June 1st in History

This day in historyJune 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 213 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 193,  The Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated.

In 1215,  Zhongdu (now Beijing), then under the control of the Jurchen ruler Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, is captured by the Mongols under Genghis Khan, ending the Battle of Zhongdu.

In 1252,  Alfonso X is elected King of Castile and León.

In 1298,  Residents of Riga and Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeated the Livonian Order in the Battle of Turaida.

In 1495Friar John Cor records  first written record of a batch of Scotch whisky which appeared in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland.

In 1533,  Anne Boleyn is crowned Queen of England.

In 1535,  Combined forces loyal to Charles V attack and expel the Ottomans from Tunis during the Conquest of Tunis.

In 1648,  The Roundheads defeat the Cavaliers at the Battle of Maidstone in the Second English Civil War.

In 1649,  Start of the Sumuroy Revolt: Filipinos in Northern Samar led by Agustin Sumuroy revolt against Spanish colonial authorities.

In 1660,  Mary Dyer is hanged for defying a law banning Quakers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

In 1670,  In Dover, England, Charles II of Great Britain and Louis XIV of France sign the secret treaty of Dover, which will force England into the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

In 1679,  The Scottish Covenanters defeat John Graham of Claverhouse at the Battle of Drumclog.

In 1774, the Boston Port Bill, the first bill of the Intolerable Acts (called by the Colonists), becomes effective, closing Boston harbor until restitution for the destroyed tea is made (passed Mar. 25, 1774).

In 1779,  Benedict Arnold, a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, is court-martialed for malfeasance.

In 1789, Congress passes its first act which mandates the procedure for administering oaths of public office.

In 1792,  Kentucky is admitted as the 15th state of the United States.

In 1794,  The battle of the Glorious First of June is fought, the first naval engagement between Britain and France during the French Revolutionary Wars.

In 1796,  Tennessee is admitted as the 16th state of the United States.

In 1796, In accordance with the Jay Treaty, all British troops are withdrawn from U.S. soil.

In 1808, First US land-grant university founded-Ohio Univ, Athens, Ohio.

In 1812,  War of 1812: The U.S. President James Madison asks the Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom.

In 1813,  James Lawrence, the mortally-wounded commander of the USS Chesapeake, gives his final order: “Don’t give up the ship!”

In 1815,  Napoleon promulgates a revised Constitution after it passes a plebiscite.

In 1831,  James Clark Ross discovers the Magnetic North Pole.

In 1855,  The American adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua.

In 1857,  Charles Baudelaire‘s Les Fleurs du mal is published.

In 1861,  American Civil War: Battle of Fairfax Court House: The first land battle of the American Civil War after the Battle of Fort Sumter, producing the first Confederate combat casualty.

In 1862,  American Civil War: Peninsula Campaign: The Battle of Seven Pines (or the Battle of Fair Oaks) ends inconclusively, with both sides claiming victory.

In 1862, Gen. Robert E. Lee assumes command, replacing the wounded Joe Johnston. Lee then renames his force the Army of Northern Virginia. McClellan is not impressed, saying Lee is “likely to be timid and irresolute in action.”

In 1868,  The Treaty of Bosque Redondo is signed, allowing the Navajos to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico.

In 1869, Thomas Edison of Boston, MA, received a patent for his electric voting machine on this day. Ol’ Tom would soon have a filing cabinet full of patents.

In 1879,  Napoleon Eugene, the last dynastic Bonaparte, is killed in the Anglo-Zulu War.

In 1880, the first pay telephone was installed and went into service in the Yale Bank Building in New Haven, Conn.

In 1890,  The United States Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith‘s tabulating machine to count census returns.

In 1910,  Robert Falcon Scott‘s second South Pole expedition leaves Cardiff.

In 1913,  The Greek–Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.

In 1916,  Louis Brandeis becomes the first Jew appointed to the United States Supreme Court.

In 1918,  World War I: Western Front: Battle for Belleau Wood: Allied Forces under John J. Pershing and James Harbord engage Imperial German Forces under Wilhelm, German Crown Prince.

In 1921,  Tulsa Race Riot: Civil unrest in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

In 1922,  The Royal Ulster Constabulary is founded.

In 1929,  The 1st Conference of the Communist Parties of Latin America is held in Buenos Aires.

In 1938, Superman made his first appearance in D.C. Comics’ Action Comics Series issue #1. The comic book sold for 10 cents. By 1995 surviving copies sell for over $75,000. Jerry Siegel created Superman after he dreamed about the Biblical story of Moses, whose parents abandonded him as a baby in order to save his life. This became the plot of this first Superman story.

In 1939,  First flight of the German Focke-Wulf Fw 190 fighter-bomber airplane.

In 1939, Submarine Thetis: sank in Liverpool Bay, England; 99 perished.

In 1941,  World War II: The Battle of Crete ends as Crete capitulates to Germany.

In 1941,  The Farhud, a pogrom of Iraqi Jews, takes place in Baghdad.

Leslie Howard.jpgIn 1943,  British Overseas Airways Corporation Flight 777 is shot down over the Bay of Biscay by German Junkers Ju 88s, killing the actor Leslie Howard and leading to speculation that its shooting down was an attempt to kill the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

In 1944, the British Broadcasting Corp. broadcasted a line of poetry by the 19th century French poet Paul Verlaine. It was a coded message intended to warn the French resistance that the D-Day invasion was imminent, “The long sobs of the violins of autumn”

In 1946,  Ion Antonescu, “Conducator” (leader) of Romania during World War II, is executed.

In 1948,  Sonny Boy Williamson, American singer and harmonica player (b. 1914) was killed in a robbery on Chicago’s South Side, as he walked home from a performance at The Plantation Club at 31st St. and Giles Avenue. He was an American blues harmonica player, singer and songwriter. He is often regarded as the pioneer of the blues harp as a solo instrument and played on hundreds of blues recordings for many pre-World War II blues artists. Under his own name, Williamson was one of the most recorded blues musicians of the 1930s and 1940 and is closely associated with Chicago producer Lester Melrose and Bluebird Records. His popular songs, whether original or adapted, include “Good Morning, School Girl“, “Sugar Mama“, “Early in the Morning“, and “Stop Breaking Down“.

Williamson’s harmonica style was a great influence on post-War performers and, later in his career, he was a mentor to many of the up and coming blues musicians who moved to Chicago, including Muddy Waters. Aleck “Rice” Miller began recording and performing as “Sonny Boy Williamson” and later, to distinguish the two, John Lee has come to be known as Sonny Boy Williamson I or “the original Sonny Boy”.

Williamson is buried at the former site of The Blairs Chapel Church, southwest of Jackson, Tennessee. In 1991, a red granite marker was purchased by fans and family to mark the site of his burial. A Tennessee historical marker, also placed in 1991, indicates the place of his birth and describes his influence on blues music. The historical marker is located south of Jackson on TN Highway 18, at the corner of Caldwell Road.

In 1958,  Charles de Gaulle comes out of retirement to lead France by decree for six months.

In 1960,  New Zealand‘s first official television broadcast commences at 7.30 pm from Auckland.

In 1962,  Adolf Eichmann is hanged in Israel.

In 1962,  The Pilkington Committee on Broadcasting concludes, among other things, that the British public did not want commercial radio broadcasting.

In 1963,  Kenya gains internal self-rule (Madaraka Day).

In 1967,  Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band by the Beatles is released.

In 1974,  Flixborough disaster: An explosion at a chemical plant kills 28 people.

In 1974,  The Heimlich maneuver for rescuing choking victims is published in the journal Emergency Medicine.

In 1978,  The first international applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty are filed.

In 1978, Anita Bryant tells “Playboy Magazine” that homosexuals are called “fruits” because they eat “the forbidden fruit from the tree of life”.

In 1979,  The first black-led government of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 90 years takes power.

In 1980,  Cable News Network (CNN) begins broadcasting.

In 1990,  George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev sign a treaty to end chemical weapon production.

In 1993,  Dobrinja mortar attack: Thirteen are killed and 133 wounded when Serb mortar shells are fired at a soccer game in Dobrinja, west of Sarajevo.

In 1999,  American Airlines Flight 1420 slides and crashes while landing at Little Rock National Airport, killing 11 people on a flight from Dallas to Little Rock.

In 2001,  Nepalese royal massacre: Crown Prince Dipendra of Nepal shoots and kills several members of his family including his father and mother, King Birendra of Nepal and Queen Aiswarya.

In 2001,  Dolphinarium massacre: A Hamas suicide bomber kills 21 at a disco in Tel Aviv.

In 2003,  The People’s Republic of China begins filling the reservoir behind the Three Gorges Dam.

In 2009,  Air France Flight 447 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Brazil on a flight from Rio de Janeiro to Paris. All 228 passengers and crew are killed.

In 2009,  General Motors files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. It is the fourth largest United States bankruptcy in history.

In 2011,  A rare tornado outbreak occurs in New England; a strong EF3 tornado strikes Springfield, Massachusetts, during the event, killing four people.

In 2014,  A bombing at a football field in Mubi, Nigeria, kills at least 40 people.

In 2015,  A ship carrying 458 people capsizes on Yangtze river in China’s Hubei province, killing 400 people.


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