November 1st in History

November 1 is the 305th day of the yeaThis day in historyr (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 60 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 365,  The Alemanni cross the Rhine and invade Gaul. Emperor Valentinian I moves to Paris to command the army and defend the Gallic cities.

In 996,  Emperor Otto III issues a deed to Gottschalk, Bishop of Freising, which is the oldest known document using the name Ostarrîchi (Austria in Old High German).

In 1141,  Empress Matilda‘s reign as ‘Lady of the English’ ends with Stephen of Blois regaining the title of King of England.

In 1179,  Philip II is crowned King of France.

In 1214,  The port city of Sinope surrenders to the Seljuq Turks.

In 1348,  The anti-royalist Union of Valencia attacks the Jews of Murviedro on the pretext that they are serfs of the King of Valencia and thus “royalists”.

In 1503,  Pope Julius II is elected.

In 1512,  The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo, is exhibited to the public for the first time.

In 1520,  The Strait of Magellan, the passage immediately south of mainland South America connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, is first discovered and navigated by European explorer Ferdinand Magellan during the first recorded circumnavigation voyage.

In 1555,  French Huguenots establish the France Antarctique colony in present-day Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

In 1570,  The All Saints’ Flood devastates the Dutch coast.

In 1604,  William Shakespeare‘s tragedy Othello is performed for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.

In 1611,  William Shakespeare’s play The Tempest is performed for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.

In 1612,  (22 October O.S.) Time of Troubles in Russia: Moscow, Kitay-gorod, is captured by Russian troops under command of Dmitry Pozharsky

Coddington.William.MemMkr.CoddingtonCem.20110722.jpgIn 1678,  William Coddington, American judge and politician, 1st Governor of Rhode Island (b. 1601) dies. He was an early magistrate of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and later of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. He served as the Judge of Portsmouth, Judge of Newport, Governor of Portsmouth and Newport, Deputy Governor of the entire (four-town) colony, and then Governor of the colony. Born and raised in Lincolnshire, England, he accompanied the Winthrop Fleet in its voyage to New England in 1630, becoming an early leader in Boston. Here he built the first brick house, and became heavily involved in the local government as an assistant (magistrate), treasurer, and deputy.

As a member of the Boston church, under the Reverend John Cotton, he was caught up in the events of the Antinomian Controversy from 1636 to 1638. When the Reverend John Wheelwright and the dissident minister Anne Hutchinson were banished from the Massachusetts colony, many of their supporters were also compelled to leave. Though Coddington was not asked to depart, he felt the outcome of the controversy was unjust, and decided to join many of his fellow parishioners in exile. He was the lead signer of a compact to form a Christian based government away from Massachusetts. Encouraged by Roger Williams to settle on the Narragansett Bay, he and other supporters of Hutchinson bought Aquidneck Island of the Narragansetts, and settled there, establishing the town of Pocasset, later named Portsmouth. He was named the first “Judge” of the colony, a Biblical term for Governor. A division in the leadership of this town occurred within a year, and he left with several others to establish the town of Newport at the south end of the island.

In short time, the towns of Portsmouth and Newport united, and Coddington was made, by continuous election, the governor of the island towns from 1640 to 1647. During this period, Roger Williams had gone to England to obtain a patent to bring the four Narragansett towns of Providence, Warwick, Portsmouth, and Newport under one government. Done without the consent of the island towns, these two towns resisted joining the mainland towns until 1647. Though Coddington was elected President of the united colony in 1648, he would not attend the meeting, and complaints against him prompted the presidency to go to Jeremy Clarke. Very unhappy with Williams’ patent, Coddington returned to England where he was eventually able to obtain a commission, separating the island from the mainland towns, and making him governor of the island for an indefinite period. While initially welcomed as governor, complaints from both the mainland towns and members of the island towns prompted Roger Williams, John Clarke and William Dyer to go to England to have Coddington’s commission revoked. Being successful, Dyer returned with the news in 1653, but disagreements kept the four towns from re-uniting until the following year.

With the revocation of his commission, Coddington withdrew from public life, focusing on his mercantile interests, and becoming a member of the Religious Society of Friends. After nearly two decades away from politics, he was elected Deputy Governor in 1673, then Governor the following year, serving two one-year terms. The relative calm of this period was shattered during his second year as governor of the colony, when King Philip’s War erupted in June 1675, becoming the most catastrophic event in Rhode Island’s colonial history. Though not re-elected in 1676, he was elected to a final term as governor of the colony in 1678 following the death of Governor Benedict Arnold. He died a few months into this term, and was buried in the Coddington Cemetery on Farewell Street in Newport.

In 1683,  The British Crown colony of New York is subdivided into 12 counties.

In 1688,  William III of Orange sets out a second time from Hellevoetsluis in the Netherlands to seize the crowns of England, Scotland and Ireland from King James II of England during the Glorious Revolution.

In 1755,  In Portugal, Lisbon is totally devastated by a massive earthquake and tsunami, killing between 60,000 and 90,000 people.

In 1765,  The British Parliament enacts the Stamp Act on the Thirteen Colonies in order to help pay for British military operations in North America.

In 1790,  Edmund Burke publishes Reflections on the Revolution in France, in which he predicts that the French Revolution will end in a disaster.

In 1800,  John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).

In 1805,  Napoleon Bonaparte invades Austria during the War of the Third Coalition.

In 1814,  Congress of Vienna opens to re-draw the European political map after the defeat of France in the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1848,  In Boston, Massachusetts, the first medical school for women, The Boston Female Medical School (which later merged with the Boston University School of Medicine), opens.

In 1859,  The current Cape Lookout, North Carolina, lighthouse is lit for the first time. Its first-order Fresnel lens can be seen for about 19 miles (31 km) in good conditions.

In 1861,  American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln appoints George B. McClellan as the commander of the Union Army, replacing General Winfield Scott.

In 1870,  In the United States, the Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast.

In 1876,  New Zealand’s provincial government system is dissolved.

In 1884,  The Gaelic Athletic Association is set up in Hayes’s Hotel in Thurles, County Tipperary.

In 1886,  Ananda College, a leading Buddhist school in Sri Lanka is established with 37 students.

In 1894,  Nicholas II becomes the new (and last) Tsar of Russia after his father, Alexander III, dies.

In 1894Thomas Edison films American sharpshooter Annie Oakley, which is instrumental in her hiring by Buffalo Bill for his Wild West Show.

Tsar Alexander III.JPGIn 1894,  Alexander III of Russia (b. 1845) dies. He was born Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Рома́нов; IPA: [ɐlʲɪˈksandr ɐlʲɪˈksandrəvʲɪt͡ɕ rɐˈmanəf]; 10 March 1845  and was Emperor of Russia, King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland from 13 March  [O.S. 1 March] 1881 until his death on 1 November [O.S. 20 October] 1894. He was highly conservative and reversed some of the liberal measures of his father, Alexander II. During Alexander’s reign Russia fought no major wars, for which he was styled “The Peacemaker”.

In 1896,  A picture showing the bare breasts of a woman appears in National Geographic magazine for the first time.

In 1897,  The first Library of Congress building opens its doors to the public. The Library had been housed in the Congressional Reading Room in the U.S. Capitol.

In 1901,  Sigma Phi Epsilon, the largest national male collegiate fraternity, is established at Richmond College, in Richmond, Virginia.

In 1911,  The first dropping of a bomb from an aircraft in combat, during the Italo-Turkish War.

In 1914,  World War I: The first British Royal Navy defeat of the war with Germany, the Battle of Coronel, is fought off of the western coast of Chile, in the Pacific, with the loss of HMS Good Hope and HMS Monmouth.

In 1915,  Parris Island is officially designated a United States Marine Corps Recruit Depot.

In 1916,  Pavel Milyukov delivers in the State Duma the famous “stupidity or treason” speech, precipitating the downfall of the Boris Stürmer government.

In 1918,  Malbone Street Wreck: The worst rapid transit accident in US history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 102 deaths.

In 1918,  Western Ukraine gains its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

In 1918,  The short-lived Banat Republic is founded.

In 1920,  American fishing schooner Esperanto defeats the Canadian fishing schooner Delawana in the First International Fishing Schooner Championship Races in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

In 1922,  Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate: The last sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, abdicates.

In 1924,  Bill Tilghman, American police officer (b. 1854) is killed on duty. He was a lawman and gunfighter in the American Old West. He was born William Matthew Tilghman, Jr. was born in Fort Dodge, Iowa, on 4 July 1854. He became a buffalo hunter at the age of fifteen. He was became acquainted with Wild Bill Hickok, Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, and Mysterious Dave Mather, who hunted buffalo. Tilghman’s older brother, Richard, hunted with him, and at one point during the mid-1870s when the hunting team was attacked by a war party of American Indians, his brother was killed.  In September 1878, he served as a scout for the U.S. Cavalry during a surge of Cheyenne raids on settlements, working alongside the likes of gunman John Joshua Webb. Later that same year, he was approached by Bat Masterson to serve as a deputy sheriff, and he accepted. He served in that capacity until 1884 and earned an excellent reputation, working at various law enforcement jobs for the rest of his life, earning the respect of Masterson, Doc Holliday, Wyatt Earp, and Virgil Earp. By 1889, Tilghman moved to Guthrie in Logan County in the new Oklahoma Territory during the land rush. Town Marshal Bill Grimes approached him to serve as deputy marshal, and he accepted. He died on the job as the marshal in Cromwell, OK.

In 1928,  The Law on the Adoption and Implementation of the Turkish Alphabet, replacing the version of the Arabic alphabet previously used with the Latin alphabet, comes into force in Turkey.

In 1937,  Stalinists execute Pastor Paul Hamberg and seven members of Azerbaijan’s Lutheran community.

In 1938,  Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in an upset victory during a match race deemed “the match of the century” in horse racing.

In 1939,  The first rabbit born after artificial insemination is exhibited to the world.

In 1941,  American photographer Ansel Adams takes a picture of a moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico that would become one of the most famous images in the history of photography.

In 1942,  World War II: Matanikau Offensive begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends three days later with an American victory.

In 1943,  World War II: In the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, United States Marines, the 3rd Marine Division, land on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.

In 1943,  World War II: In support of the landings on Bougainville, U.S. aircraft carrier forces attack the huge Japanese base at Rabaul.

In 1944,  World War II: Units of the British Army land at Walcheren in the Netherlands.

In 1945,  The official North Korean newspaper, Rodong Sinmun, is first published under the name Chongro.

In 1945,  Australia joins the United Nations.

In 1946,  Karol Wojtyla, the future Pope John Paul II, is ordained to the priesthood by Kraków‘s archbishop, Adam Sapieha.

In 1948,  Off southern Manchuria, 6,000 people die as a Chinese merchant ship explodes and sinks.

In 1948,  Athenagoras I, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is enthroned.

In 1950,  Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempt to assassinate US President Harry S. Truman at Blair House.

In 1950,  Pope Pius XII claims papal infallibility when he formally defines the dogma of the Assumption of Mary.

In 1951,  Operation Buster–Jangle: Six thousand five hundred American soldiers are exposed to ‘Desert Rock’ atomic explosions for training purposes in Nevada. Participation is not voluntary.

In 1952,  Operation Ivy: The United States successfully detonates the first large hydrogen bomb, codenamed “Mike” [“M” for megaton], in the Eniwetok atoll, located in the Marshall Islands in the central Pacific Ocean. The explosion had a yield of ten megatons.

In 1953,  Andhra Pradesh attains statehood, with Kurnool as its capital.

In 1954,  The Front de Libération Nationale fires the first shots of the Algerian War of Independence.

In 1955,  The bombing of United Airlines Flight 629 occurs near Longmont, Colorado, killing all 39 passengers and five crew members aboard the Douglas DC-6B airliner.

In 1956,  The Indian states Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and Mysore State are formally created under the States Reorganisation Act.

In 1956,  In India, Kanyakumari district is joined to Tamil Nadu state from Kerala.

In 1956,  The Springhill mining disaster in Springhill, Nova Scotia kills 39 miners; 88 are rescued.

In 1957,  The Mackinac Bridge, the world’s longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, opens to traffic connecting Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas.

In 1959,  Montreal Canadiens goaltender Jacques Plante wears a protective mask for the first time in an NHL game.

In 1959,  In Rwanda, Hutu politician Dominique Mbonyumutwa is beaten up by Tutsi forces, leading to a period of violence known as the wind of destruction.

In 1960,  While campaigning for President of the United States, John F. Kennedy announces his idea of the Peace Corps.

In 1961,  Fifty thousand women in 60 cities participate in the inaugural Women Strike for Peace (WSP) against nuclear proliferation.

In 1963,  The Arecibo Observatory in Arecibo, Puerto Rico, with the largest radio telescope ever constructed, officially opens.

In 1963,  The 1963 South Vietnamese coup begins

In 1968,  The Motion Picture Association of America‘s film rating system is officially introduced, originating with the ratings G, M, R, and X.

In 1970,  Club Cinq-Sept fire in Saint-Laurent-du-Pont, France kills 146 young people.

In 1973,  Watergate scandal: Leon Jaworski is appointed as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor.

In 1973,  The Indian state of Mysore is renamed as Karnataka to represent all the regions within Karunadu.

In 1979,  In Bolivia, Colonel Alberto Natusch executes a bloody coup d’état against the constitutional government of Dr. Wálter Guevara.

Mamie Eisenhower color photo portrait, White House, May 1954.jpgIn 1979,  Mamie Eisenhower, American wife of Dwight D. Eisenhower, 41st First Lady of the United States (b. 1896) died in her sleep very early the morning of November 1, less than two weeks shy of her 83rd birthday. She was the wife of United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and First Lady of the United States from 1953 to 1961.

Mamie married Dwight Eisenhower at age 19 in 1916. The young couple moved frequently between military quarters in many postings, from Panama to the Philippines. As First Lady, she entertained a wide range of foreign dignitaries, who reacted well to her confident style and splendid costumes. On leaving the White House, she made clear her disapproval of the incoming Kennedys.

Mamie Eisenhower spent her retirement and widowhood at the family farm at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The Hollywood star Mamie Van Doren was so named by Universal Studios in her honor.

In 1981,  Antigua and Barbuda gains independence from the United Kingdom.

In 1982,  Honda becomes the first Asian automobile company to produce cars in the United States with the opening of its factory in Marysville, Ohio. The Honda Accord is the first car produced there.

In 1993,  The Maastricht Treaty takes effect, formally establishing the European Union.

In 2000,  Serbia and Montenegro joins the United Nations.

In 2012,  A fuel tank truck crashes and explodes in the Saudi Arabian capital Riyadh killing 26 people and injuring 135.

In 2013,  A gunman opens fire at Los Angeles International Airport, killing a US Transportation Security Administration employee, and wounding seven other people.

In 2014, President Obama spoke at Wayne State in Detroit. OBAMA-RING-closeup-14-clear-photo-as-president-hands-clasped-togetherObama was campaigning on behalf of former Rep. Mark Schauer running against Gov. Rick Snyder and Rep. Gary Peters, D-Bloomfield Township. He also traveled to Philadelphia for a campaign event with Pennsylvania gubernatorial candidate Tom Wolf on Sunday, Nov. 2; and to Bridgeport, Conn., for an event with Gov. Dan Malloy and other Connecticut Democrats.

In 2015, Protesters outside the CDC here in Atlanta say that the information being provided to the public about vaccines isn’t honest. And all of it hinges on one man, a scientist you’ve probably never heard of. That scientist is named Dr. William Thompson. That statement read, in part, “I regret that my co-authors and I omitted statistically significant information in our 2004 article published in the journal ‘Pediatrics’.

“The omitted data suggested that African American males who received the MMR (mumps, measles and rubella) vaccine before age 36 months were at increased risk for autism. Decisions were made regarding the findings of the report as the data was collected and I believe that the final study protocol was not followed.”

Fred Thompson.jpgIn 2015, Fred Thompson, American actor, lawyer, and politician (b. 1942) dies at the age of 73 from a recurrence of lymphoma. He was an American politician, attorney, lobbyist, columnist, film and television actor, and radio host. Thompson, a Republican, served in the United States Senate representing Tennessee from 1994 to 2003, and was a GOP presidential candidate in 2008.

Thompson served as chairman of the International Security Advisory Board at the United States Department of State, was a member of the U.S.–China Economic and Security Review Commission, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and was a Visiting Fellow with the American Enterprise Institute, specializing in national security and intelligence.

As an actor, Thompson appeared in a number of movies and television shows including The Hunt for Red OctoberDie Hard 2In the Line of Fire, and Cape Fear, as well as in commercials. He frequently portrayed governmental authority figures and military men. In the final months of his U.S. Senate term in 2002, Thompson joined the cast of the long-running NBC television series Law & Order, playing Manhattan District Attorney Arthur Branch.

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