June 28th in History

This day in history

June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 186 days remaining until the end of the year.

In common years it is always in ISO week 26.

This date is the only date each year where both the month and day are different perfect numbers, June 6 being the only date where the month and day are the same perfect number.



In 572,  Assassination of Alboin, King of the Lombards.

In 1098,  Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosull.

In 1360,  Muhammed VI becomes the tenth Nasrid king of Granada after killing his brother-in-law Ismail II.

In 1461,  Edward IV is crowned King of England.

In 1519,  Charles V is elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1635,  Guadeloupe becomes a French colony.

In 1651,  The Battle of Berestechko between Poland and Ukraine starts.

Phips portrait.jpg

William Phips, 1st Governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay

In 1687,  William Phips, the first knighted native American, is dubbed by King James II of England (for finding a treasure ship).

In 1709,  Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava

In 1745,War of the Austrian Succession: A New England colonial army captures Louisbourg, New France, after a forty-seven-day siege (New Style).

In 1776,  The Battle of Sullivan’s Island ends with the first decisive American victory in the American Revolutionary War leading to the commemoration of Carolina Day.

In 1776,  Thomas Hickey, Continental Army private and bodyguard to General George Washington, is hanged for mutiny and sedition.

In 1776,  Thomas Jefferson’s draft of the Declaration of Independence was presented to Congress for consideration.

In 1778,  The American Continentals engage the British in the Battle of Monmouth Courthouse resulting in standstill and British withdrawal under cover of darkness. (RN:Mary Ludwig Hays) carried water for the Americans until her husband collapsed wounded. She then took his place and fired the cannon until the end of the battle.

In 1807,  Second British invasion of the Río de la Plata; John Whitelocke lands at Ensenada on an attempt to recapture Buenos Aires and is defeated by the locals.

In 1820, The tomato is proved to be non-poisonous.

In 1838,  Coronation of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.

In 1841,  The Paris Opera Ballet premieres Giselle in the Salle Le Peletier

In 1855,  Sigma Chi fraternity was founded in North America.

In 1859,  The first conformation dog show is held in Newcastle upon Tyne, England.

In 1863, President Lincoln appoints Gen. George G. Meade as commander of the Army of the Potomac, replacing Hooker. Meade is the 5th man to command the Army in less than a year.

In 1865,  The Army of the Potomac is disbanded.

In 1869, the first Surgeon General of the U.S. Navy was appointed on this day. He was R. W. Wood.

In 1880,  The Australian bushranger Ned Kelly is captured at Glenrowan.

In 1881,  Secret treaty between Austria and Serbia.

In 1882,  The Anglo-French Convention of 1882 marks the territorial boundaries between Guinea and Sierra Leone.

In 1894,  Labor Day becomes an official US holiday. The day was established as a holiday for federal employees on the first Monday of September.

In 1895,  El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua form the Greater Republic of Central America.

In 1895,  The United States Court of Private Land Claims rules James Reavis‘ claim to Barony of Arizona is “wholly fictitious and fraudulent.”

In 1896,  An explosion in the Newton Coal Company’s Twin Shaft Mine in Pittston, Pennsylvania results in a massive cave-in that kills 58 miners.

In 1902,  The U.S. Congress passes the Spooner Act, authorizing President Theodore Roosevelt to acquire rights from Colombia for the Panama Canal.

In 1904,  The SS Norge runs aground and sinks

In 1914,  Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie are assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnia Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip, the casus belli of World War I.

In 1917, Raggedy Ann floppy redheaded toy invented. Raggedy Ann is a character created by American writer Johnny Gruelle (1880–1938) in a series of books he wrote and illustrated for young children. Raggedy Ann is a rag doll with red yarn for hair and has a triangle nose. Johnny Gruelle received US Patent D47789 for his Raggedy Ann doll on September 7, 1915. The character was created in 1915 as a doll, and was introduced to the public in the 1918 book Raggedy Ann Stories. When a doll was marketed with the book, the concept had great success. A sequel, Raggedy Andy Stories (1920), introduced the character of her brother, Raggedy Andy, dressed in sailor suit and hat.

In 1918, the first flight between the Hawaiian Islands, the first inter-island flight, occurred.

In 1919,  The Treaty of Versailles is signed, ending the state of war between Germany and the Allies of World War I.

In 1919, Harry S. Truman married Elizabeth Virginia Wallace in Independence, Missouri.

In 1921,  Serbian King Alexander I proclaimed the new constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, known thereafter as the Vidovdan Constitution.

In 1922,  The Irish Civil War begins with the shelling of the Four Courts in Dublin by Free State forces.

In 1926,  Mercedes-Benz is formed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz merging their two companies.

In 1928, Friedrich Schmiedl attempted rocket mail in Austria.

In 1928, New York Governor Alfred E. Smith was nominated for president at the Democratic national convention in Houston.

In 1932, an alligator is sighted in the Bronx River (the first reported sighting of New York sewers’ alligators).

In 1934, the Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act, also known as the Frazier-Lemke Act, is signed into law, establishing a moratorium on farm foreclosures (during the Depression).

In 1934, President Roosevelt signed into law the National Housing Act, which established the Federal Housing Administration. It created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) and the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC). The FSLIC, In the 1980s, during the savings and loan crisis, the FSLIC became insolvent. It was recapitalized with taxpayer money several times, with $15 billion in 1986 and $10.75 billion in 1987; however, by 1989 it was too insolvent to save. Pursuant to the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA), the FSLIC was abolished along with the FHLBB, and the FSLIC savings and loan deposit insurance responsibility was transferred to the FDIC. The FSLIC Resolution Fund was created to assume all the assets and liabilities of the FSLIC, which was to be funded by the Financing Corporation (FICO). The FHA remains with us and is the bain of most of our cities.

In 1935, U.S. President Roosevelt ordered a federal gold vault to be built at Fort Knox, Kentucky.

In 1936,  The Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang is formed in northern China.

In 1939, Pan American Airways began regular trans-Atlantic air service as the “Dixie Clipper” left Port Washington, New York, for Portugal.

In 1940,  Romania cedes Bessarabia (current-day Moldova) to the Soviet Union after facing an ultimatum.

In 1940, the Smith Act, outlawing organizations which advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government and requiring aliens to be fingerprinted, is passed.

In 1940, Britain recognizes Gen. Charles de Gaulle as Free French leader.

In 1942,  World War II: Nazi Germany started its strategic summer offensive against the Soviet Union, codenamed Case Blue

In 1942, The first U.S. ground assault on the Japanese in the South Pacific is executed by commandos on Salamaua, New Guinea, at night.

In 1945,  Poland’s Soviet-allied Provisional Government of National Unity is formed over a month after V-E Day.

In 1948,  The Cominform circulates the “Resolution on the situation in the Communist Party of Yugoslavia”; Yugoslavia is expelled from the Communist bloc.

In 1948,  Boxer Dick Turpin beats Vince Hawkins at Villa Park in Birmingham to become the first black British boxing champion in the modern era.

In 1950,  Korean War: Seoul is captured by North Korean troops.

In 1950,  Korean War: Suspected communist sympathizers, argued to be between 100,000 and 200,000 are executed in the Bodo League massacre.

In 1950,  Korean War: Packed with its own refugees fleeing Seoul and leaving their 5th Division stranded, South Korean forces blow up the Hangang Bridge to in attempt to slow North Korea’s offensive.

In 1950,  Korean War: North Korean Army conducted Seoul National University Hospital Massacre.

In 1956,  in Poznań, workers from HCP factory went to the streets, sparking one of the first major protests against communist government both in Poland and Europe.

In 1958, the Mackinac Bridge, the world’s 16th-longest in total suspension and the longest suspension bridge between anchorages in the Western hemisphere is dedicated.

In 1964,  Malcolm X forms the Organization of Afro-American Unity.

In 1967,  Israel annexes East Jerusalem.

In 1969,  Stonewall riots begin in New York City, marking the start of the Gay Rights Movement.

In 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the use of public funds for parochial schools was unconstitutional.

In 1972, President Nixon announced that no more draftees would be sent to Vietnam unless they volunteered for service in the Asian nation.

In 1973,  Elections are held for the Northern Ireland Assembly, which will lead to power-sharing between unionists and nationalists in Northern Ireland for the first time.

In 1976,  The Angolan court sentences US and UK mercenaries to death sentences and prison terms in the Luanda Trial.

In 1976, The first woman is admitted to the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

In 1978,  The United States Supreme Court, in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke bars quota systems in college admissions.

In 1981,  A powerful bomb explodes in Tehran, killing 73 officials of the Islamic Republican Party.

In 1983, a 100-foot section of bridge along Interstate 95 in Greenwich, Connecticut, collapsed, killing three people.

In 1987,  For the first time in military history, a civilian population is targeted for chemical attack when Iraqi warplanes bombed the Iranian town of Sardasht.

In 1987, Secretary of State George P. Shultz told NBC’s “Meet the Press” he’d found some of the recent revelations about the Iran-Contra affair “sickening,” but he defended the Reagan administration’s foreign policy.

In 1989,  On the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo, Slobodan Milošević delivers the Gazimestan speech at the site of the historic battle.

In 1989, China’s new Communist Party chief, Jiang Zemin, said the Beijing government would show no mercy to leaders of the pro-democracy movement, which he termed a “counterrevolutionary rebellion.”

In 1990, Jurors in the drug and perjury trial of Washington DC Mayor Marion S. Barry Junior viewed a videotape showing Barry smoking crack cocaine during an FBI hotel-room sting operation. (Barry was later convicted of a single count of misdemeanor drug possession.)

In 1991, In Detroit, a white woman was attacked by a group of black women at a downtown fireworks display in an incident captured on amateur video. (Five women later pleaded no contest to charges stemming from the assault.)

In 1992,  The Constitution of Estonia is signed into law.

In 1992, in a private ceremony held at Camp David, Pres George H. W. Bush’s daughter Dorothy marries Bobby Koch. Koch is a Democrat who started his career in politics working for Tony Coelho and was part of his campaign to become House Majority Whip. He would later become staff director for House Majority Leader Richard Gephardt before joining the Wine Institute. Since becoming President and CEO in June 2003, membership has grown 70% to over 1,000 Californian wineries and affiliated businesses which are predominately family owned and operated. He has a substantial equity interest in Central European Distribution Corp., the company that manufactures and distributes vodka in Poland.

In 1992, LA Police commissioner Daryl Gates steps down.

In 1994,  Members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult release sarin gas in Matsumoto, Japan; Seven people are killed, 660 injured.

In 1994, the EPA announces it will begin issuing Solar Warning Indexes to warn against the harmful effects of the sun.

In 1994, President Clinton became the first chief executive in US history to set up a personal legal defense fund and ask Americans to contribute to it.

In 1995, the House overwhelmingly approved a constitutional amendment to protect the American flag from desecration (however, the amendment was later defeated in the Senate).

In 1995, O. J. Simpson’s lawyers threatened to sue a rock radio station (KRFX) in Denver after it puts up billboards with pictures of O-J and Charles Manson and the caption “Bad Company.” The rock group Bad Company issued a statement in support of the radio station.

In 1996,  The Constitution of Ukraine is signed into law.

In 1996, the Citadel voted to admit women, ending a 153-year-old men-only policy at the South Carolina military school.

In 1997,  Holyfield–Tyson II: Mike Tyson is disqualified in the 3rd round for biting a piece off Evander Holyfield‘s ear.

In 1998, the Cincinnati Enquirer apologized to the Chiquita banana company as it retracted stories questioning the company’s business practices; the paper agreed to pay more than $10 million to settle legal claims.

In 2000, Intel Corp. said its new high-end Pentium 4 computer chip, formerly code-named Willamette, will run 50% faster than the company’s fastest chip so far. The Pentium 4, which goes on sale in the fall of 2000, ran at a “clock speed” of 1.5 gigahertz, or 1.5 billion cycles per second. The company did not release price or other details on the microprocessor, which is essentially the heart of the computer. Intel has been competing with Advanced Micro Devices Inc. to produce the fastest central processing unit. AMD and Intel both introduced chips running at 1 gigahertz in March. Computers operating at such speeds are essential in a world where new generations of Internet commerce, gaming and entertainment require greater processing power, chief executive Craig Barrett said while unveiling the new name at Intel’s Santa Clara, Calif., headquarters.

In 2000, Seven months after he was cast adrift in the Florida Straits, Elian Gonzalez was returned to his native Cuba.

In 2000, The Supreme Court ruled the Boy Scouts can bar homosexuals from serving as troop leaders.

In 2001,Slobodan Milošević is deported to ICTY to stand trial.

In 2004,  Sovereign power is handed to the interim government of Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority, ending the U.S.-led rule of that nation.

frank&sydIn 2007, I wrote this….

I suspect I will be bringing Sydney home for the last time today. This will be tough. Some things are tougher. Let me tell you a story about Lee Atwater. He was a well-known figure in US politics. He engineered the successful 1988 presidential campaign of George H. W. Bush and was the head of the Republican National Committee (1988-1991). But in the midst of all his activities he developed an inoperable brain tumor and died at the age of 40. During his illness, Atwater came to realize that wealth, honor, and power are not life’s supreme values. Admitting to a deep emptiness within himself, he urged people to work at filling up the “spiritual vacuum in American society.” In an insightful comment, he confessed, “My illness helped me to see that what was missing in society is what is missing in me—a little heart, a lot of brotherhood.” In his day, Jeremiah perceived that same kind of vacuum in many of his fellow Israelites. He warned them against the danger of personal and national emptiness. They were digging cisterns, he said, “broken cisterns that can hold no water” (Jeremiah 2:13). Sometimes it’s a shame that we only see the truth when all is lost to us.

Sydney died due to kidney failure this morning and was buried at his Jackson residence.

In 2009,  Honduran president Manuel Zelaya is ousted by a local military coup following a failed request to hold a referendum to rewrite the Honduran Constitution. This was the start of the 2009 Honduran constitutional crisis.

In 2011,  United Nations Security Council Resolution 1991 relating to Democratic Republic of Congo is adopted.

In 2016,  A terrorist attack in Turkey’s Istanbul Atatürk Airport kills 42 people and injures more than 230 others.

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