June 25th in History

This day in historyJune 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 189 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 524,  The Franks are defeated by the Burgundians in the Battle of Vézeronce.

In 841,  In the Battle of Fontenay-en-Puisaye, forces led by Charles the Bald and Louis the German defeat the armies of Lothair I of Italy and Pepin II of Aquitaine.

In 1178, Five Canterbury monks report something exploding on the Moon (the only known observation of probable meteor strike – the crater formed by the impact is now known as Giordano Bruno).

In 1474, Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli sends his Map Of The World to Fernan Martins de Roriz, and also to Columbus, showing the world was round.

In 1483, Richard III claims the Crown of England

In 1503, The man who would be king…King Henry the Eighth, that is… announced the first of his several marital choices. Prince Henry, as he was at the time, announced his betrothal to Catherine of Aragon.

In 1513, Confession of Augsburg, the distinct break between Catholicisim and Protestantisim.

In 1530 – At the Diet of Augsburg the Augsburg Confession is presented to the Holy Roman Emperor by the Lutheran princes and Electors of Germany.

In 1580, Book of Concord, standards of Lutheran Church, 1st published.

In 1607, Mentally ill emperor Rudolf II signs Treaty of Lieben, giving up Austria, Hungary & Moravia.

In 1630, the Fork was introduced to American dining by Massachusetts Governor John Winthrop.

In 1635, The island of Martinique becomes property of France

In 1638, A lunar eclipse became the first known astronomical event recorded in the U.S.

In 1658,  Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Rio Nuevo during the Anglo-Spanish War.

In 1667, Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys, a French Physician injected lamb’s blood into a human patient, performing the first blood transfusion. (Not: June 12, 1767 as some sources indicate.)

In 1678,  Venetian Elena Cornaro Piscopia is the first woman awarded a doctorate of philosophy when she graduates from the University of Padua.

In 1741,  Maria Theresa of Austria is crowned Queen of Hungary.

In 1786,  Gavriil Pribylov discovers St. George Island of the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea.

In 1788,  Virginia becomes the tenth state to ratify the United States Constitution.

In 1798, U.S. passed the Alien Act allowing the president to deport dangerous aliens.

In 1825, The Baptists of Jackson, Tennessee meet to form the Forked Deer Association.

In 1835, Pueblo founded with construction of first building (start of Yerba Buena, later to be called San Francisco).

Historical U.S. map, 1843. Most of the eastern states have been established, while the western half remains loosely divided into territories. Mexico and the Republic of Texas share a disputed border.

The boundaries of the United States and neighboring nations as they appeared in 1843. The Webster–Ashburton Treaty had formalized the border of Maine in the northeast, while the Republic of Texas in the southwest had a disputed border with Mexico. Tyler shared the Texans’ desire for annexation, but it took several years of political wrangling to achieve.

In 1844, John Tyler took Julia Gardiner as his bride on this day and he became the first U.S. President to marry while in office. Tyler was the tenth President of the United States (1841–1845). A native of Virginia, Tyler served as a state legislator, governor, U.S. representative, and U.S. senator before being elected Vice President in 1840. He was the first to succeed to the office of President on the death of the incumbent, succeeding William Henry Harrison. Tyler’s opposition to federalism and emphatic support of states’ rights endeared him to his fellow Virginians but alienated him from most of the political allies that brought him to power in Washington. His presidency was crippled by opposition from both parties, and near the end of his life he would side with the South in its secession from the United States.

In 1862, (lasting seven days), The Seven Days Battles (Battle of Oak Grove, VA (Orchard, Henrico, French’s Field) (Kings’s Schoolhouse) Day 1 of 7 Days) as Lee attacks McClellan near Richmond, resulting in very heavy losses for both armies. McClellan then begins a withdrawal back toward Washington. Young Georgia Private Edwin Jennison, killed in the Seven Days Battles at Malvern Hill – the face of a lost generation.

In 1863, US General George Meade replaces General Hooker to be more aggressive.

In 1867, Barbed Wire was patented by Lucien Smith. The West is about to change.

In 1868, President Andrew Johnson signed into law providing the first eight-hour work day for government workers.

In 1868, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were readmitted to the Union.

Custer Portrait Restored.jpgIn 1876,Battle of the Little Bighorn and the death of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer. Lt. Col. George A. Custer, age 36, and 208 men of the seventh Calvary (including his brother Capt. Tom Custer (31), a civilian brother Boston Custer (27), his brother-in-law Lt. James Calhoun (30) and a 18-year-old nephew “Autie” Reed) are killed at the Little Big Horn, during the Sioux Indian War (known as the Battle of Greasing Grass by the Indians). Comanche, a horse, was the lone survivor; all the others were wiped out by the Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Chief Crazy Horse and Chief Sitting Bull in the Battle known as Custer’s Last Stand in Montana.

In 1888, the Republican National Convention, meeting in Chicago, nominated Benjamin Harrison for the presidency. Harrison went on to win the November election, defeating the incumbent Pres. Grover Cleveland.

In 1900, – The Taoist monk Wang Yuanlu discovers the Dunhuang manuscripts, a cache of ancient texts that are of great historical and religious significance, in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China.

In 1906,Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania millionaire Harry Thaw shoots and kills prominent architect Stanford White (a love triangle came to a violent end atop New York’s Madison Square Garden as architect Stanford White, the building’s designer, was shot to death by Harry Thaw, the jealous husband of Evelyn Nesbit.)

In 1910,  The United States Congress passes the Mann Act, which prohibits interstate transport of females for “immoral purposes”; the ambiguous language would be used to selectively prosecute people for years to come.

In 1910,  Igor Stravinsky‘s ballet The Firebird is premiered in Paris, bringing him to prominence as a composer.

In 1910, a Postal Savings Bank system is established by Congress.

In 1913,  American Civil War veterans begin arriving at the Great Reunion of 1913.

In 1921, Samuel Gompers is elected President of the American Federation of Labor for the 40th time.

In 1923,  Capt. Lowell H. Smith and Lt. John P. Richter perform the first ever aerial refueling in a DH.4B biplane.

In 1924, Tuberculosis Vaccine was developed by Prof Albert Calmette & Alphonse Guerin.

In 1929, President Hoover authorized construction of Boulder (Hoover) Dam.

In 1935,  Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Colombia are established.

In 1938,  Dr. Douglas Hyde is inaugurated as the first President of Ireland.

In 1940,  World War II: France officially surrenders to Germany at 01:35.

In 1941, Fair Employment Practices Commission established.

In 1941, FDR issues Executive Order 8802 forbidding discrimination.

In 1941, Finland declares war on Soviet Union.

In 1941, Germans invade Dubno Poland, giving permission to Ukrainians to do whatever they want to 12,000 Jews living there.

In 1942, Eisenhower arrives in London.

In 1943,  The Holocaust: Jews in the Częstochowa Ghetto in Poland stage an uprising against the Nazis.

In 1944,  World War II: The Battle of Tali-Ihantala, the largest battle ever fought in the Nordic countries, begins.

In 1944 – World War II: United States Navy and British Royal Navy ships bombard Cherbourg to support United States Army units engaged in the Battle of Cherbourg.

In 1944 – The final page of the comic Krazy Kat is published, exactly two months after its author George Herriman died.

In 1947,  The Diary of a Young Girl (better known as The Diary of Anne Frank) is published.

In 1948, the Soviets announce a ban on all food shipments from soviet areas into Berlin.

In 1948,  The Berlin airlift begins.

In 1948, the Republican national convention in Philadelphia chose California Governor Earl Warren to be Thomas E. Dewey’s running mate.

In 1949,  Long-Haired Hare, starring Bugs Bunny, is released in theaters.

In 1950,  The Korean War begins with the invasion of South Korea by North Korea.

In 1952, The McCarran-Walter Bill to limit immigration to the U.S. is vetoed by President Truman.

In 1953, John Christie, the notorious British murderer of Ten Rillington Place, was sentenced to death for killing six women.

In 1956, 51 die in collision of “Andrea Doria” & “Stockholm” (Cape Cod).

In 1957, FINAL HUDSON AUTOMOBILE IS BUILT As AMERICAN MOTORS concentrates on the successful compact RAMBLER line.

In 1960, Two cryptographers working for the United States National Security Agency left for vacation to Mexico, and from there defected to the Soviet Union.

In 1961, Iraq announces that Kuwait is a part of Iraq (Kuwait disagrees).

In 1962, the Supreme Court ruled that the use of an unofficial, nondenominational prayer in New York state public schools was unconstitutional.

In 1964, As a protest against apartheid, Russia’s Alekandr Metreveli was ordered to withdraw from his Wimbledon match against South Africa’s Abe Segal.

In 1967,  Broadcasting of the first live global satellite television program: Our World

In 1972, William Johnson is ordained by the Golden Gate Association in Northern California, thus becoming the first openly gay minister in a major denomination. The ordination adds to a long list of firsts for the United Church of Christ, previously the first “mainline” church to make the first public declaration against slavery (in 1700), ordain someone black (Lemuel Haynes, 1785), and ordain a woman (Antoinette Brown, 1853). And in 1977, The UCC will again make history with the first lesbian ordination.

In 1973, former White House Counsel John W. Dean began testifying before the Senate Watergate Committee. Dean told the Senate hearings that Nixon, his aides and staff, and the Justice Department, had conspired to cover-up the Watergate facts.

In 1975,  Mozambique achieves independence becoming the People’s Republic of Mozambique, ending nearly five centuries of Portuguese rule.

In 1975 – Prime Minister Indira Gandhi has a state of internal Emergency declared in India.

In 1976,  Missouri Governor Kit Bond issues an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, formally apologizing on behalf of the state of Missouri for the suffering it had caused to the members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

In 1978,  The rainbow flag representing gay pride is flown for the first time in the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade.

In 1981,  Microsoft is restructured to become an incorporated business in its home state of Washington.

In 1981, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that male-only draft registration was constitutional.

In 1982,  Greece abolishes the head shaving of recruits in the military.

In 1982, Secretary of State Alexander Haig Jr. resigned over disagreement of foreign policy; George Schultz replaced him.

In 1983, in Krefeld, West Germany, hundreds of masked youths battled riot police and hurled debris at Vice President George Bush’s motorcade during ceremonies saluting German-American friendship.

In 1984, in Cuba, Jesse Jackson secured the release of 48 U.S. and Cuban prisoners after talking with President Fidel Castro.

In 1986, in a victory for President Reagan, the U.S. House of Representatives voted 221-to-209 to approve his request for $100 million dollars in military and humanitarian aid to the Nicaraguan contras.

In 1987, Pope John Paul the Second received Austrian President Kurt Waldheim at the Vatican, a meeting fraught with controversy because of allegations that Waldheim had hidden a Nazi past.

In 1989, first US postmark dedicated to Lesbian & Gay Pride (Stonewall, NYC).

In 1990, the U.S. Supreme Court, in its first “right-to-die” decision, ruled that family members can be barred from ending the lives of persistently comatose relatives who have not made their wishes known conclusively.

In 1990, African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela met with President Bush at the White House.

In 1991, following months of unsuccessful talks among Yugoslavia’s six republics about the future of the federation, the western republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence.

In 1991, the U.S. declares the area north of the 38th parallel in northern Iraq a safe zone to protect the Iraqi Kurd refugees.

In 1991, The last Soviet troops stationed in Czechoslovakia left the country, 23 years after the Warsaw Pact invasion.

In 1991,  Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from Yugoslavia.

In 1992, both houses of Congress rushed to pass a back-to-work order ending a national rail strike. President Bush signed it in the early hours of June 26.

In 1993,  Kim Campbell is sworn in as the first female Prime Minister of Canada.

In 1993Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action is adopted by World Conference on Human Rights.

In 1993, Vice President Al Gore broke the tie vote, giving President Clinton a victory for his massive budget-cutting package with tax increases on the wealthy and cuts in Medicare.

In 1994, Japanese Prime Minister Tsutomu Hata, faced with certain defeat in a no-confidence vote, announced his intention to resign after just two months in office.

Warren e burger photo.jpegIn 1995, Warren Burger, the 15th chief justice of the United States, died in Washington at age 87. Burger was opposed to gay rights as he wrote a famous concurring opinion in the Court’s 1986 decision upholding a Georgia law criminalizing sodomy (Bowers v. Hardwick), in which Burger purported to marshal historical evidence that laws criminalizing homosexuality were of ancient vintage. Chief Justice Burger pointed out that the famous legal author William Blackstone wrote that sodomy was a “‘crime against nature’… of ‘deeper malignity than rape’, a heinous act ‘the very mention of which is a disgrace to human nature’ and ‘a crime not fit to be named'” (106 S. Ct. at 2841).

In 1995, in an attempt to provide a more humanized view of their client, attorneys for Oklahoma City bombing suspect Timothy McVeigh released photos and videotape showing McVeigh smiling and relaxed.

In 1995, Haiti held its first free election in five years.

In 1996, a truck bomb killed 19 Americans and injured hundreds at a U.S. military housing complex in Saudi Arabia.

In 1997,  An unmanned Progress spacecraft collides with the Russian space station Mir.

In 1997, the Supreme Court struck down the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, designed to limit government’s ability to regulate religious practices.

In 1998, in case anybody cares, the upgrade to Windows 98 by Microsoft has been released.

In 1998, Supreme Court says HIV-infected people, with or without AIDS symptoms, are protected by federal ban on discrimination against disabled.

In 1998, President Clinton began a nine-day trip to China in the city of Xi’an (SHEE’-ahn).

In 1998, Whitewater figure Susan McDougal was freed from prison after spending 18 months behind bars for refusing to testify.

In 1998,  In Clinton v. City of New York, the United States Supreme Court decides that the Line Item Veto Act of 1996 is unconstitutional.

In 1999, During a news conference, President Clinton said the people of Serbia had to “get out of denial” about the atrocities blamed on Slobodan Milosevic and decide if he was fit to remain president of Yugoslavia.

In 2000, Philip Morris announced it was buying Nabisco for $14.9 billion.

In 2000, South Korea marked the 50th anniversary of the start of the Korean Conflict.

In 2007, Swearing in ceremony for appointed Madison County Mayor Jimmy Harris (R). Mr. Harris is replacing newly elected Jackson City Mayor Jerry Gist who resigned the county position earlier this month. The Republicans now control both the Madison County Commission and the Mayor’s office while the city is controlled by the Democrats.

In 2007, An Iraqi court convicted Ali Hassan al-Majid, known as “Chemical Ali,” and sentenced him to death by hanging. He is the cousin of Saddam Hussein. Chemical Ali was convicted along with several other associates of Hussein’s for helping to orchestrate the genocide of Iraqi Kurds in the late 1980s known as the Anfal campaign.

In 2007, I so much love hypocrisy in government, don’t you – Democratic senators on Sunday chided Vice President Dick Cheney for declaring his office exempt from sections of a presidential order involving matters of national security. Republicans, more cautiously, said the matter deserves review. At issue is a requirement that executive branch offices provide data on how much material they classify and declassify. That information is to be provided to the Information Security Oversight Office at The National Archives.

In 2013,  Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani becomes the eighth Emir of Qatar.

In 2015, The Jackson City Council passes the 2015-2016 budget on the first reading Thursday morning at a specially called meeting. It must be approved again at the July 7 meeting. The $64.8 million budget was approved unanimously, but the city had to draw approximately $676,500 from the it’s fund balance to have revenues equal expenses. “My concern is we’re actually spending more money than we’re taking in,” Councilman Randy Wallace said. “We’ve been doing that over the last several years.” Councilman Scott Conger agreed. I think as the city of Jackson we need to do a better job in the future with our financial planning,” Conger said. “We can’t borrow our way to sustainability.” It couldn’t have bother them that much. Both voted in favor of the budget.

In 2017,  The World Health Organization estimates that Yemen has over 200,000 cases of cholera.

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