, co-founded the Renault Company (b. 1877) died while awaiting trial in liberated France toward the end of 1944 under uncertain circumstances. He was a French industrialist, one of the founders of Renault and a pioneer of the automobile industry. Renault built one of France’s largest automobile manufacturing concerns, which bears his name to this day. During World War I his factories contributed massively to the war effort notably so by the creation and manufacture of the first effective tank: the Renault FT tank. Accused of collaborating with the Germans during World War II, After his death, his company was seized and nationalized by the provisional government of France although he was never tried or convicted. His factories were the only ones permanently expropriated by the French government. In 1956, Time Magazine described Renault as “rich, powerful and famous, cantankerous, brilliant, often brutal, the little Napoleon of an automaking empire”; “vulgar, loud, domineering, impatient, he was a terror to associates, a friend to practically none,” adding that to the French working man, Renault became known as “the ogre of Billancourt.”

In 1945,  Founding of the United Nations.

In 1946,  A camera on board the V-2 No. 13 rocket takes the first photograph of earth from outer space.

In 1947,  Walt Disney testifies before the House Un-American Activities Committee, naming Disney employees he believes to be communists.

In 1949,  The cornerstone of the United Nations Headquarters is laid.

In 1954,  Dwight D. Eisenhower pledges United States support to South Vietnam.

In 1957 – The USAF starts the X-20 Dyna-Soar program.

In 1960Nedelin catastrophe: An R-16 ballistic missile explodes on the launch pad at the Soviet Union‘s Baikonur Cosmodrome space facility, killing over 100. Among the dead is Field Marshal Mitrofan Nedelin, whose death is reported to have occurred in a plane crash

In 1964Northern Rhodesia gains independence from the United Kingdom and becomes the Republic of Zambia (Southern Rhodesia remained a colony until the next year, with the Unilateral Declaration of Independence)

Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers, posed and ready to swingIn 1972Jackie Robinson, American baseball player (b. 1919)  died of a heart attack in his home at 95 Cascade Road in North Stamford, Connecticut, aged 53 brought on by a severe case of diabetes. He was an American baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB) in the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line when the Brooklyn Dodgers started him at first base on April 15, 1947. As the first major league team to play a black man since the 1880s, the Dodgers ended racial segregation that had relegated black players to the Negro leagues for six decades. The example of Robinson’s character, his use of nonviolence, and his unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation, which then marked many other aspects of American life, and contributed significantly to the Civil Rights Movement.

In addition to his cultural impact, Robinson had an exceptional baseball career. Over 10 seasons, Robinson played in six World Series and contributed to the Dodgers’ 1955 World Series championship. He was selected for six consecutive All-Star Games, from 1949 to 1954, was the recipient of the inaugural MLB Rookie of the Year Award in 1947, and won the National League Most Valuable Player Award in 1949—the first black player so honored.  Robinson was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. In 1997, MLB “universally” retired his uniform number, 42, across all major league teams; he was the first pro athlete in any sport to be so honored. Initiated for the first time on April 15, 2004, MLB has adopted a new annual tradition, “Jackie Robinson Day“, on which every player on every team wears #42.

Robinson was also known for his pursuits outside the baseball diamond. He was the first black television analyst in MLB, and the first black vice president of a major American corporation. In the 1960s, he helped establish the Freedom National Bank, an African-American-owned financial institution based in Harlem, New York. In recognition of his achievements on and off the field, Robinson was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal.

In 1973Yom Kippur War ends.

In 1977Veterans Day is observed on the fourth Monday in October for the seventh and last time. (The holiday is once again observed on November 11 beginning the following year.)

In 1980 – The government of Poland legalizes the Solidarity trade union.

In 1986Nezar Hindawi is sentenced to 45 years in prison, the longest sentence handed down by a British court, for the attempted bombing on an El Al flight at Heathrow. After the verdict, the United Kingdom breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, claiming that Hindawi is helped by Syrian officials.

In 1990 – Italian prime minister Giulio Andreotti reveals to the Italian parliament the existence of Gladio, the Italian “stay-behind” clandestine paramilitary NATO army, which was implicated in false flag terrorist attacks implicating communists and anarchists as part of the strategy of tension from the late 1960s to early 1980s.

Gene roddenberry 1976.jpgIn 1991Gene Roddenberry, American captain, screenwriter, and producer, created Star Trek (b. 1921) died from cardiopulmonary arrest . He was an American television screenwriter, producer, and futurist. He is best remembered for having created the original Star Trek television series and thus the Star Trek science fiction franchise. Born in El Paso, Texas, Roddenberry grew up in Los Angeles, California where his father worked as a police officer. Roddenberry flew 89 combat missions in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, and worked as a commercial pilot after the war. Later he followed in his father’s footsteps and joined the Los Angeles Police Department to provide for his family, but began to focus on writing scripts for television.

As a freelance writer, Roddenberry wrote scripts for Highway Patrol, Have Gun–Will Travel, and other series, before creating and producing his own television series The Lieutenant. In 1964, Roddenberry created Star Trek, which premiered in 1966 and ran for three seasons before being canceled. Syndication of Star Trek led to increasing popularity, and Roddenberry continued to create, produce, and consult on the Star Trek films and the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation until his death. In 1985 he became the first TV writer with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame  and he was later inducted by both the Science Fiction Hall of Fame and the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences Hall of Fame. Years after his death, Roddenberry was one of the first humans to have his ashes carried into space.

The Star Trek franchise created by Roddenberry has produced story material for almost five decades; resulting in six television series consisting of 726 episodes, and twelve feature films. A thirteenth film is in production, and is expected to be released in 2016.

Additionally, the popularity of the Star Trek universe and films inspired the parody/homage/cult film Galaxy Quest in 1999, as well as many books, video games, and fan films set in the various “eras” of the Star Trek universe.

In 1992,  The Toronto Blue Jays become the first Major League Baseball team based outside the United States to win the World Series.

In 1992,  The Toronto Blue Jays become the first Major League Baseball team based outside the United States to win the World Series.

In 1998,  Launch of Deep Space 1 comet/asteroid mission

In 2002,  Police arrest spree killers John Allen Muhammad and Lee Boyd Malvo, ending the Beltway sniper attacks in the area around Washington, D.C.

In 2003,  Concorde makes its last commercial flight.

In 2004,  Arsenal Football Club loses to Manchester United, ending a row of unbeaten matches at 49 matches, which is the record in the Premier League.

In 2005,  Hurricane Wilma makes landfall in Florida resulting in 35 direct 26 indirect fatalities and causing $20.6B USD in damage.

Parks on a Montgomery bus on December 21, 1956, the day Montgomery’s public transportation system was legally integrated. Behind Parks is Nicholas C. Chriss, a UPI reporter covering the event.

In 2005,  Rosa Parks, American activist (b. 1913) died of natural causes at the age of 92.  She was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the United States Congress called “the first lady of civil rights” and “the mother of the freedom movement”. Her birthday, February 4, and the day she was arrested, December 1, have both become Rosa Parks Day, commemorated in both California and Ohio.

On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake‘s order that she give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks was not the first person to resist bus segregation. Others had taken similar steps, including Irene Morgan in 1946, Sarah Louise Keys in 1955, and the members of the Browder v. Gayle lawsuit (Claudette Colvin, Aurelia Browder, Susie McDonald, and Mary Louise Smith) who were arrested in Montgomery months before Parks. NAACP organizers believed that Parks was the best candidate for seeing through a court challenge after her arrest for civil disobedience in violating Alabama segregation laws, although eventually her case became bogged down in the state courts while the Browder v. Gayle case succeeded. Parks’ act of defiance and the Montgomery Bus Boycott became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. She organized and collaborated with civil rights leaders, including Edgar Nixon, president of the local chapter of the NAACP; and Martin Luther King, Jr., a new minister in town who gained national prominence in the civil rights movement.

At the time, Parks was secretary of the Montgomery chapter of the NAACP. She had recently attended the Highlander Folk School, a Tennessee center for training activists for workers’ rights and racial equality. She acted as a private citizen “tired of giving in”. Although widely honored in later years, she also suffered for her act; she was fired from her job as a seamstress in a local department store.

Eventually, she moved to Detroit, where she briefly found similar work. From 1965 to 1988 she served as secretary and receptionist to John Conyers, an African-American U.S. Representative. After retirement, Parks wrote her autobiography and lived a largely private life in Detroit. In her final years, she suffered from dementia.

In 2006,  I got up very early this morning, after having had a really good weekend working with the Great Pumpkin Festival. Very proud of the group that worked this weekend. Special thanks to Lambuth College, the Kappa Alpha fraternity, the Phi Mu sorority, JEA, and the LANA volunteers and leaders. Special thanks to Roger Markin for leading this group. The Great Pumpkin Festival has since been ended.

In 2007,  Chang’e 1, the first satellite in the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, is launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center.

In 2008,  “Bloody Friday” saw many of the world’s stock exchanges experience the worst declines in their history, with drops of around 10% in most indices.

In 2014,  The China National Space Administration launches an experimental lunar mission, Chang’e 5-T1, which will loop behind the Moon and return to Earth.

In 2015,  A driver, arrested on suspicion of driving under the influence (DUI), crashes into the Oklahoma State Homecoming parade in Stillwater, Oklahoma, killing four people and injuring 34.

In 2015, Hillary Clinton headed into a showdown on Capitol Hill, where the Democratic presidential frontrunner testified before the Republican-led committee investigating the deadly 2012 attacks on U.S. diplomats in Benghazi, Libya. The committee stepped up pressure on Clinton over her use of a private email server at the time of the attacks, when she was secretary of state. Several Republicans have said the committee’s work has hurt Clinton in the polls, angering Trey Gowdy, the committee’s Republican chairman.

In 2016,  A Fairchild Merlin airliner on a French surveillance mission crashes in Kirkop, Malta, killing all five people on board.

 

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