November 6th in History

This day in historyNovember 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 55 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 355,  Roman emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with the government of the Prefecture of the Gauls.

In 447,  A powerful earthquake destroys large portions of the Walls of Constantinople, including 57 towers.

In 963,  Synod of Rome: Emperor Otto I calls a council at St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Pope John XII is deposed on charges of a armed rebellion against Otto.

In 1217,  The Charter of the Forest is sealed at St Paul’s Cathedral, London by King Henry III, acting under the regency of William Marshall, 1st Earl of Pembroke which re-establishes for free men rights of access to the royal forest that had been eroded by William the Conqueror and his heirs.

In 1528,  Shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca becomes the first known European to set foot in the area that would become Texas.

In 1789,  Pope Pius VI appoints Father John Carroll as the first Catholic bishop in the United States.

James Bowdoin II.jpgIn 1790, James Bowdoin, American banker and politician, 2nd Governor of Massachusetts (b. 1726) died in Boston on November 6, 1790, of “putrid fever and dysentery”. Bowdoin’s funeral was one of the largest of the time in Boston, with people lining the streets to view the funeral procession. He was interred in Boston’s Granary Burying Ground. Among his bequests was a gift to Harvard College for awards that are now known as the Bowdoin Prizes. His son James III donated lands from the family estate in Brunswick, Maine, as well as funds and books, to establish Bowdoin College in his honor.

He was an American political and intellectual leader from Boston, Massachusetts, during the American Revolution. He served in both branches of the Massachusetts General Court from the 1750’s to the 1770’s. Although he was initially supportive of the royal governors, he opposed British colonial policy and eventually became an influential advocate of independence. He authored a highly political report on the 1770 Boston Massacre that has been described by historian Francis Walett as one of the most influential pieces of writing that shaped public opinion in the colonies.

From 1775 to 1777 he served as president of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress‘ executive council, the de facto head of the Massachusetts government. He was elected president of the constitutional convention that drafted the state’s constitution in 1779, and ran unsuccessfully for governor in 1780, losing to John Hancock. In 1785, following Hancock’s resignation, he was elected governor. During his two years in office poor economic conditions and harsh fiscal policy laid down by his government led to the uprising known as Shays’ Rebellion. Bowdoin personally funded militia forces that were instrumental in putting down the uprising. His high-handed treatment of the rebels may have contributed to his loss of the 1787 election, in which the populist Hancock was returned to office.

In addition to his political activities, Bowdoin was active in scientific pursuits, collaborating with Benjamin Franklin in his pioneering research on electricity. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, and was a founder and first president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, to whom he bequeathed his library. Bowdoin College in Maine was named in his honor after a bequest by his son James III.

In 1792,  Battle of Jemappes in the French Revolutionary Wars.

Gouverneur Morris.jpgIn 1816,  Gouverneur Morris, American scholar and politician (b. 1752) dies after causing himself internal injuries and an infection while using a piece of whale bone as a catheter to attempt clearing a blockage in his urinary tract. He died at the family estate, Morrisania, and was buried at St. Ann’s Church in The Bronx.

He was an American statesman, a Founding Father of the United States, and a native of New York City who represented Pennsylvania in the Constitutional Convention of 1787. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation. Morris was also an author of large sections of the Constitution of the United States and one of its signers. He is widely credited as the author of the document’s preamble, and has been called the “Penman of the Constitution.” In an era when most Americans thought of themselves as citizens of their respective states, Morris advanced the idea of being a citizen of a single union of states.

His first name came from his mother, whose maiden name was Sarah Gouverneur from a Huguenot family that had first moved to Holland then to New Amsterdam. According to Abigail Adams, it was pronounced “governeer.” A gifted scholar, Morris enrolled in 1764, at age 12, at King’s College, now Columbia College of Columbia University in New York City. He graduated in 1768 and received a Master’s degree in 1771.

In 1844,  The first Constitution of the Dominican Republic is adopted.

In 1856,  Scenes of Clerical Life, the first work of fiction by the author later known as George Eliot, is submitted for publication.

In 1860,  Abraham Lincoln is elected as the 16th President of United States.

In 1861,  American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederate States of America.

In 1865,  American Civil War: CSS Shenandoah is the last Confederate combat unit to surrender after circumnavigating the globe on a cruise on which it sank or captured 37 unarmed merchant vessels.

In 1869,  In New Brunswick, New Jersey, Rutgers College defeats Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey), 6–4, in the first official intercollegiate American football game.

In 1893,  Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer and critic (b. 1840) dies at the age of 53. He often anglicized as Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky /ˈptər …/, was a Russian composer of the late-Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular music in the classical repertoire. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. Tchaikovsky was honored in 1884 by Emperor Alexander III, and awarded a lifetime pension.

Although musically precocious, Tchaikovsky was educated for a career as a civil servant. There was scant opportunity for a musical career in Russia at that time and no system of public music education. When an opportunity for such an education arose, he entered the nascent Saint Petersburg Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1865. The formal Western-oriented teaching he received there set him apart from composers of the contemporary nationalist movement embodied by the Russian composers of The Five, with whom his professional relationship was mixed. Tchaikovsky’s training set him on a path to reconcile what he had learned with the native musical practices to which he had been exposed from childhood. From this reconciliation, he forged a personal but unmistakably Russian style—a task that did not prove easy. The principles that governed melody, harmony and other fundamentals of Russian music ran completely counter to those that governed Western European music; this seemed to defeat the potential for using Russian music in large-scale Western composition or from forming a composite style, and it caused personal antipathies that dented Tchaikovsky’s self-confidence. Russian culture exhibited a split personality, with its native and adopted elements having drifted apart increasingly since the time of Peter the Great. This resulted in uncertainty among the intelligentsia about the country’s national identity—an ambiguity mirrored in Tchaikovsky’s career.

Despite his many popular successes, Tchaikovsky’s life was punctuated by personal crises and depression. Contributory factors included his early separation from his mother for boarding school followed by his mother’s early death, the death of his close friend and colleague Nikolai Rubinstein, and the collapse of the one enduring relationship of his adult life, which was his 13-year association with the wealthy widow Nadezhda von Meck.  Tchaikovsky’s sudden death at the age of 53 is generally ascribed to cholera; there is an ongoing debate as to whether cholera was indeed the cause of death, or if it was accidental or self-inflicted.

While his music has remained popular among audiences, critical opinions were initially mixed. Some Russians did not feel it was sufficiently representative of native musical values and expressed suspicion that Europeans accepted the music for its Western elements. In an apparent reinforcement of the latter claim, some Europeans lauded Tchaikovsky for offering music more substantive than base exoticism, and said he transcended stereotypes of Russian classical music. Others dismissed Tchaikovsky’s music as “lacking in elevated thought,” according to longtime New York Times music critic Harold C. Schonberg, and derided its formal workings as deficient because they did not stringently follow Western principles.

In 1913,  Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.

In 1917,  World War I: Third Battle of Ypres ends: After three months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.

In 1918,  The Second Polish Republic is proclaimed.

In 1928,  Arnold Rothstein, the head of the Jewish mob in New York, was shot and mortally wounded on November 4, and died on November 6. He was assassinated by George “Hump” McManus, for failing to pay a large gambling debt.

In 1934,  Memphis, Tennessee becomes the first major city to join the Tennessee Valley Authority.

In 1935,  Edwin Armstrong presents his paper “A Method of Reducing Disturbances in Radio Signaling by a System of Frequency Modulation” to the New York section of the Institute of Radio Engineers.

In 1935,  First flight of the Hawker Hurricane, with its K5083 first prototype.

In 1935,  Parker Brothers acquires the forerunner patents for Monopoly from Elizabeth Magie.

In 1939,  World War II: Sonderaktion Krakau takes place.

In 1941,  World War II: Soviet leader Joseph Stalin addresses the Soviet Union for only the second time during his 27-year rule. He falsely states that even though 350,000 troops were killed in German attacks so far, the Germans had lost 4.5 million soldiers and that Soviet victory was near.

In 1942,  World War II: Carlson’s patrol during the Guadalcanal Campaign begins.

In 1942,  World War II: First flight of the Heinkel He 219.

In 1943,  World War II: The Soviet Red Army recaptures Kiev. Before withdrawing, the Germans destroy most of the city’s ancient buildings.

In 1944,  Plutonium is first produced at the Hanford Atomic Facility and subsequently used in the Fat Man atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.

In 1947,  Meet the Press makes its television debut (the show went to a weekly schedule on September 12, 1948).

In 1948,  Deputy commander-in-chief of the Eastern China Field Army General Su Yu launches a massive offensive toward Xuzhou, defended by seven different armies under the General Suppression Headquarters of Xuzhou Garrison, the Huaihai Campaign. The largest operational campaign of the Chinese Civil War begins.

Joseph S. Clark, Jr.

Joseph S. Clark, Jr.

The municipal election of November 6, 1951, in PhiladelphiaPennsylvania, produced the first Democratic victory in the city in more than a half-century. In the 1940s, Philadelphia had been the last major American city with nearly all of its political offices occupied by Republicans. The election was the first held under a reform charter that had been overwhelmingly approved by voters the previous April. Joseph S. Clark Jr. (pictured)and his running mate, Richardson Dilworth, were elected mayor and district attorney; they had been two of the main movers for the reform. Led by local party chairman James A. Finnegan, the Democrats also took fourteen of seventeen city council seats and all of the citywide offices on the ballot. A referendum on consolidating the city and county governments passed by a wide margin. The election marked the beginning of Democratic dominance of Philadelphia city politics, which continues today.

In 1962,  The United Nations General Assembly passes a resolution condemning South Africa’s apartheid policies and calls for all UN member states to cease military and economic relations with the nation.

In 1963,  Following the November 1 coup and execution of President Ngo Dinh Diem, coup leader General Dương Văn Minh takes over leadership of South Vietnam.

In 1965,  Cuba and the United States formally agree to begin an airlift for Cubans who want to go to the United States. By 1971, 250,000 Cubans had made use of this program.

In 1971,  The United States Atomic Energy Commission tests the largest U.S. underground hydrogen bomb, code-named Cannikin, on Amchitka Island in the Aleutians.

In 1975,  Green March begins: Three hundred thousand unarmed Moroccans converge on the southern city of Tarfaya and wait for a signal from King Hassan II of Morocco to cross into Western Sahara.

In 1977,  The Kelly Barnes Dam, located above Toccoa Falls Bible College near Toccoa, Georgia, fails, killing 39.

In 1985,  In Colombia, leftist guerrillas of the 19th of April Movement seize control of the Palace of Justice in Bogotá, eventually killing 115 people, 11 of them Supreme Court justices.

In 1986,  Sumburgh disaster: A British International Helicopters Boeing 234LR Chinook crashes 2.5 !212 miles east of Sumburgh Airport killing 45 people. It is the deadliest civilian helicopter crash on record.

In 1991,  The last Kuwaiti oil field fire is extinguished.

In 1995,  The Rova of Antananarivo, home of the sovereigns of Madagascar from the 16th to 19th centuries, is destroyed by fire.

In 1995,  Cleveland Browns relocation controversy: Art Modell announces that he signed a deal that would relocate the Cleveland Browns to Baltimore to become the Baltimore Ravens, the first time the city had a football team since 1983 when they were the Baltimore Colts.

In 1999,  Australians vote to keep the Head of the Commonwealth as their head of state in the Australian republic referendum.

In 2004,  An express train collides with a stationary car near the village of Ufton Nervet, England, killing seven and injuring 150.

In 2012,  Tammy Baldwin becomes the first openly gay politician to be elected to the United States SenateBarack Obama is reelected President of the United States. The country swings left with a vengeance.

In 2013,  Several small bombs explode outside a provincial office of the Chinese Communist Party in the northern city of Taiyuan, killing at least one person and wounding eight others.

In 2015, Anti-Gunners Got Hammered in Elections. Tuesday’s election results were not good for former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. The billionaire has publicly committed himself to spending millions of dollars to promote gun control — but he’s not gotten the “bang for his buck” that he desired.

Related imageIn 2016, Florida lobster laws changed and a new state law went into effect allowing authorities to prosecute lobstermen for each of their undersized catches as a separate offense.

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