June 5th in History

This day in historyJune 5 is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 209 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 70,  Titus and his Roman legions breach the middle wall of Jerusalem in the Siege of Jerusalem.

Saint Boniface by Cornelis Bloemaert.jpg

Saint Boniface by Cornelis Bloemaert, c. 1630

In 754,  Boniface, Anglo-Saxon missionary, is killed by a band of pagans at Dokkum in Frisia.

In 1257,  Kraków, in Poland, receives city rights.

In 1283,  Battle of the Gulf of Naples: Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon, captures Charles of Salermo.

In 1625,  The city of Breda surrenders to the Spanish tercios under general Ambrosio Spinola.

In 1798,  The Battle of New Ross: The attempt to spread the United Irish Rebellion into Munster is defeated.

In 1817,  The first Great Lakes steamer, the Frontenac, is launched.

In 1829,  HMS Pickle captures the armed slave ship Voladora off the coast of Cuba.

In 1832,  The June Rebellion breaks out in Paris in an attempt to overthrow the monarchy of Louis Philippe.

In 1837,  Houston is incorporated by the Republic of Texas.

In 1849,  Denmark becomes a constitutional monarchy by the signing of a new constitution.

In 1851,  Harriet Beecher Stowe‘s anti-slavery serial, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, starts a ten-month run in the National Era abolitionist newspaper.

In 1862,  As the Treaty of Saigon is signed, ceding parts of southern Vietnam to France, the guerrilla leader Trương Định decides to defy Emperor Tự Đức of Vietnam and fight on against the Europeans.

In 1864,  American Civil War: Battle of Piedmont: Union forces under General David Hunter defeat a Confederate army at Piedmont, Virginia, taking nearly 1,000 prisoners.

In 1883,  The first regularly scheduled Orient Express departs Paris.

In 1888,  The Rio de la Plata Earthquake takes place.

In 1900,  Second Boer War: British soldiers take Pretoria.

In 1900,  Stephen Crane, American author (b. 1871) dies on June 5, 1900, at the age of 28. He was an American author. Prolific throughout his short life, he wrote notable works in the Realist tradition as well as early examples of American Naturalism and Impressionism. He is recognized by modern critics as one of the most innovative writers of his generation.

The eighth surviving child of Protestant Methodist parents, Crane began writing at the age of four and had published several articles by the age of 16. Having little interest in university studies, he left college in 1891 to work as a reporter and writer. Crane’s first novel was the 1893 Bowery tale Maggie: A Girl of the Streets, generally considered by critics to be the first work of American literary Naturalism. He won international acclaim in 1895 for his Civil War novel The Red Badge of Courage, which he wrote without having any battle experience.

In 1896, Crane endured a highly publicized scandal after appearing as a witness in the trial of a suspected prostitute, an acquaintance named Dora Clark. Late that year he accepted an offer to travel to Cuba as a war correspondent. As he waited in Jacksonville, Florida, for passage, he met Cora Taylor, the madam of a brothel, with whom he began a lasting relationship. En route to Cuba, Crane’s vessel the SS Commodore, sank off the coast of Florida, leaving him and others adrift for several days in a dinghy. Crane described the ordeal in “The Open Boat“. During the final years of his life, he covered conflicts in Greece (accompanied by Cora, recognized as the first woman war correspondent) and later lived in England with her. He was befriended by writers such as Joseph Conrad and H. G. Wells. Plagued by financial difficulties and ill health, Crane died of tuberculosis in a Black Forest sanatorium in Germany at the age of 28.

At the time of his death, Crane was considered an important figure in American literature. After he was nearly forgotten for two decades, critics revived interest in his life and work. Crane’s writing is characterized by vivid intensity, distinctive dialects, and irony. Common themes involve fear, spiritual crises and social isolation. Although recognized primarily for The Red Badge of Courage, which has become an American classic, Crane is also known for his poetry, journalism, and short stories such as “The Open Boat”, “The Blue Hotel“, “The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky“, and The Monster. His writing made a deep impression on 20th-century writers, most prominent among them Ernest Hemingway, and is thought to have inspired the Modernists and the Imagists.

In 1910,  O. Henry, American author (b. 1862) dies on June 5, 1910, of cirrhosis of the liver, complications of diabetes, and an enlarged heart. After funeral services in New York City, he was buried in the Riverside Cemetery in Asheville, North Carolina. His daughter, Margaret Worth Porter, attended Princeton University and had a short writing career from 1913 to 1916. She married the cartoonist Oscar Cesare of New York in 1916; they were divorced four years later. She died of tuberculosis in 1927 and is buried next to her father. William Sydney Porter (September 11, 1862 – June 5, 1910), known by his pen name O. Henry, was an American writer. O. Henry’s short stories are known for their wit, wordplay, warm characterization, and surprise endings.

O. Henry’s stories frequently have surprise endings. In his day, he was called the American answer to Guy de Maupassant. While both authors wrote plot twist endings, O. Henry stories were considerably more playful. His stories are also known for witty narration.

Most of O. Henry’s stories are set in his own time, the early 20th century. Many take place in New York City and deal for the most part with ordinary people: clerks, policemen, waitresses, etc.

O. Henry’s work is wide-ranging, and his characters can be found roaming the cattle-lands of Texas, exploring the art of the con-man, or investigating the tensions of class and wealth in turn-of-the-century New York. O. Henry had an inimitable hand for isolating some element of society and describing it with an incredible economy and grace of language. Some of his best and least-known work is contained in Cabbages and Kings, a series of stories each of which explores some individual aspect of life in a paralytically sleepy Central American town, while advancing some aspect of the larger plot and relating back one to another.

In 1915,  Denmark amends its constitution to allow women’s suffrage.

In 1916,  Louis Brandeis is sworn in as a Justice of the United States Supreme Court; he is the first American Jew to hold such a position.

In 1917,  World War I: Conscription begins in the United States as “Army registration day”.

In 1933,  The U.S. Congress abrogates the United States’ use of the gold standard by enacting a joint resolution (48 Stat. 112) nullifying the right of creditors to demand payment in gold.

In 1940,  World War II: After a brief lull in the Battle of France, the Germans renew the offensive against the remaining French divisions south of the River Somme in Operation Fall Rot (“Case Red”).

In 1941,  World War II: Four thousand Chongqing residents are asphyxiated in a bomb shelter during the Bombing of Chongqing.

In 1942,  World War II: The United States declares war on Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania.

In 1944,  World War II: More than 1000 British bombers drop 5,000 tons of bombs on German gun batteries on the Normandy coast in preparation for D-Day.

In 1945,  The Allied Control Council, the military occupation governing body of Germany, formally takes power.

In 1946,  A fire in the La Salle Hotel in Chicago, Illinois, kills 61 people.

In 1947,  Marshall Plan: In a speech at Harvard University, the United States Secretary of State George Marshall calls for economic aid to war-torn Europe.

In 1949,  Thailand elects Orapin Chaiyakan, the first female member of Thailand’s Parliament.

In 1956,  Elvis Presley introduces his new single, “Hound Dog“, on The Milton Berle Show, scandalizing the audience with his suggestive hip movements.

In 1959,  The first government of the State of Singapore is sworn in.

In 1963,  The British Secretary of State for War, John Profumo, resigns in a sex scandal known as the “Profumo affair“.

In 1963,  Movement of 15 Khordad: Protests against the arrest of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini by the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. In several cities, masses of angry demonstrators are confronted by tanks and paratroopers.

In 1964,  DSV Alvin is commissioned.

In 1967,  The Six-Day War begins: Israel launches surprise strikes against Egyptian air-fields in response to the mobilisation of Egyptian forces on the Israeli border.

In 1968,  Robert F. Kennedy, a U.S. presidential candidate, is shot at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, by Sirhan Sirhan, a Palestinian. Kennedy dies the next day.

In 1969,  The International communist conference begins in Moscow.

In 1975,  The Suez Canal opens for the first time since the Six-Day War.

In 1975 – The United Kingdom holds its first country-wide referendum on remaining in the European Economic Community (EEC).

In 1976,  The Teton Dam in Idaho, United States, collapses.

In 1977, – A coup takes place in Seychelles.

In 1981,  The “Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report” of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that five people in Los Angeles, California, have a rare form of pneumonia seen only in patients with weakened immune systems, in what turns out to be the first recognized cases of AIDS.

In 1984,  The Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, orders an attack on the Golden Temple, the holiest site of the Sikh religion.

In 1989,  The Tank Man halts the progress of a column of advancing tanks for over half an hour after the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

In 1993,  Portions of the Holbeck Hall Hotel in Scarborough, in North Yorkshire, England, fall into the sea following a landslide.

In 1995,  The Bose–Einstein condensate is first created.

In 1998,  A strike begins at the General Motors parts factory in Flint, Michigan, that quickly spreads to five other assembly plants. The strike lasts seven weeks.

Mel Tormé (1979).jpgIn 1999,  Mel Tormé, American singer-songwriter and actor (b. 1925) dies. He was nicknamed The Velvet Fog, was an American musician, best known as a singer of jazz standards. He was also a jazz composer and arranger, drummer, and actor in radio, film, and television, and the author of five books. He composed the music for the classic holiday song “The Christmas Song” (“Chestnuts Roasting on an Open Fire”) and co-wrote the lyrics with Bob Wells.

Tormé works with the most beautiful voice a man is allowed to have, and he combines it with a flawless sense of pitch… As an improviser he shames all but two or three other scat singers and quite a few horn players as well.

—Will Friedwald, Jazz Singing

In 2000,  The Six-Day War in Kisangani begins in Kisangani, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, between Ugandan and Rwandan forces. A large part of the city is destroyed.

In 2001,  Tropical Storm Allison makes landfall on the upper-Texas coastline as a strong tropical storm and dumps large amounts of rain over Houston. The storm causes $5.5 billion in damages, making Allison the costliest tropical storm in U.S. history.

In 2003,  A severe heat wave across Pakistan and India reaches its peak, as temperatures exceed 50°C (122°F) in the region.

In 2006,  Serbia declares independence from the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.

In 2007,  Katherine Neudecker Kuehn died of natural causes. She was 91.  she had celebrated that birthday in May. Katherine was named for her grandmother, as I was for her father. She the youngest and last surviving of my father’s siblings. While born in 1916 in Jackson, Tennessee, she spent most of her life in Memphis. She was a retired librarian with the Memphis city school system, a loving mother, grandmother and great grandmother. She along with my great aunt Leota Williams were the matriarchs of my family. The guiding lights, the principles of truth, the sun and the moon, these expletives could not describe better the effects of these two woman on my life.

British preacher Charles Haddon Spurgeon captured this truth in a sermon titled “Why They Leave Us.” He pointed out that Jesus’ prayer in John 17:24 is answered every time a Christian dies. The person leaves his body and enters the presence of his Savior, where he beholds His glory. She is there with him.

In 2009,  After 65 straight days of civil disobedience, at least 31 people are killed in clashes between security forces and indigenous people near Bagua, Peru.

In 2013,  A building collapse in Philadelphia kills six and wounds 14 other people.

In 2015,  An earthquake with a moment magnitude of 6.0 struck Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia killing 18 people, including hikers and mountain guides on Mount Kinabalu, after mass landslides that occurred during the earthquake. This is the strongest earthquake to strike Malaysia since 1975.

In 2017,  Montenegro becomes the 29th member of the NATO.

In 2017,  Six Arab countries—BahrainEgyptLibyaSaudi ArabiaYemen, and the United Arab Emiratescut diplomatic ties with Qatar, accusing it of destabilising the region.

 

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