November 30th in History

This day in historyNovember 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 31 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 3340 BC,  Earliest believed record of an eclipse.

In 977,  Emperor Otto II lifts the siege at Paris and withdraws. His rearguard is defeated while crossing the Aisne River by Frankish forces under King Lothair III.

In 1707,  The second Siege of Pensacola comes to end with the failure of the British to capture Pensacola, Florida.

In 1718,  Swedish king Charles XII dies during a siege of the fortress of Fredriksten in Norway.

In 1782,  American Revolutionary War: Treaty of Paris – In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign preliminary peace articles (later formalized as the 1783 Treaty of Paris).

In 1786,  The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, under Pietro Leopoldo I, becomes the first modern state to abolish the death penalty (later commemorated as Cities for Life Day).

In 1803,  The Balmis Expedition starts in Spain with the aim of vaccinating millions against smallpox in Spanish America and Philippines. It was a three-year mission to Spanish America and Asia led by Dr. Francisco Javier de Balmis with the aim of vaccinating millions against smallpoxVaccination, a much safer way to prevent smallpox than older methods such as inoculation, had been introduced by the English physician Edward Jenner in 1798. The Balmis expedition, officially called Real Expedición Filantrópica de la Vacuna, set off from A Coruña on 30 November 1803. It may be considered the first international healthcare expedition in history.

In 1803,  In New Orleans, Louisiana, Spanish representatives officially transfer the Louisiana Territory to a French representative. Just 20 days later, France transfers the same land to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase.

In 1804,  The Democratic-Republican-controlled United States Senate begins an impeachment trial of Federalist Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase.

In 1824,  Ground is broken at Allanburg, Ontario, for the building of the first Welland Canal.

In 1829,  First Welland Canal opens for a trial run, 5 years to the day from the ground breaking.

In 1853,  Crimean War: Battle of Sinop – The Imperial Russian Navy under Pavel Nakhimov destroys the Ottoman fleet under Osman Pasha at Sinop, a sea port in northern Turkey.

In 1864,  American Civil War: Battle of Franklin – The Confederate Army of Tennessee led by General John Bell Hood mounts a dramatically unsuccessful frontal assault on Union positions commanded by John McAllister Schofield around Franklin, Tennessee, with Hood losing six generals and almost a third of his troops.

Patrick Cleburne.jpgIn 1864,  Patrick Cleburne, Irish-American general (b. 1828) was killed in 1864, at the Battle of Franklin. He was an Irish American soldier, best known for his service in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, where he rose to the rank of major general.

Born in County Cork, Ireland, Cleburne served in the 41st Regiment of Foot, a Welsh regiment of the British Army, after failing to gain entrance into Trinity College of Medicine in 1846. He emigrated to the United States three years later. At the beginning of the Civil War, Cleburne sided with the Confederate States. He progressed from being a private soldier in the local militia to a division commander. Cleburne participated in many successful military campaigns, especially the Battle of Stones River and the Battle of Ringgold Gap. His strategic ability gained him the nickname “Stonewall of the West”.

In 1868,  A statue of King Charles XII of Sweden is inaugurated in Stockholm‘s Kungsträdgården.

In 1872,  The first-ever international football match takes place at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow, between Scotland and England.

Scotland players in 1882

Scotland players in 1882

The Scotland national football team has represented Scotland in association football since the world’s first international football matchon St. Andrew’s Day (Scotland’s National Day), 30 November 1872. Controlled by the Scottish Football Association, the team competes in the two major professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship, but not the Olympic Games. Most of their home matches are played at the national stadium, Hampden Park. They have a long-standing rivalry with England, with annual matches from 1872 until 1989, and six matches since then. They have qualified for the FIFA World Cup on eight occasions and the UEFA European Championship twice; they have never progressed beyond the first group stage of a finals tournament, but they did once beat the FIFA World Cup winners – England, in 1967. Their supporters are collectively known as the Tartan Army. The Scottish Football Association operates a roll of honour for every player who has made more than 50 appearances for the team. Kenny Dalglish, with 102 appearances between 1971 and 1986, holds the record for Scotland; he also shares the record for goals scored (30), with Denis Law.

In 1886,  The Folies Bergère stages its first revue.

Oscar Wilde Sarony.jpgIn 1900,  Oscar Wilde, Irish author and poet (b. 1854) died of cerebral meningitis. He was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London’s most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. Today he is remembered for his epigrams, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, his plays, and the circumstances of his imprisonment and early death.

Wilde’s parents were successful Anglo-Irish Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life. At university, Wilde read Greats; he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the rising philosophy of aestheticism, led by two of his tutors, Walter Pater and John Ruskin. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles. As a spokesman for aestheticism, he tried his hand at various literary activities: he published a book of poems, lectured in the United States and Canada on the new “English Renaissance in Art”, and then returned to London where he worked prolifically as a journalist. Known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress and glittering conversation, Wilde became one of the best-known personalities of his day.

At the turn of the 1890s, he refined his ideas about the supremacy of art in a series of dialogues and essays, and incorporated themes of decadence, duplicity, and beauty into his only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890). The opportunity to construct aesthetic details precisely, and combine them with larger social themes, drew Wilde to write drama. He wrote Salome (1891) in French in Paris but it was refused a licence for England due to the absolute prohibition of Biblical subjects on the English stage. Unperturbed, Wilde produced four society comedies in the early 1890s, which made him one of the most successful playwrights of late Victorian London.

At the height of his fame and success, while his masterpiece, The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), was still on stage in London, Wilde had the Marquess of Queensberry prosecuted for libel. The Marquess was the father of Wilde’s lover, Lord Alfred Douglas. The charge carried a penalty of up to two years in prison. The trial unearthed evidence that caused Wilde to drop his charges and led to his own arrest and trial for gross indecency with other men. After two more trials he was convicted and imprisoned for two years’ hard labour. In 1897, in prison, he wrote De Profundis, which was published in 1905, a long letter which discusses his spiritual journey through his trials, forming a dark counterpoint to his earlier philosophy of pleasure. Upon his release he left immediately for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain. There he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol (1898), a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life. He died destitute in Paris at the age of 46.

In 1902,  American Old West: Kid Curry Logan, second-in-command of Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch gang, is sentenced to 20 years imprisonment with hard labor.

In 1908,  A mine explosion in Marianna, Pennsylvania, kills 154.

In 1916,  Costa Rica signs the Buenos Aires Convention, a copyright treaty.

In 1934,  The LNER Class A3 4472 Flying Scotsman becomes the first steam locomotive to be authenticated as reaching 100 mph.

In 1934,  Roy Turk, American songwriter (b. 1892) dies. He was an American songwriter and lyricist, he frequently collaborated with composer Fred E. Ahlert – their popular 1929 song “Mean to Me” has become a jazz standard. He worked with many other composers, including for film lyrics. Turk was elected to the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1970.

Among his compositions (with music by Fred Ahlert unless otherwise noted):

In 1936,  In London, the Crystal Palace is destroyed by fire.

In 1939,  Winter War: Soviet forces cross the Finnish border in several places and bomb Helsinki and several other Finnish cities, starting the war.

In 1940,  Lucille Ball marries Desi Arnaz in Greenwich, Connecticut.

In 1942,  World War II: Battle of Tassafaronga; A smaller squadron of Japanese destroyers led by Raizō Tanaka defeats a U.S. cruiser force under Carleton H. Wright.

In 1947,  1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine begins, leading up to the creation of the state of Israel.

In 1953,  Edward Mutesa II, the kabaka (king) of Buganda is deposed and exiled to London by Sir Andrew Cohen, Governor of Uganda.

In 1954,  In Sylacauga, Alabama, United States, the Hodges Meteorite crashes through a roof and hits a woman taking an afternoon nap in the only documented case of a human being hit by a rock from space.

In 1966,  Barbados becomes independent from the United Kingdom.

In 1967,  The People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen becomes independent from the United Kingdom.

In 1967,  The Pakistan Peoples Party is founded by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who becomes its first chairman.

In 1971,  Iran seizes the Greater and Lesser Tunbs from the United Arab Emirates.

In 1972,  Vietnam War: White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler tells the press that there will be no more public announcements concerning American troop withdrawals from Vietnam due to the fact that troop levels are now down to 27,000.

Zeppo Marx.jpgIn 1979,  Zeppo Marx, American actor and singer (b. 1901) died of lung cancer at the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage on November 30, 1979 at the age of 78. His remains were cremated and scattered over the Pacific Ocean. He was the last surviving Marx Brother. Born Herbert Manfred Marx (February 25, 1901), he was professionally known as Zeppo Marx, where was an American actor, theatrical agent, and engineer. He was the youngest of the five Marx Brothers. He appeared in the first five Marx Brothers feature films, from 1929 to 1933, but then left the act to start his second career as an engineer and theatrical agent. Zeppo Marx was a multi-millionaire due to his engineering efforts.

He appeared in the first five Marx Brothers movies, as a straight man and romantic lead, before leaving the team. According to a 1925 newspaper article, he also made a solo appearance in the Adolphe Menjou comedy A Kiss in the Dark, although no copy of the film is known to exist, according to newspaper reviews, he does appear in a minor role.

Offstage, Zeppo had great mechanical skills and was largely responsible for keeping the Marx family car running. He later owned a company which machined parts for the war effort during World War II, Marman Products Co. of Inglewood, California, later known as the Aeroquip Company. This company produced a motorcycle, called the Marman Twin and the Marman clamps used to hold the “Fat Manatomic bomb inside the B-29 bomber, Bockscar. He also founded a large theatrical agency with his brother Gummo, and invented a wristwatch that would monitor the pulse rate of cardiac patients and give off an alarm if the heartbeat became irregular.

In 1981,  Cold War: In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin to negotiate intermediate-range nuclear weapon reductions in Europe. (The meetings end inconclusively on December 17.)

In 1982,  Michael Jackson‘s second solo album, Thriller is released worldwide. It will become the best-selling record album in history.

In 1989,  Deutsche Bank board member Alfred Herrhausen is killed by a Red Army Faction terrorist bomb.

In 1993,  American National Football League awards 30th franchise to the Jacksonville Jaguars.

In 1993,  U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (the Brady Bill) into law.

In 1994,  MS Achille Lauro catches fire off the coast of Somalia.

In 1995,  Official end of Operation Desert Storm.

In 1995U.S. President Bill Clinton visits Northern Ireland and speaks in favour of the “Northern Ireland peace process” to a huge rally at Belfast City Hall. He calls terrorists “yesterday’s men”.

In 1998, Exxon and Mobil sign a USD$73.7 billion agreement to merge, thus creating ExxonMobil, the world’s largest company.

In 1999, In Seattle, Washington, United States, demonstrations against a World Trade Organization meeting by anti-globalization protesters catch police unprepared and force the cancellation of opening ceremonies.

In 1999,  British Aerospace and Marconi Electronic Systems merge to form BAE Systems, Europe‘s largest defense contractor and the fourth largest aerospace firm in the world.

In 2001,  In Renton, Washington, United States, Gary Ridgway (aka The Green River Killer) is arrested.

In 2004,  Longtime Jeopardy! champion Ken Jennings of Salt Lake City, Utah, finally loses, leaving him with US$2,520,700, television’s biggest game show winnings.

In 2004,  Lion Air Flight 538 crash lands in Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia, killing 26.

In 2005,  John Sentamu becomes the first black archbishop in the Church of England with his enthronement as the 97th Archbishop of York.

In 2012,  An Ilyushin Il-76 cargo plane belonging to Aéro-Service, crashes into houses near Maya-Maya Airport during a thunderstorm, killing at least 32 people.

PaulWalkerEdit-1.jpgIn 2013,  Paul Walker, American actor and producer (b. 1973) died from the combined effects of traumatic and thermal injuries derived from a car crash. He was an American actor. He began his early career guest-starring in several television shows such as The Young and the Restless and Touched by an Angel. Walker gained prominence with breakout roles in coming-of-age and teen films such as She’s All That and Varsity Blues. In 2001, Walker gained international fame for playing Brian O’Conner, one of the lead protagonists in the street racing action film The Fast and the Furious, and would reprise the role in its sequels. He was also in films such as Eight Below, Into the Blue, Joy Ride and Takers.

Outside of acting, Walker was the face of The Coty Prestige fragrance brand Davidoff Cool Water for Men and starred in the National Geographic Channel series, Expedition Great White. He also founded his own charity, Reach Out Worldwide (ROWW), an organization providing relief efforts for areas affected by natural disasters.

In 2018,  A magnitude 7.0 earthquake with its epicenter only 15 miles from Anchorage, Alaska causes significant property damage but no deaths.

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