July 6th in History

This day in historyJuly 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 178 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 371 BC,  The Battle of Leuctra, where Epaminondas defeated Cleombrotus I, takes place

In 640,  Battle of Heliopolis: The Muslim Arab army under ‘Amr ibn al-‘As defeat the Byzantine forces near Heliopolis (Egypt).

In 1044,  The Battle of Ménfő between troops led by Emperor Henry III and Magyar forces led by King Samuel takes place.

Henry II of England cropped.jpgIn 1189,  Henry II of England (b. 1133) dies. He also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Henry was the son of Geoffrey of Anjou and Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England. He became actively involved by the age of 14 in his mother’s efforts to claim the throne of England, then occupied by Stephen of Blois, and was made Duke of Normandy at 17. He inherited Anjou in 1151 and shortly afterwards married Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII of France had recently been annulled. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry’s military expedition to England in 1153: Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen’s death a year later.

Henry was an energetic and sometimes ruthless ruler, driven by a desire to restore the lands and privileges of his royal grandfather, Henry I. During the early years of the younger Henry’s reign he restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine. Henry’s desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket’s murder in 1170. Henry soon came into conflict with Louis VII and the two rulers fought what has been termed a “cold war” over several decades. Henry expanded his empire, often at Louis’ expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties no lasting agreement was reached. By 1172, he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France, an area that would later come to be called the Angevin Empire.

In 1189,  Richard I “the Lionheart” accedes to the English throne.

In 1253,  Mindaugas is crowned King of Lithuania.

In 1348,  Pope Clement VI issues a papal bull protecting the Jews accused of having caused the Black Death.

In 1411,  Ming China‘s Admiral Zheng He returns to Nanjing after the third treasure voyage and presents the Sinhalese king, captured during the Ming–Kotte War, to the Yongle Emperor.

In 1415,  Jan Hus is condemned as a heretic and then burned at the stake.

In 1483,  Richard III is crowned King of England.

In 1484,  Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cão finds the mouth of the Congo River.

In 1495,  First Italian War: Battle of FornovoCharles VIII defeats the Holy League.

In 1535,  Sir Thomas More is executed for treason against King Henry VIII of England.

In 1557,  King Philip II of Spain, consort of Queen Mary I of England, sets out from Dover to war with France, which eventually resulted in the loss of the City of Calais, the last English possession on the continent, and Mary I never seeing her husband again.

In 1560,  The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed by Scotland and England.

In 1573,  Córdoba, Argentina, is founded by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera.

In 1573,  French Wars of Religion: Siege of La Rochelle ends.

In 1609,  Bohemia is granted freedom of religion.

In 1614,  Żejtun and the surrounding villages suffer a raid from Ottoman forces. This was the last unsuccessful attempt by the Ottomans to conquer the island of Malta.

In 1630,  Thirty Years’ War: Four thousand Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus land in Pomerania, Germany.

In 1685,  Battle of Sedgemoor: Last battle of the Monmouth Rebellion. troops of King James II defeat troops of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth.

In 1751,  Pope Benedict XIV suppresses the Patriarchate of Aquileia and establishes from its territory the Archdiocese of Udine and Gorizia.

In 1777,  American Revolutionary War: Siege of Fort Ticonderoga: After a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York.

In 1779,  Battle of Grenada: The French defeat British naval forces during the American Revolutionary War.

In 1801,  First Battle of Algeciras: Outnumbered French Navy ships defeat the Royal Navy in the fortified Spanish port of Algeciras.

DanielMorgan.jpegIn 1802,  Daniel Morgan, American general and politician (b. 1736) dies at his daughter’s home in Winchester on his 66th birthday. Daniel Morgan was buried in Old Stone Presbyterian Church graveyard. The body was moved to the Mt. Hebron Cemetery in Winchester, Virginia, after the American Civil War. He was an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. One of the most gifted battlefield tacticians of the American Revolutionary War, he later commanded troops during the suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion.

In 1809,  The second day of the Battle of Wagram; France defeats the Austrian army in the largest battle to date of the Napoleonic Wars.

John Marshall by Henry Inman, 1832.jpgIn 1835,  John Marshall, American captain and politician, 4th United States Secretary of State (b. 1755) dies. He  was the fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1801–1835). His court opinions helped lay the basis for United States constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches. Previously, Marshall had been a leader of the Federalist Party in Virginia and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1799 to 1800. He was Secretary of State under President John Adams from 1800 to 1801.

The longest-serving Chief Justice and the fourth longest-serving justice in U.S. Supreme Court history, Marshall dominated the Court for over three decades and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system. Most notably, he reinforced the principle that federal courts are obligated to exercise judicial review, by disregarding purported laws if they violate the constitution. Thus, Marshall cemented the position of the American judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government. Furthermore, Marshall’s court made several important decisions relating to federalism, affecting the balance of power between the federal government and the states during the early years of the republic. In particular, he repeatedly confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law, and supported an expansive reading of the enumerated powers.

Some of his decisions were unpopular. Nevertheless, Marshall built up the third branch of the federal government, and augmented federal power in the name of the Constitution, and the rule of law. Marshall, along with Daniel Webster (who argued some of the cases), was the leading Federalist of the day, pursuing Federalist Party approaches to build a stronger federal government over the opposition of the Jeffersonian Republicans, who wanted stronger state governments.

In 1854,  In Jackson, Michigan, the first convention of the United States Republican Party is held.

In 1865,  The first issue of The Nation magazine is published.

In 1885,  Louis Pasteur successfully tests his vaccine against rabies on Joseph Meister, a boy who was bitten by a rabid dog.

In 1887,  David Kalākaua, monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii, is forced at gunpoint by Americans to sign the Bayonet Constitution giving Americans more power in Hawaii while stripping Hawaiian citizens of their rights.

In 1892,  Dadabhai Naoroji is elected as the first Indian Member of Parliament in Britain.

In 1892,  Three thousand eight hundred striking steelworkers engage in a day-long battle with Pinkerton agents during the Homestead Strike, leaving ten dead and dozens wounded.

With Lawrence in Arabia.jpg

Lawrence in 1919

In 1917,  World War I: Arabian troops led by T. E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”) and Auda ibu Tayi capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire during the Arab Revolt.

In 1919,  The British dirigible R34 lands in New York, completing the first crossing of the Atlantic Ocean by an airship.

In 1933,  The first Major League Baseball All-Star Game is played in Chicago’s Comiskey Park. The American League defeated the National League 4–2.

In 1936,  A major breach of the Manchester Bolton & Bury Canal in England sends millions of gallons of water cascading 200 feet (61 m) into the River Irwell.

In 1937,  Spanish Civil War: Battle of Brunete: The battle begins with Spanish Republican troops going on the offensive against the Nationalists to relieve pressure on Madrid.

In 1939,  Holocaust: the last remaining Jewish enterprises in Germany are closed.

In 1940,  Story Bridge, a major landmark in Brisbane, as well as Australia’s longest cantilever bridge is formally opened.

In 1941,  Nazi Germany launches its offensive to encircle several Soviet armies near Smolensk.

In 1942,  Anne Frank and her family go into hiding in the “Secret Annexe” above her father’s office in an Amsterdam warehouse.

In 1944,  Jackie Robinson refuses to move to the back of a bus, leading to a court martial.

In 1944,  The Hartford circus fire, one of America’s worst fire disasters, kills approximately 168 people and injures over 700 in Hartford, Connecticut.

In 1947,  The AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union.

In 1957,  Althea Gibson wins the Wimbledon championships, becoming the first black athlete to do so.

In 1957,  John Lennon and Paul McCartney meet for the first time, as teenagers at Woolton Fete, three years before forming the Beatles.

In 1962,  As a part of Operation Plowshare, the Sedan nuclear test takes place.

In 1962,  The Late Late Show, the world’s longest-running chat show by the same broadcaster, airs on RTÉ One for the first time.

Carl Van Vechten - William Faulkner.jpgIn 1962,  William Faulkner, American author, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1897) dies from a myocardial infarction, at the age of 64. He was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner wrote novels, short stories, a play, poetry, essays and screenplays. He is primarily known for his novels and short stories set in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County, based on Lafayette County, Mississippi, where he spent most of his life.

Faulkner is one of the most celebrated writers in American literature generally and Southern literature specifically. Though his work was published as early as 1919, and largely during the 1920s and 1930s, Faulkner was relatively unknown until receiving the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature, for which he became the only Mississippi-born Nobel laureate. Two of his works, A Fable (1954) and his last novel The Reivers (1962), won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked his 1929 novel The Sound and the Fury sixth on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century; also on the list were As I Lay Dying (1930) and Light in August (1932). Absalom, Absalom! (1936) is often included on similar lists.

In 1964,  Malawi declares its independence from the United Kingdom.

In 1966,  Malawi becomes a republic, with Hastings Banda as its first President.

In 1967,  Nigerian Civil War: Nigerian forces invade Biafra, beginning the war.

In 1975,  The Comoros declares independence from France.

In 1986,  Davis Phinney becomes the first American cyclist to win a road stage of the Tour de France.

In 1988,  The Piper Alpha drilling platform in the North Sea is destroyed by explosions and fires. One hundred sixty-seven oil workers are killed, making it the world’s worst offshore oil disaster in terms of direct loss of life.

In 1995,  In the Bosnian War, under the command of General Ratko Mladić, Serbia begins its attack on the Bosnian town of Srebrenica, and kills more than 8000 Bosniaks, in what then- UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali called “the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War”.

In 1997,  The Troubles: In response to the Drumcree dispute, five days of mass protests, riots and gun battles begin in Irish nationalist districts of Northern Ireland.

In 1999,  U.S. Army private Barry Winchell dies from baseball-bat injuries inflicted on him in his sleep the previous day by a fellow soldier, Calvin Glover, for his relationship with transgender showgirl and former Navy Corpsman Calpernia Addams.

In 2003,  The 70-metre Eupatoria Planetary Radar sends a METI message (Cosmic Call 2) to five stars: Hip 4872, HD 245409, 55 Cancri (HD 75732), HD 10307 and 47 Ursae Majoris (HD 95128). The messages will arrive to these stars in 2036, 2040, 2044 and 2049 respectively.

In 2003,  Buddy Ebsen, American actor, singer, and dancer (b. 1908) dies of respiratory failure at Torrance Memorial Medical Center in Torrance, California, on July 6, 2003, at the age of 95. Upon his death, his body was cremated and his ashes were scattered at sea. He was an American actor and dancer, whose career spanned seven decades, including the role of Jed Clampett in the CBS television sitcom The Beverly Hillbillies (1962–1971) and the title character in the television detective drama Barnaby Jones (1973–1980), also on CBS. The SAG-AFTRA records also show him as Frank “Buddy” Ebsen. Originally a dancer, Ebsen began his long career in films in 1935, beginning with Jack Benny in Broadway Melody of 1936 (1935), Maureen O’Hara in They Met in Argentina (1941) and June Havoc in Sing Your Worries Away (1942). He also danced with child star Shirley Temple in Captain January (1936), released the same year. Cast as the Tin Man in 1939’s The Wizard of Oz, Ebsen fell ill owing to the aluminum dust in his makeup and was forced to drop out of the film. In Breakfast at Tiffany’s (1961), he portrayed Doc Golightly, the much older husband of Audrey Hepburn‘s character. He also had a successful television career, including playing Davy Crockett’s sidekick, George Russell, in Walt Disney‘s Davy Crockett miniseries (1953–54).

In 2006,  The Nathula Pass between India and China, sealed during the Sino-Indian War, re-openes for trade after 44 years.

In 2013,  At least 42 people are killed in a shooting at a school in Yobe State, Nigeria.

In 2013,  A Boeing 777 operating as Asiana Airlines Flight 214 crashes at San Francisco International Airport, killing three and injuring 181 of the 307 people on board.

In 2013,  A 73-car oil train derails in the town of Lac-Mégantic, Quebec and explodes into flames, killing at least 47 people and destroying more than 30 buildings in the town’s central area.

In 2016, The Iraq Inquiry is published after seven years by Sir John Chilcot; it publicises the critique of Tony Blair and his decision to go ahead with the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.

In 2016, High density condo-like buildings near Old Hickory Mall (Wiley Parker and Tinker Hill) are struck down by the Jackson City Council…. strange how they are okay in some places.

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