June 10th in History

This day in historyJune 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 204 days remaining until the end of the year.




In 323 BC,  Alexander the Great, Macedonian king (b. 356 BC) dies. Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas]), was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander succeeded his father, Philip II, to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest India. He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history’s most successful military commanders

In 671,  Emperor Tenji of Japan introduces a water clock (clepsydra) called Rokoku. The instrument, which measure time and indicates hours, is placed in the capital of Ōtsu.

In 1190,  Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the river Saleph while leading an army to Jerusalem.

In 1329,  The Battle of Pelekanon results in a Byzantine defeat by the Ottoman Empire.

In 1523,  Copenhagen is surrounded by the army of Frederick I of Denmark, as the city won’t recognise him as the successor of Christian II of Denmark.

In 1539,  Council of Trent: Pope Paul III sends out letters to his bishops, delaying the Council due to war and the difficulty bishops had traveling to Venice.

In 1596,  Willem Barents and Jacob van Heemskerk discover Bear Island.

In 1619,  Thirty Years’ War: Battle of Záblatí, a turning point in the Bohemian Revolt.

In 1624,  Signing of the Treaty of Compiègne between France and the Netherlands.

In 1692,  Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for “certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft & Sorceries”.

In 1719,  Jacobite risings: Battle of Glen Shiel.

In 1786,  A landslide dam on the Dadu River created by an earthquake ten days earlier collapses, killing 100,000 in the Sichuan province of China.

In 1793,  The Jardin des Plantes museum opens in Paris. A year later, it becomes the first public zoo.

In 1793,  French Revolution: Following the arrests of Girondin leaders, the Jacobins gain control of the Committee of Public Safety installing the revolutionary dictatorship.

In 1805,  First Barbary War: Yusuf Karamanli signs a treaty ending the hostilities between Tripolitania and the United States.

Cambridge at their stakeboat, just prior to the race’s commencement, 2009.

In 1829,  The first Boat Race between the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge takes place.

In 1838,  Myall Creek massacre: Twenty-eight Aboriginal Australians are murdered.

In 1854,  The first class of United States Naval Academy students graduate.

In 1861,  American Civil War: Battle of Big Bethel: Confederate troops under John B. Magruder defeat a much larger Union force led by General Ebenezer W. Pierce in Virginia. The Union forces suffered 76 casualties, with 18 killed, including Major Winthrop and Lieutenant John T. Greble, the first regular army officer killed in the war. The Confederates suffered only 8 casualties, with 1 killed. Although Magruder subsequently withdrew to Yorktown and his defensive line along the Warwick River, he had won a propaganda victory and local Union forces attempted no further significant advance until the Peninsula Campaign of 1862. While small in comparison to many later battles, Big Bethel attracted considerable press coverage and exaggerated importance because of the newness of the war and the general feeling the war would be short.

In 1864,  American Civil War: Battle of Brice’s Crossroads: Confederate troops under Nathan Bedford Forrest defeat a much larger Union force led by General Samuel D. Sturgis in Mississippi. A Federal expedition from Memphis, Tennessee, of 4,800 infantry and 3,300 cavalry, under the command of Brigadier-General Samuel D. Sturgis, was defeated by a Confederate force of 3,500 cavalry under the command of Major-General Nathan Bedford Forrest. The battle was a victory for the Confederates. Forrest inflicted heavy casualties on the Federal force and captured more than 1,600 prisoners of war, 18 artillery pieces, and wagons loaded with supplies. Once Sturgis reached Memphis, he asked to be relieved of command.

In 1871,  Sinmiyangyo: Captain McLane Tilton leads 109 US Marines in a naval attack on Han River forts on Kanghwa Island, Korea.

In 1878,  League of Prizren is established, to oppose the decisions of the Congress of Berlin and the Treaty of San Stephano, as a consequence of which the Albanian lands in Balkans were being partitioned and given to the neighbor states of Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece.

In 1886,  Mount Tarawera in New Zealand erupts, killing 153 people and destroying the famous Pink and White Terraces. Eruptions continue for 3 months creating a large, 17 km long fissure across the mountain peak.

In 1898,  Spanish–American War: U.S. Marines land on the island of Cuba.

In 1912,  The Villisca Axe Murders were discovered in Villisca, Iowa.

In 1916,  An Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire led by Lawrence of Arabia breaks out.

SMS Szent István in the Fažana Strait

In 1918,  The Austro-Hungarian battleship SMS Szent István sinks off the Croatian coast after being torpedoed by an Italian MAS motorboat; the event is recorded by camera from a nearby vessel.

In 1924,  Fascists kidnap and kill Italian Socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti in Rome.

In 1925,  Inaugural service for the United Church of Canada, a union of Presbyterian, Methodist, and Congregationalist churches, held in the Toronto Arena.

In 1935,  Dr. Robert Smith takes his last drink, and Alcoholics Anonymous is founded in Akron, Ohio, United States, by him and Bill Wilson.

In 1935,  Chaco War ends: A truce is called between Bolivia and Paraguay who had been fighting since 1932.

In 1936,  The Russian animation studio Soyuzmultfilm is founded.

In 1940,  World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounces Italy’s actions with his “Stab in the Back” speech at the graduation ceremonies of the University of Virginia.

In 1940,  World War II: Norway surrenders to German forces.

In 1940,  World War II: Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom.

In 1942,  World War II: Nazis burn the Czech village of Lidice in reprisal for the killing of Reinhard Heydrich.

In 1944,  World War II: Six hundred forty-two men, women and children are killed in the Oradour-sur-Glane Massacre in France.

In 1944,  World War II: In Distomo, Boeotia, Greece 214 men, women and children are massacred by German troops. For over two hours, Waffen-SS troops of the 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division under the command of SS-Hauptsturmführer Fritz Lautenbach went door to door and massacred Greek civilians as part of “savage reprisals” for a partisan attack upon the unit’s convoy. A total of 214 men, women and children were killed in Distomo, a small village near Delphi. According to survivors, SS forces “bayoneted babies in their cribs, stabbed pregnant women, and beheaded the village priest.”

In 1944,  In baseball, 15-year old Joe Nuxhall of the Cincinnati Reds becomes the youngest player ever in a major-league game.

In 1945,  Australian Imperial Forces land in Brunei Bay to liberate Brunei.

In 1947,  Saab produces its first automobile.

In 1957,  John Diefenbaker leads the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada to a stunning upset in the Canadian federal election, 1957, ending 22 years of Liberal Party government.

In 1963,  Equal Pay Act of 1963 aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex (see Gender pay gap). It was signed into law on June 10, 1963 by John F. Kennedy as part of his New Frontier Program

In 1964,  United States Senate breaks a 75-day filibuster against the Civil Rights Act of 1964, leading to the bill’s passage.

In 1967,  The Six-Day War ends: Israel and Syria agree to a cease-fire.

Spencer tracy state of the union.jpgIn 1967,  Spencer Tracy, American actor and singer (b. 1900) dies from a heart attack. He was an American actor, noted for his natural style and versatility. One of the major stars of Hollywood’s Golden Age, Tracy was nominated for nine Academy Awards for Best Actor and won two, sharing the record for nominations in that category with Laurence Olivier.

Tracy discovered his talent for acting while attending Ripon College, and later received a scholarship for the American Academy of Dramatic Arts. He spent seven years in the theatre, working in a succession of stock companies and intermittently on Broadway. Tracy’s breakthrough came in 1930, when his lead performance in The Last Mile caught the attention of Hollywood. After a successful film debut in Up the River, Tracy was signed to a contract with Fox Film Corporation. His five years with Fox were unremarkable, and he remained largely unknown to audiences after 25 films. In 1935, Tracy joined Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Hollywood’s most prestigious studio. His career flourished with a series of hit films, and in 1937 and 1938 he won consecutive Oscars for Captains Courageous and Boys Town. By the 1940s, Tracy was one of the studio’s top stars. In 1942 he appeared with Katharine Hepburn in Woman of the Year, beginning a popular partnership that produced nine movies over 25 years.

Tracy left MGM in 1955 and continued to work regularly as a freelance star, despite an increasing weariness as he aged. His personal life was troubled, with a lifelong struggle against alcoholism and guilt over his son’s deafness. Tracy became estranged from his wife in the 1930s but never divorced, conducting a long-term relationship with Katharine Hepburn in private. Towards the end of his life, Tracy worked almost exclusively for director Stanley Kramer. It was for Kramer that he made his last film, Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967), completed 17 days before Tracy’s death.

During his career, Tracy appeared in 75 films and developed a reputation among his peers as one of the screen’s greatest actors. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Tracy as one of the top ten Hollywood legends

In 1967,  Argentina becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

In 1977,  James Earl Ray escapes from Brushy Mountain State Prison in Petros, Tennessee, but is recaptured on June 13.

In 1977,  The Apple II, one of the first personal computers, goes on sale.

In 1980,  The African National Congress in South Africa publishes a call to fight from their imprisoned leader Nelson Mandela.

In 1990,  British Airways Flight 5390 lands safely at Southampton Airport after a blowout in the cockpit causes the captain to be partially sucked from the cockpit. There are no fatalities

In 1991,  Eleven-year-old Jaycee Lee Dugard was kidnapped in South Lake Tahoe, California; she would remain a captive until 2009.

In 1996,  Peace talks begin in Northern Ireland without the participation of Sinn Féin.

In 1997,  Before fleeing his northern stronghold, Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot orders the killing of his defense chief Son Sen and 11 of Sen’s family members.

In 1999,  Kosovo War: NATO suspends its air strikes after Slobodan Milošević agrees to withdraw Serbian forces from Kosovo.

In 2001,  Pope John Paul II canonizes Lebanon‘s first female saint, Saint Rafqa.

In 2002,  The first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans is carried out by Kevin Warwick in the United Kingdom.

Donald Thomas Regan.jpgIn 2003,  Donald Regan, American colonel and politician, 11th White House Chief of Staff (b. 1918) dies of cancer on June 10, 2003, at age 84, in a hospital near his home in Williamsburg, Virginia. He was the 66th United States Secretary of the Treasury, from 1981 to 1985, and White House Chief of Staff from 1985 to 1987 in the Ronald Reagan Administration, where he advocated “Reaganomics” and tax cuts to create jobs and stimulate production. Before serving in the Reagan administration, Regan served as Chairman and CEO of Merrill Lynch from 1971 to 1980. He had worked at Merrill Lynch since 1946 and before this he had studied at Harvard University and served in the United States Marine Corps, achieving the rank of lieutenant colonel. Regan earned his Bachelor of Arts in English from Harvard College in 1940 and attended Harvard Law School before dropping out to join the United States Marine Corps at the outset of World War II. He reached the rank of lieutenant colonel while serving in the Pacific theater, and was involved in five major campaigns including Guadalcanal and Okinawa. In 1942, Regan married the former Ann George Buchanan (1921–2006), with whom he had four children: Donna Regan Lefeve, Donald T. Regan, Jr., Richard William Regan, and Diane Regan Doniger.

In 2003,  The Spirit Rover is launched, beginning NASA‘s Mars Exploration Rover mission.

In 2003,  Wicked opens on Broadway, proceeding to win 40 awards just for the Broadway production.

Ray Charles (cropped).jpgIn 2004,  Ray Charles, American singer-songwriter, pianist, and actor (b. 1930) dies at his home in Beverly Hills, California, on June 10, 2004, surrounded by family and friends, as a result of acute liver disease. He was 73. Ray Charles Robinson was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and composer. He was sometimes referred to as “The Genius”, and was also nicknamed “The High Priest of Soul”. He pioneered the genre of soul music during the 1950s by combining rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues styles into the music he recorded for Atlantic Records. He also contributed to the racial integration of country and pop music during the 1960s with his crossover success on ABC Records, most notably with his two Modern Sounds albums. While he was with ABC, Charles became one of the first African-American musicians to be granted artistic control by a mainstream record company. Charles was blind from the age of seven. Charles cited Nat King Cole as a primary influence, but his music was also influenced by jazz, blues, rhythm and blues, and country artists of the day, including Art Tatum, Louis Jordan, Charles Brown, and Louis Armstrong.

Pitts-S1S-in-flight.jpgIn 2005,  Curtis Pitts, American aircraft designer, designed the Pitts Special (b. 1915) dies of complications from a heart valve replacement at his home in Homestead, Florida. He was an American designer of a series of popular aerobatic biplanes, known as the Pitts Special. Pitts first designed and built the Pitts Special S-1 aircraft in 1945 which was made specifically for aerobatics. He also designed the Pitts Samson, built in 1948 for aerobatic pilot Jess Bristow. The Samson was destroyed in a mid-air collision around 1950. Curtis grew up in Americus, Georgia and his first airplane was a Waco F. The Smithsonian Institution‘s National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC has called the plane Pitts created in 1943 “revolutionary because of its small size, light weight, short wingspan and extreme agility”.

In 2012, Tennessee enacts strongest ban on explicit sex-ed in U.S. after oral sex demo.

NASHVILLE, Tennessee, June 26, 2012 – A new law banning explicit sex education, spearheaded after an anti-AIDS group two years ago demonstrated oral sex on anatomical models in front of high schoolers, took effect in Tennessee this week. The law emerged after one Nashville parent in 2010 learned his 17-year-old daughter’s class had seen the performance of “safe” oral sex by the anti-AIDS group, Nashville CARES. “It took me by surprise,” Rodrick Glover told The Tennessean at the time. “My daughter thought it was pornography.” In response, the Tennessee gay news source Out and About targeted Glover as numbering among “fundamentalist bigots” who oppose the methods of Nashville CARES because the group “does not discriminate based on sexual orientation and, in fact, is considered to be gay-affirming.” Editor’s Note: I know I am on that list… feels good.

In 2013, Bill Killian, U.S. Attorney of the Eastern District of Tennessee, FBI Special Agent Kenneth Moore, and Zak Mohyuddin of the American Muslim Advisory Council hosted an event called “Public Disclosure in a Diverse Society” in the town of Manchester, Tennessee. Nearly 2,000 protesters assembled at the Manchester Convention Center to register their disapproval of this latest Obama Administration attempt to silence criticism of jihad and Islamic supremacism, and to stigmatize the critics. When the event started, the room was filled way beyond capacity, with people filling the aisles and standing in the doorways – while many hundreds more continued to rally outside and wait for news of what went on.

In 2016,  Former The Voice contestant Christina Grimmie is fatally shot in Orlando, Florida following a concert; she died from her injuries at the age of 22.

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