June 19th in History

This day in historyJune 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 195 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 325,  The original Nicene Creed was adopted at the First Council of Nicaea.

In 1179,  The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros. Earl Erling Skakke is killed, and the battle changes the tide of the civil wars.

In 1269,  King Louis IX of France orders all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver.

In 1306,  The Earl of Pembroke‘s army defeats Bruce’s Scottish army at the Battle of Methven.

In 1586,  English colonists leave Roanoke Island, after failing to establish England’s first permanent settlement in North America.

Alberico Gentili.jpgIn 1608,  Alberico Gentili, Italian jurist (b. 1551) dies. He was an Italian lawyer, jurist, and a former standing advocate to the Spanish Embassy in London, who served as the Regius professor of civil law at the University of Oxford for 21 years. Recognised as the founder of the science of international law, Gentili is perhaps one of the most influential people in legal education ever to have lived. He is one of the three men referred to as the “Father of international law”. Gentili has been the earliest writer on public international law  and the first person to split secularism from canon law and Roman Catholic theology. In 1587, he became the first non-English Regius Professor.

He wrote several books, which are recognized to be one of the most essentials international legal doctrines, that include also theological and literary subjects. Legal scholars say that Gentili was the first who attempted to provide the world anything like a regular system of natural jurisprudence, and his treatise, On the Laws of War and Peace, with all its discolorations, is conceivably at the current day the most complete work on the subject.

It was occasioned by a case on which Gentili’s counsel was sought. In 1584 Gentili and Jean Hotman, Marquis de Villers-St-Paul were asked by the government to advise on the treatment of Spanish ambassador Bernardino de Mendoza, who had been implicated in the so-called Throckmorton plot against Queen Elizabeth I.

Greene portrait.jpgIn 1786,  Nathanael Greene, American general (b. 1742) dies at age 43, on June 19, 1786. He was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War, known for his successful command in the Southern Campaign, forcing British general Charles Cornwallis to abandon the Carolinas and head for Virginia. When the war began, Greene was a militia private, the lowest rank possible; he emerged from the war with a reputation as George Washington‘s most gifted and dependable officer. Many places in the United States are named for him. Greene suffered financial difficulties in the post-war years and died in 1786.

In August 1774, Greene helped organize a local militia, which was chartered as the Kentish Guards that October. His participation in the group was challenged because he had a pronounced limp. At this time he began to acquire many expensive volumes on military tactics and began to teach himself the art of war. In December 1774, he was on a committee appointed by the assembly to revise the militia laws. His zeal in fighting the British and organizing the militia led to his expulsion from the pacifistic Quakers.

Greene was singularly able and, like other prominent generals on the American side, a self-trained soldier. He was second only to Washington among the officers of the American army in military ability, and the only general, other than Washington and Henry Knox, to serve the entire eight years of the war. Like Washington, he had the great gift of using small means to the utmost advantage. His attitude towards the British was humane and even kindly. He even generously defended Horatio Gates, who had repeatedly intrigued against him, when Gates’ conduct of the campaign in the South was criticized.

In 1816,  Battle of Seven Oaks between North West Company and Hudson’s Bay Company, near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

In 1821,  Decisive defeat of the Filiki Eteria by the Ottomans at Drăgășani (in Wallachia).

In 1846,  The first officially recorded, organized baseball game is played under Alexander Cartwright‘s rules on Hoboken, New Jersey‘s Elysian Fields with the New York Base Ball Club defeating the Knickerbockers 23–1. Cartwright umpired.

In 1850,  Princess Louise of the Netherlands marries Crown Prince Karl of Sweden–Norway.

In 1857,  The 19 June 1857 law (Loi relative à l’assainissement et de mise en culture des Landes de Gascogne): A turning point in the history of the Landes forest.

In 1862,  The U.S. Congress prohibits slavery in United States territories, nullifying Dred Scott v. Sandford.

In 1865,  Over two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves in Galveston, Texas, United States, are finally informed of their freedom. The anniversary is still officially celebrated in Texas and 41 other contiguous states as Juneteenth.

In 1867,  Maximilian I of the Second Mexican Empire is executed by a firing squad in Querétaro, Querétaro.

In 1875,  The Herzegovinian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire begins.

In 1910,  The first Father’s Day is celebrated in Spokane, Washington.

In 1911,  the Norwegian football club Molde FK was founded.

In 1913,  Natives Land Act, 1913 in South Africa implemented.

In 1934,  The Communications Act of 1934 establishes the United States’ Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

In 1944,  World War II: First day of the Battle of the Philippine Sea.

In 1953,  Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed at Sing Sing, in New York.

In 1961,  Kuwait declares independence from the United Kingdom.

In 1964,  The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is approved after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the United States Senate.

In 1965,  Nguyễn Cao Kỳ becomes Prime Minister of South Vietnam at the head of a military junta; General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu becomes the figurehead chief of state.

In 1966,  Shiv Sena a political party in India is founded in Mumbai.

Wynn (left) and Richard Crenna (right) in Slattery’s People, 1964.

In 1966,  Ed Wynn, American actor and singer (b. 1886) dies June 19, 1966 in Beverly Hills, California of throat cancer, aged 79. He was interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, and his gravestone reads “Dear God, Thanks… Ed Wynn”. According to his granddaughter Hilda Levine, Walt Disney served as one of his casket bearers. Red Skelton, who was discovered by Wynn, stated: “His death is the first time he ever made anyone sad.” Ed Wynn  was an American comedian and actor noted for his Perfect Fool comedy character, his pioneering radio show of the 1930s, and his later career as a dramatic actor. Wynn began his career in vaudeville in 1903 and was a star of the Ziegfeld Follies starting in 1914. During The Follies of 1915, W. C. Fields allegedly caught Wynn mugging for the audience under the table during his “Pool Room” routine and knocked him unconscious with his cue. Wynn wrote, directed, and produced many Broadway shows in the subsequent decades, and was known for his silly costumes and props as well as for the giggly, wavering voice he developed for the 1921 musical review, The Perfect Fool. He received a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role as Mr. Dussell in The Diary of Anne Frank (1959).

In 1970,  The Patent Cooperation Treaty is signed.

In 1978,  Garfield, holder of the Guinness World Record for the world’s most widely syndicated comic strip, makes its debut.

In 1982,  In one of the first militant attacks by Hezbollah, David S. Dodge, president of the American University of Beirut, is kidnapped.

In 1985,  Members of the Revolutionary Party of Central American Workers, dressed as Salvadoran soldiers, attack the Zona Rosa area of San Salvador.

In 1990,  The current international law defending indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, is ratified for the first time by Norway.

In 1990,  The Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic is founded in Moscow.

In 1991,  The Soviet occupation of Hungary ends.

In 2007,  The al-Khilani Mosque bombing in Baghdad leaves 78 people dead and another 218 injured.

In 2009,  Mass riots involving over 10,000 people and 10,000 police officers break out in Shishou, China, over the dubious circumstances surrounding the death of a local chef.

In 2009,  War in North-West Pakistan: The Pakistani Armed Forces open Operation Rah-e-Nijat against the Taliban and other Islamist rebels in the South Waziristan area of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.

In 2010,  The Wedding of Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, and Daniel Westling was held at Storkyrkan in Stockholm.

In 2012,  WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange requested asylum in London’s Ecuadorian Embassy for fear of extradition to the US after publication of previously classified documents including footage of civilian killings by the US army.

In 2013, Jared Marcum wore a T-shirt to his Logan County middle school in West Virginia on April 18 — a decision that has since sparked a national controversy. No, Jared’s T-shirt did not depict a Muslim beheading a victim while shouting Alahu Akhbar!  Such depictions of violence would violate the school’s dress code. Jared’s T-shirt depicted a hunting rifle with the message: “Protect Your Right.”  He faced up to a year in jail for interrupting an officer. The case was dismissed and Jared was suspended for a day.

In 2014,  Felipe VI, Prince of Asturias, rises to the Spanish throne following the abdication of his father, Juan Carlos I.

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