September 12th in History

This day in historySeptember 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 110 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 490 BC,  Battle of Marathon: The conventionally accepted date for the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians and their Plataean allies, defeat the first Persian invasion force of Greece.

In 372,  Sixteen Kingdoms: Jin Xiaowudi, age 10, succeeds his father Jin Jianwendi as Emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty.

In 1185,  Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos brutally put to death in Constantinople.

In 1213,  Albigensian Crusade: Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, defeats Peter II of Aragon at the Battle of Muret.

In 1229,  Battle of Portopí: The Aragonese army under the command of James I of Aragon disembarks at Santa Ponça, Majorca, with the purpose of conquering the island.

In 1309,  The First Siege of Gibraltar takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista pitting the forces of the Kingdom of Castile against the Emirate of Granada resulting in a Castilian victory.

In 1609,  Henry Hudson begins his exploration of the Hudson River while aboard the Halve Maen.

In 1624, A submarine, designed by Cornelius Drebbel, is tested in the River Thames. He built the first navigable submarine in 1620 while working for the English Royal Navy. Using William Bourne‘s design from 1578, he manufactured a steerable submarine with a leather-covered wooden frame. Between 1620 and 1624 Drebbel successfully built and tested two more submarines, each one bigger than the last. The final (third) model had 6 oars and could carry 16 passengers. This model was demonstrated to King James I in person and several thousand Londoners. The submarine stayed submerged for three hours and could travel from Westminster to Greenwich and back, cruising at a depth between 12 to 15 feet (4 to 5 metres). Drebbel even took James in this submarine on a test dive beneath the Thames, making James I the first monarch to travel underwater.  This submarine was tested many times in the Thames, but it couldn’t attract enough enthusiasm from the Admiralty and was never used in combat.

In 1683,  Austro-Ottoman War: Battle of Vienna – several European armies join forces to defeat the Ottoman Empire.

Signing the Mayflower Compact 1620, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris 1899

In 1687, John Alden, the last Mayflower passenger, died. According to history and Longfellow, he courted Priscilla Mullen in the name of his friend Miles Standish and won her himself. He was a crew member on the historic 1620 voyage of the Pilgrim ship Mayflower. Rather than return to England with the ship, he stayed at Plymouth. He was hired in Southampton, England, as the ship’s cooper, responsible for maintaining the ship’s barrels. He was a signatory to the Mayflower Compact. He married fellow Mayflower passenger Priscilla Mullins, whose entire family perished in the first winter. He served in a number of important government positions such as Assistant Governor, Duxbury Deputy to the General Court of Plymouth, Captain Myles Standish‘s Duxbury militia company, a member of the Council of War, Treasurer of Plymouth Colony, and Commissioner to Yarmouth.

In 1776, Captain Nathan Hale leaves Harlem Heights on Manhattan Island to begin his ill-fated mission.

In 1814,  Battle of North Point: an American detachment halts the British land advance to Baltimore in the War of 1812.

Major-General Robert Ross.jpg

Oil portrait of Major-General Robert Ross

In 1814,  Robert Ross, Irish general (b. 1766) dies at the Battle of North Point before the bombardment of Fort McHenry the next day. He was an Anglo-Irish officer in the British Army who served in the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. He is mostly known for the Burning of Washington (1814), which included the destruction of the White House and Capitol Building. Ross sailed to North America as a Major General to take charge of all British troops off the east coast of the United States. He personally led the British troops ashore in Benedict, Maryland, and marched through Upper Marlboro, Maryland, to the attack on the Americans at the Battle of Bladensburg on 24 August 1814, causing the hastily organised militia of the American army to collapse into a rout. Moving on from Bladensburg, Ross moved on to nearby Washington, D.C., and was fired upon; his horse was shot from under him. The public buildings, facilities and Navy Yards of the city, including theUnited States Capitol and the White House were burned as retaliation for destructive American raids into Canada, most notably the Americans’ Burning of York (modern Toronto) earlier in 1813, which were themselves in retaliation to British raids into the United States. Controversy surrounds Ross’s decision to destroy public property but spare private property during the burning.

In 1846,  Elizabeth Barrett elopes with Robert Browning.

In 1847,  Mexican–American War: the Battle of Chapultepec begins.

In 1848,  Switzerland becomes a Federal state. Switzerland adopts a new federal constitution patterned after the U.S.

In 1857,  The SS Central America sinks about 160 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, drowning a total of 426 passengers and crew, including Captain William Lewis Herndon. The ship was carrying 13–15 tons of gold from the California Gold Rush.

In 1877, Chase National Bank founded by John Thompson. It was named after former United States Treasury Secretary and Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, although Chase did not have a connection with the bank.

In 1885,  Arbroath 36–0 Bon Accord, a world record scoreline in professional Association football.

In 1888, Start of the Sherlock Holmes adventure “The Greek Interpreter” (BG).

In 1890,  Salisbury, Rhodesia, is founded.

In 1897,  Tirah Campaign: Battle of Saragarhi.

In 1906,  The Newport Transporter Bridge is opened in Newport, South Wales by Viscount Tredegar.

In 1908, Winston Churchill marries Clementine Hozier.

In 1910,  Premiere performance of Gustav Mahler‘s Symphony No. 8 in Munich (with a chorus of 852 singers and an orchestra of 171 players. Mahler’s rehearsal assistant conductor was Bruno Walter)

In 1910, The Los Angeles Police Department hired the first female police officer (Alice Stebbins Wells).

World War I photographs - NARA - 285372.jpgIn 1918, During World War I, US forces led by General John J. Pershing launched an attack on the German-occupied St. Mihiel salient north of Verdun, France.

In 1919,  Adolf Hitler joins the German Workers’ Party (later the Nazi Party).

In 1923,  Southern Rhodesia, today called Zimbabwe, is annexed by the United Kingdom.

In 1930,  In CricketWilfred Rhodes ends his 1110-game first-class career by taking 5 for 95 for H.D.G. Leveson Gower’s XI against the Australians.

In 1933,  Leó Szilárd, waiting for a red light on Southampton Row in Bloomsbury, conceives the idea of the nuclear chain reaction.

In 1938,  Adolf Hitler demands autonomy and self-determination for the Germans of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

In 1940,  Cave paintings are discovered in Lascaux, France.

In 1940,  An explosion at the Hercules Powder Company plant in Kenvil, New Jersey kills 51 people and injures over 200.

In 1942,  World War II: RMS Laconia, carrying civilians, Allied soldiers and Italian POWs is torpedoed off the coast of West Africa and sinks with a heavy loss of life.

In 1942,  World War II: First day of the Battle of Edson’s Ridge during the Guadalcanal Campaign. U.S. Marines protecting Henderson Field on Guadalcanal are attacked by Imperial Japanese Army forces.

In 1943,  World War II: Benito Mussolini, dictator of Italy, is rescued from house arrest on the Gran Sasso in Abruzzi, by German commando forces led by Otto Skorzeny.

In 1944,  World War II: The liberation of Serbia from Nazi Germany continues. Bajina Bašta in western Serbia is among those liberated cities. Near Trier, American troops enter Germany for the first time. (U.S. First Army pushed 5 miles into west central Germany).

In 1944, South China Sea: U.S. submarines torpedoed and sank two Japanese troop ships {2}, the Kachidoki Maru and and the Rakuyo Maru. Unknown to the submarines, the Japanese, in disregard for the rules of treatment of prisoners of war, had forced 2,000 British, Australian, and American POWs into the holds of the ships which were designed to hold only 300 troops. Later, when the subs discovered the tragedy, they sought to rescue as many survivors as possible. Japanese vessels picked up most of Kachidoki Maru’s prisoners but abandoned those from the Rakuyo Maru, taking only the Japanese survivors. Of the 1,300 POWs aboard the Rakuyo Maru, 159 were rescued, but only seven lived.

In 1948,  Invasion of the State of Hyderabad by the Indian Army on the day after the Pakistani leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah‘s death.

In 1952,  Strange occurrences, including a monster sighting, take place in Flatwoods, West Virginia.

In 1953,  U.S. Senator and future President John Fitzgerald Kennedy marries Jacqueline Lee Bouvier at St. Mary’s Church in Newport, Rhode Island.

Image result for lewis stoneIn 1953,  Lewis Stone, American actor (b. 1879) dies in Hancock Park, Los Angeles on September 12, 1953, aged 73. He reportedly suffered a heart attack while chasing away some neighborhood kids who were throwing rocks at his garage. Another published report states that on that date Stone and his third wife were watching television when they heard a racket in the back yard. When he investigated, Stone found lawn furniture once again floating in the pool and glimpsed three or perhaps four teenage boys running towards the street. Stone gave chase despite his wife’s warning not to exert himself. Upon reaching the sidewalk, Stone suddenly collapsed. A gardener, Juan Vergara, witnessed the chase and summoned aid. He was an American actor known for his role as Judge James Hardy in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer‘s Andy Hardy film series and as an MGM contract player.

Born in Worcester, Massachusetts to Bertrand Stone and Philena Heald Ball, Lewis Stone’s hair turned gray prematurely (reportedly by age 20). Lewis served in the United States Army in the Spanish–American War, then returned to a career as a writer. He soon began acting. In 1912 Stone found success in the popular play Bird of Paradise which starred Laurette Taylor. The play was later filmed in 1932 and 1951. Stone’s career was interrupted by World War I where he served again in the United States Army in the cavalry. He showed up in First National‘s 1920 Nomads of the North to good effect playing a Royal Canadian Mounted Policeman. He portrayed the title role in the 1922 silent film version of The Prisoner of Zenda

Stone was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1929 for The Patriot. After that, he appeared in seven films with Greta Garbo, spanning both the silent and early sound periods. He played the role of Dr. Otternschlag in the Garbo film Grand Hotel, in which he utters the famous closing line: “Grand Hotel. People come. People go. Nothing ever happens.” He played a larger role in the 1933 Garbo film Queen Christina. His appearance in the successful prison filmThe Big House furthered his career, and he starred with some of the biggest names in Hollywood in the 1930s, such stars as Norma Shearer, John Gilbert,Ramón Novarro, Clark Gable, and Jean Harlow.

He played adventurers in the dinosaur epic The Lost World (1925) with Wallace Beery and The Mask of Fu Manchu (1932) with Boris Karloff, and a police captain in Bureau of Missing Persons (1933). In 1937 Stone essayed the role which would become his most famous, that of Judge James Hardy in the Mickey Rooney Andy Hardy series. Stone appeared as the judge in fifteen movies, beginning with You’re Only Young Once (1937).

In 1958,  Jack Kilby demonstrates the first integrated circuit.

In 1958, The U.S. Supreme Court orders a Little Rock, Arkansas high school to admit African American students.

Bonanza title screen.jpgIn 1959,  Premiere of Bonanza, the first regularly scheduled TV program presented in color.

In 1959 – The Soviet Union launches a large rocket, Lunik II, at the moon.

In 1961,  The African and Malagasy Union is founded.

In 1964,  Canyonlands National Park is designated as a National Park.

In 1966,  Gemini 11, the penultimate mission of NASA’s Gemini program, and the current human altitude record holder (except for the Apollo lunar missions)

In 1970,  Dawson’s Field hijackings: Palestinian terrorists blow up three hijacked airliners in Jordan, continuing to hold the passengers hostage in various undisclosed locations in Amman.

In 1970, US LSD professor Timothy Leary escapes from Calif jail.

In 1974,  Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, ‘Messiah‘ of the Rastafari movement, is deposed following a military coup by the Derg, ending a reign of 58 years.

In 1974,  Juventude Africana Amílcar Cabral is founded in Guinea-Bissau.

In 1977,  South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko dies in police custody.

In 1979,  Indonesia is hit with an earthquake that measures 8.1 on the Richter scale.

In 1980,  Military coup in Turkey.

In 1983,  A Wells Fargo depot in West Hartford, Connecticut, United States, is robbed of approximately US$7 million by Los Macheteros.

In 1983,  The USSR vetoes a United Nations Security Council Resolution deploring the Soviet shooting down of a Korean civilian jetliner on September 1.

In 1984, Michael Eisner resigns from Paramount Pictures. Barry Diller asks him to join him at Twentieth Century Fox. ABC asks him to join them and create a film division. Eisner turns down all offers, waiting for developments at Disney.

In 1984,  Dwight Gooden sets the baseball record for strikeouts in a season by a rookie with 246, previously set by Herb Score in 1954. Gooden’s 276 strikeouts that season, pitched in 218 innings, set the current record.

In 1988,  Hurricane Gilbert devastates Jamaica; it turns towards Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula 2 days later, causing an estimated $5 billion in damage.

In 1990,  The two German states and the Four Powers sign the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany in Moscow, paving the way for German reunification.

In 1992,  NASA launches Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-47 which marked the 50th shuttle mission. On board are Mae Carol Jemison, the first African-American woman in space, Mamoru Mohri, the first Japanese citizen to fly in a US spaceship, and Mark Lee and Jan Davis, the first married couple in space.

In 1992,  Abimael Guzmán, leader of the Shining Path, is captured by Peruvian special forces; shortly thereafter the rest of Shining Path‘s leadership fell as well.

In 1994, the first Netscape Navigator web browser hit the web.

In 1994,  Frank Eugene Corder crashes a single-engine Cessna 150 into the White House‘s south lawn, striking the West wing and killing himself.

In 1999,  Indonesia announces it will allow international peace-keepers into East Timor.

In 2001,  Ansett Australia, Australia’s first commercial interstate airline, collapses due to increased strain on the international airline industry, leaving 10,000 people unemployed.

In 2003,  The United Nations lifts sanctions against Libya after that country agreed to accept responsibility and recompense the families of victims in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103.

In 2003,  Iraq War: In Fallujah, U.S. forces mistakenly shoot and kill eight Iraqi police officers.

In 2005,  Hong Kong Disneyland opens in Penny’s Bay, Lantau Island, Hong Kong.

In 2007,  Former Philippine President Joseph Estrada is convicted of the crime of plunder.

In 2007,  Three little pork projects – totaling “only” about $1.3 million – were spared yesterday by the United States Senate. Below is a vote tally on the pork amendment and two others which sought to restrain Congressional pork projects in favor of repairing deficient bridges. All three votes were to table, or kill, the amendment being debated. So a “YEA” vote is a bad vote.

Amendment 2810 would have prohibited spending on pork projects until all deficient roads and bridges are repaired. A “YEA” vote was a vote to fund pork projects rather than bridges. Here are the names of the 14 senators who voted “NO.”  Barrasso (R-WY), Burr (R-NC), Chambliss (R-GA), Coburn (R-OK), Corker (R-TN), Cornyn (R-TX), DeMint (R-SC), Ensign (R-NV), Enzi (R-WY), Feingold (D-WI), Grassley (R-IA), Isakson (R-GA), Kyl (R-AZ), McCaskill (D-MO)

Amendment 2811 would have prohibited spending federal transportation funds on bike paths. A “YEA” vote was a vote to build bike paths with federal transportation dollars instead of repairing bridges with that money. Here are the names of the 18 senators who voted “NO.”  Allard (R-CO), Bennett (R-UT), Bunning (R-KY), Burr (R-NC), Chambliss (R-GA), Coburn (R-OK), Cornyn (R-TX), Crapo (R-ID), DeMint (R-SC), Graham (R-SC), Grassley (R-IA), Inhofe (R-OK), Isakson (R-GA), Kyl (R-AZ), Lott (R-MS), Martinez (R-FL), Sessions (R-AL), Vitter (R-LA)

And finally, Amendment 2812 would have stripped three earmarks from the bill: $500,000 for a new baseball stadium in Montana, $450,000 for the International Peace Garden in North Dakota, and $400,000 to construct a “Discovery Center” for tourists in Louisiana. A “YEA” vote was a vote to fund all three pork projects. Here’s the list of the 32 senators who voted “NO.”  Allard (R-CO), Barrasso (R-WY), Bayh (D-IN), Bennett (R-UT), Brownback (R-KS), Bunning (R-KY), Burr (R-NC), Chambliss (R-GA), Coburn (R-OK), Coleman (R-MN), Corker (R-TN), Cornyn (R-TX), Crapo (R-ID), DeMint (R-SC), Ensign (R-NV), Enzi (R-WY), Graham (R-SC), Gregg (R-NH), Hagel (R-NE), Hatch (R-UT), Hutchison (R-TX), Inhofe (R-OK), Isakson (R-GA), Kyl (R-AZ), Lott (R-MS), Lugar (R-IN), Martinez (R-FL), Roberts (R-KS), Sessions (R-AL), Shelby (R-AL), Sununu (R-NH), Thune (R-SD)

The problem is spending. The problem is Congress. The real problem is…how do you stop them?

In 2008,  The 2008 Chatsworth train collision in Los Angeles between a Metrolink commuter train and a Union Pacific freight train kills 25 people.

In 2011,  The 9/11 Memorial Museum in New York City opens to the public.

In 2014,  Oscar Pistorius is found guilty of the culpable homicide of his girlfriend, Reeva Steenkamp.

In 2014,  Three year old Toddler William Tyrrell disappears in Kendall, New South Wales, Australia

In 2015,  A series of explosions involving propane triggering nearby illegally stored mining detonators in the Indian town of Petlawad in the state of Madhya Pradesh kills at least 105 people with over 150 injured.

May God Bless and  Keep You This Day Till Tomorrow


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