November 3rd in History

This day in historyNovember 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 58 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday (58 in 400 years each) than on Sunday or Monday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Wednesday or Friday (56).

Holidays

History

In 361,  Emperor Constantius II dies of a fever at Mopsuestia in Cilicia, on his deathbed he is baptised and declares his cousin Julian rightful successor.

In 644,  Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim caliph, is assassinated by a Persian slave in Medina.

In 1333,  The River Arno flooding causing massive damage in Florence as recorded by the Florentine chronicler Giovanni Villani.

In 1468,  Liège is sacked by Charles I of Burgundy‘s troops.

In 1492,  Peace of Etaples between Henry VII and Charles VIII.

In 1493,  Christopher Columbus first sights the island of Dominica in the Caribbean Sea.

In 1534,  English Parliament passes the first Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the Anglican Church, supplanting the pope and the Roman Catholic Church.

In 1592,  The city of San Luis Potosí is founded.

Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.jpg

This painting depicts the forces of British Major General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (1738-1805) (who was not himself present at the surrender), surrendering to French and American forces after the Siege of Yorktown (September 28 – October 19, 1781) during the American Revolutionary War. The United States government commissioned Trumbull to paint patriotic paintings, including this piece, for them in 1817, paying for the piece in 1820.

In 1783,  The American Continental Army is disbanded.

In 1789,  The first District Court established by the Constitution opens in New York City.

In 1793,  French playwright, journalist and feminist Olympe de Gouges is guillotined.

In 1812,  Napoleon‘s armies are defeated at the Battle of Vyazma.

In 1817,  The Bank of Montreal, Canada’s oldest chartered bank, opens in Montreal.

In 1838,  The Times of India, the world’s largest circulated English language daily broadsheet newspaper is founded as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.

In 1848,  A greatly revised Dutch constitution, drafted by Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, severely limiting the powers of the Dutch monarchy, and strengthening the powers of parliament and ministers, is proclaimed.

In 1867,  Giuseppe Garibaldi and his followers are defeated in the Battle of Mentana and fail to end the Pope’s Temporal power in Rome (it would be achieved three years later).

In 1868,  John Willis Menard was the first African American elected to the United States Congress. Because of an electoral challenge, he was never seated.

In 1881,  The Mapuche uprising of 1881 begins in Chile.

Charles Bowles aka Black Bart.jpg

Charles Bowles, aka “Black Bart”, American stagecoach robber

In 1883,  American Old West: Self-described “Black Bart the poet” gets away with his last stagecoach robbery, but leaves a clue that eventually leads to his capture.

So here I’ve stood while wind and rain
Have set the trees a-sobbin,
And risked my life for that box,
That wasn’t worth the robbin.

In 1898,  France withdraws its troops from Fashoda (now in Sudan), ending the Fashoda Incident.

In 1903,  With the encouragement of the United States, Panama separates from Colombia.

In 1911,  Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.

In 1918,  Austria-Hungary enters into the Armistice of Villa Giusti with the Allies, and the Habsburg-ruled empire dissolves.

In 1918,  Poland declares its independence from Russia.

In 1918,  The German Revolution of 1918–19 begins when 40,000 sailors take over the port in Kiel.

Oakley in 1922

In 1926,  Annie Oakley, American entertainer and target shooter (b. 1860) dies. of pernicious anemia in Greenville, Ohio, at the age of 66 on November 3, 1926. Her husband, Frank E. Butler, was so grieved by her death, according to B. Haugen, that he stopped eating and died 18 days later in Michigan. A vast collection of Annie Oakley’s personal possessions, performance memorabilia, and firearms are on permanent exhibit within the Garst Museum and The National Annie Oakley Center in Greenville, Ohio. The National Annie Oakley Center Foundation strives to preserve, expand, and share exhibits pertaining to Annie Oakley’s life and experiences. She was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Her “amazing talent” first came to light when the then 15-year-old won a shooting match with traveling show marksman Frank E. Butler (whom she married). The couple joined Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show a few years later. Oakley became a renowned international star, performing before royalty and heads of state.

Oakley also was variously known as “Miss Annie Oakley”, “Little Sure Shot”, “Little Miss Sure Shot”, “Watanya Cicilla”, “Phoebe Anne Oakley”, “Mrs. Annie Oakley”, “Mrs. Annie Butler”, and “Mrs. Frank Butler”. Her death certificate gives her name as “Annie Oakley Butler”.

In 1930,  Getúlio Dornelles Vargas becomes Head of the Provisional Government in Brazil after a bloodless coup on October 24.

In 1932,  Panagis Tsaldaris becomes the 142nd Prime Minister of Greece.

In 1935,  George II of Greece regains his throne through a popular, though possibly fixed, plebiscite.

In 1942,  World War II: The Koli Point action begins during the Guadalcanal Campaign and ends on November 12.

In 1943,  World War II: Five hundred aircraft of the U.S. 8th Air Force devastate Wilhelmshaven harbor in Germany.

In 1944,  World War II: Two supreme commanders of the Slovak National Uprising, Generals Ján Golian and Rudolf Viest are captured, tortured and later executed by German forces.

In 1954,  The first Godzilla film is released and marks the first appearance of the character of the same name.

In 1956,  The Khan Yunis killings are perpetrated by the Israel Defense Forces in Egyptian-controlled Gaza, resulting in the deaths of 275 male Arabs.

In 1957,  Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2. On board is the first animal to enter orbit, a dog named Laika.

In 1960,  The land that would become the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge was established by an Act of Congress after a year-long legal battle that pitted local residents against Port Authority of New York and New Jersey officials wishing to turn the Great Swamp into a major regional airport for jet aircraft.

In 1964,  Washington D.C. residents are able to vote in a presidential election for the first time.

In 1967,  Vietnam War: The Battle of Dak To begins.

In 1969,  Vietnam War: U.S. President Richard M. Nixon addresses the nation on television and radio, asking the “silent majority” to join him in solidarity on the Vietnam War effort and to support his policies.

In 1973,  Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 10 toward Mercury. On March 29, 1974, it becomes the first space probe to reach that planet.

In 1975,  Syed Nazrul Islam, A. H. M. Qamaruzzaman, Tajuddin Ahmad, and Muhammad Mansur Ali, Bangladeshi politicians and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman loyalists, are murdered in the Dhaka Central Jail.

In 1978,  Dominica gains its independence from the United Kingdom.

In 1979,  Greensboro massacre: Five members of the Communist Workers Party are shot dead and seven are wounded by a group of Klansmen and neo-Nazis during a “Death to the Klan” rally in Greensboro, North Carolina, United States.

In 1982,  The Salang Tunnel fire in Afghanistan kills up to 2,000 people.

In 1986,  Iran–Contra affair: The Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa reports that the United States has been secretly selling weapons to Iran in order to secure the release of seven American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon.

In 1986,  The Federated States of Micronesia gain independence from the United States of America.

In 1988,  Sri Lankan Tamil mercenaries try to overthrow the Maldivian government. At President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom‘s request, the Indian military suppresses the coup attempt within 24 hours.

In 1996,  Death of Abdullah Çatlı, leader of the Turkish ultra-nationalist organisation Grey Wolves in the Susurluk car-crash, which leads to the resignation of the Turkish Interior Minister, Mehmet Ağar (a leader of the True Path Party, DYP).

In 1997,  The United States of America imposes economic sanctions against Sudan in response to its human rights abuses of its own citizens and its material and political assistance to Islamic extremist groups across the Middle East and Eastern Africa.

In 2014,  One World Trade Center officially opens.

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