June 18th in History

This day in history

June 18 is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 196 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 2349, B.C., Noah spotted the Top of Mt. Ararat in present day Turkey.

In 618,  Li Yuan becomes Emperor Gaozu of Tang, initiating three centuries of Tang Dynasty rule over China.

In 656,  Ali becomes Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate

In 860,  Byzantine–Rus’ War: A fleet of about 200 Rus’ vessels sails into the Bosphorus and starts pillaging the suburbs of the Byzantine capital Constantinople.

In 1053,  Battle of Civitate: Three thousand horsemen of Norman Count Humphrey rout the troops of Pope Leo IX.

In 1155, Coronation of Fredrick “Barbarossa,” King of Germany, as Holy Roman Emperor; 1,000 Romans die in riots

In 1178,  Five Canterbury monks see what is possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed. It is believed that the current oscillations of the Moon‘s distance from the Earth (on the order of meters) are a result of this collision.

In 1264,  The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first definitively known meeting of this Irish legislature.

In 1429,  French forces under the leadership of Joan of Arc defeat the main English army under Sir John Fastolf at the Battle of Patay. This turns the tide of the Hundred Years’ War.

In 1538Truce of Nice: ends war between Emperor Charles V & King Frances I.

William Penn.pngIn 1633,  Charles I, is crowned King of Scots at St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh

In 1682, WILLIAM PENN founded the city of Philadelphia and dubbed it the “City of Brotherly Love.”

In 1684,  The charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony is revoked via a scire facias writ issued by an English court.

In 1757,  Battle of Kolín between Prussian forces under Frederick the Great and an Austrian army under the command of Field Marshal Count Leopold Joseph von Daun in the Seven Years’ War.

In 1767,  Samuel Wallis, an English sea captain, sights Tahiti and is considered the first European to reach the island.

In 1778,American Revolutionary War: British troops abandon Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Guess the Redcoats were a bit on the yellow side.

In 1798, the first of four acts known as the Alien and Sedition Acts is adopted by Congress.

In 1798, The slogan “Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute” is first used by Robert Goodloe Harper as a toast (refers to the XYZ Affair).

In 1799,  Action of 18 June 1799: A frigate squadron under Rear-admiral Perrée is captured by the British fleet under Lord Keith

In 1812,  War of 1812: The U.S. Congress declares war on Great Britain, Canada, and Ireland for repeated violations of America rights to the sea, and the incitement of Indians on the frontier.

In 1815,  Napoleonic Wars: The Battle of Waterloo results in the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte by the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher forcing him to abdicate the throne of France for the second and last time.

In 1822, London unveils its first public statue of a nude subject, in Hyde Park. The figure of Achilles soon acquires a bronze fig leaf in deference to offended park goers.

In 1830,  French invasion of Algeria.

In 1858,  Charles Darwin receives a paper from Alfred Russel Wallace that includes nearly identical conclusions about evolution as Darwin’s own, prompting Darwin to publish his theory.

In 1859,  First ascent of Aletschhorn, second summit of the Bernese Alps.

In 1863, After long neglect, Confederates hurriedly fortify Vicksburg.

In 1864, at the Battle of Petersburg, Va., Grant is unable to take the city so he begins a siege that continues until April 1865.

In 1872, The Woman’s Suffrage Convention was held at Mercantile Liberty Hall.

In 1873Susan B. Anthony is fined $100 for attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election (however, the fine was never paid).

In 1878, U.S. Coast Guard Authorized (Organization).

In 1887,  The Reinsurance Treaty between Germany and Russia is signed.

In 1892, Macadamia nuts were first planted in Hawaii.

In 1896, delegates to the Republican National Convention in St. Louis nominated William McKinley for president, and Garret A. Hobart for vice president.

In 1900,  Empress Dowager Longyu of China orders all foreigners killed, including foreign diplomats and their families.

In 1908,  Japanese immigration to Brazil begins when 781 people arrive in Santos aboard the ship Kasato-Maru.

In 1908,  The University of the Philippines is established.

In 1910, the Mann-Elkins Act is passed, increasing the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission and extending its jurisdiction to cover telegraph, telephone, and cable companies. The Mann–Elkins Act was a 1910 United States federal law that was among the Progressive era reforms.  The Act extended the authority of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate the telecommunications industry, and designated telephone, telegraph and wireless companies as common carriers. During William H. Taft’s administration, the federal government moved to strengthen its regulatory control over the railroad industry by the passage of the Mann–Elkins Act.Supported by President William Howard Taft, the law also expanded on the powers granted to the ICC in the 1906 Hepburn Act. The ICC was authorized to investigate proposed railroad rate increases and suspend them if warranted. The “long-and-short haul” clause of the original Interstate Commerce Act (1887) was strengthened to prohibit railroads from charging passengers more for a short distance trip, compared to a longer distance ride, over the same route, unless specifically approved by the ICC. The Act also created the short-lived United States Commerce Court for adjudication of railway disputes. The Court presided until 1913, when it was abolished by Congress.

In 1915, The second battle of Artois ended in World War I; little gain was made by either the French under Joffre or by the Germans under Falkenhayn and there were huge losses on both sides.

In 1923,  Checker Taxi puts its first taxi on the streets.

In 1925, The first degree in landscape architecture was granted by Harvard University on this day.

In 1927,  The United States Postal Service (known as the post office back in those days) offered a special 10-cent postage stamp for sale. The stamp honored Charles Lindbergh’s “Spirit of St. Louis”. It was the first postage stamp to feature the name of a living American.

In 1928Aviator Amelia Earhart becomes the first woman to fly in an aircraft across the Atlantic Ocean (she is a passenger; Wilmer Stultz is the pilot and Lou Gordon the mechanic).

In 1930,  Groundbreaking ceremonies for the Franklin Institute are held.

In 1934, U.S. Highway planning nationwide surveys are authorized. Survey SAID!…

In 1935,  Police in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada clash with striking longshoremen, resulting in a total 60 injuries and 24 arrests.

In 1936, the first bicycle traffic court in America was established in Racine, WI. What’s next? Skateboarder traffic court?

In 1940,  Appeal of June 18 by Charles de Gaulle.

In 1940,  “Finest Hour” speech by Winston Churchill. During World War II. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill urged his countrymen to comport themselves in a manner that would prompt future generations to say, “This was their finest hour.”

Colorado River AqueductIn 1941, the Colorado Aqueduct begins supplying water to Los Angeles and other southern California cities. The aqueduct impounds water from the Colorado River at Lake Havasu on the California-Arizona border west across the Mojave and Colorado deserts to the east side of the Santa Ana Mountains. It is one of the primary sources of drinking water for Southern California. Originally conceived by William Mulholland and designed by Chief Engineer Frank E. Weymouth of the MWD, it was the largest public works project in southern California during the Great Depression. The project employed 30,000 people over an eight-year period and as many as 10,000 at one time.

In 1941, Turkey signs peace treaty with Nazi-Germany.

In 1942, Bernard W Robinson, becomes first black ensign in US Navy.

In 1942, Eric Nessler of France stays aloft in a glider for 38h21m.

In 1944, Cherbourg, France becomes the first French port to be captured by the Americans in World War II.

LIEUTENANT GENERAL SIMON B. BUCKNER in Okinawa.jpgIn 1945,  Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr., American general (b. 1886) was killed during the closing days of the Battle of Okinawa by enemy artillery fire making him the highest-ranking U.S. military officer to have been lost to enemy fire during World War II, and one of two U.S. Army Lieutenant Generals who died in a combat zone, the other being Lieutenant General Leslie J. McNair. He was an American lieutenant general during World War II. He served in the Pacific Theater of Operations and commanded the defences of Alaska early in the war. Following that assignment, he was promoted to command the 10th Army, which conducted the amphibious assault (Operation Iceberg) on the Japanese island of Okinawa. Buckner was posthumously promoted to the rank of full four-star general on July 19, 1954 by a Special Act of Congress (Public Law 83-508)

In 1945,  William Joyce (Lord Haw-Haw) is charged with treason for his pro-German propaganda broadcasting during World War II.

In 1945, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower received a tumultuous welcome in Washington D.C., where he addressed a joint session of Congress.

In 1945, William Joyce, known as “Lord Haw-Haw,” was charged in London with high treason for his English-language wartime broadcasts on German radio. (He was hanged the following January.)

In 1946,  Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia, a Socialist, calls for a Direct Action Day against the Portuguese in Goa. A road is named after this date in Panjim.

In 1948, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopted its International Declaration of Human Rights.

In 1953, The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 ends with the overthrow of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the declaration of the Republic of Egypt. General Neguib became its president.

In 1953,  A United States Air Force C-124 crashes and burns near Tachikawa, Japan, killing 129.

In 1954,  Pierre Mendès-France becomes Prime Minister of France.

In 1956, Last of foreign troops leaves Egypt as Brits leave Suez Canal.

In 1960, FREEDOMLAND IS DEDICATED The 205-acre amusement park with a US History Theme is dedicated in the BRONX, NY

In 1965,  Vietnam War: The United States uses B-52 bombers to attack National Liberation Front guerrilla fighters in South Vietnam.

In 1965, a Titan 3C rocket is launched into orbit (first large solid fuel rocket).

In 1968, The US Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional to deny housing on the basis of race.

In 1972,  Staines air disaster: One hundred eighteen are killed when a BEA H.S. Trident crashes two minutes after take off from London Heathrow Airport.

In 1977, a Space Shuttle test model “Enterprise” carries a crew aloft for the first time. It was fixed to a modified Boeing 747.

In 1979SALT II is signed by the United States and the Soviet Union. President Carter and Soviet President Leonid I. Brezhnev signed the strategic arms limitation treaty in Vienna. No word on whether they initiated legislation to create the PEPPER treaty to go with it.

In 1981,  The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, the first operational aircraft initially designed around stealth technology, makes its first flight.

In 1981, The “McDonald Amendment” (legal disclaimer: this has nothing to do whatsoever with McDonald’s fast food restaurants whatsoever), authored by conservative Democrat congressman Larry McDonald from Georgia, was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, 281 to 124. It prohibits Legal Services Corporation from assisting in “any case which seeks to promote, defend or protect homosexuality” (particularly custody battles of lesbian mothers).

In 1981, Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart announced he would retire after 23 years on the nation’s highest court; his departure paved the way for Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female associate justice.

In 1981, the first genetically engineered vaccine was announced. It was designed to prevent hoof and mouth disease.

In 1982, Voting Rights Act of 1965 extended by Senate by 85-8 vote.

In 1983,  Space Shuttle program: STS-7, Astronaut Sally Ride becomes the first American woman in space.

In 1983,  Mona Mahmudnizhad together with nine other Bahá’í women, is sentenced to death and hanged in Shiraz, Iran because of her Bahá’í Faith.

In 1984,  A major clash between about 5,000 police and a similar number of miners takes place at Orgreave, South Yorkshire, during the 1984–1985 UK miners’ strike.

In 1984, Following an earlier purchase of 15 percent of ESPN, ABC acquires the remaining 85 percent interest in the cable sports network. Three months later it sells 20 percent of that stake to Nabisco Brands.

In 1985, The Prime Interest Rate went to 9.5 percent

In 1985, On the fifth day of the hijacking of TWA Flight 847, the hijackers released Greek singer Demis Roussos, his American companion, Pamela Smith, and Greek-American Arthur Targon Tsidis.

In 1988, Vice President George Bush launched a sharp attack against Democratic presidential candidate Michael Dukakis, accusing the Massachusetts governor of coddling criminals by allowing some convicts out of prison on weekend furloughs.

In 1889, black inventor W. H. Richardson patented the children’s carriage.

In 1989, Greek Premier Andreas Papandreou’s Panhellenic Socialist Movement suffered a defeat as the center-right New Democracy Party finished first in general elections.

In 1991, The Louisiana Legislature enacted a strict anti-abortion law, overriding a veto by Gov. Buddy Roemer.

In 1991, Russia’s newly elected president, Boris Yeltsin, arrived in the United States for visits with American officials, including President Bush.

In 1992,  the U.S. Supreme Court ruled criminal defendants could not use race as a basis for excluding potential jurors from their trials.

In 1992, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Democrat Bill Clinton in Washington before flying on to Kansas and then Canada.

In 1993, the first lab test is released in Arizona confirming a bee involved in an attack as Africanized (Killer Bee). It is the second state invaded.

In 1994,  The Troubles: Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) attack a crowded pub with assault rifles in Loughinisland, Northern Ireland. Six Catholic civilians are killed and five wounded. It was crowded with people watching the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

In 1995, the Dow Jones Industrial Average breaks 4,500 for the first time (4,510.79).

In 1996,Ted Kaczynski, suspected of being the Unabomber, is indicted on ten criminal counts.

In 1996, ValuJet halts flight operations.

In 1996, Benjamin Netanyahu was sworn in as Israel’s youngest prime minister at the head of a right-wing coalition government.

In 1996, Federal prosecutors in California charged Theodore Kaczynski in four of the Unabomber attacks.

In 1996, Richard Allen Davis was convicted in San Jose, Calif., of the 1993 kidnap-murder of 12-year-old Polly Klaas of Petaluma.

In 1998, The Walt Disney Co. becomes an even bigger player on the Internet with the purchase of a 43% stake in Web search engine company Infoseek Corp. Disney Plans to launch an Internet portal.

In 1998, President Clinton appointed UN ambassador Bill Richardson to replace Energy Secretary Federico Pena and named Bosnian peace architect and diplomatic troubleshooter Richard Holbrooke as the new representative to the United Nations. (However, the Holbrooke nomination was held up for a year because of ethics questions.)

In 1999, Howard County grand jury hears evidence obtained by prosecutors from Ms. Lewinsky.

Jackbuck.jpgIn 2002,  Jack Buck, American sportscaster (b. 1924) dies on June 18, 2002 in St. Louis’s Barnes-Jewish Hospital from a combination of illnesses. He had stayed in the hospital for all but the first two days of January 2002. He was in the hospital to undergo treatment for lung cancer, Parkinson’s disease, and to correct an intestinal blockage. His death shook the St. Louis community: within two hours of his death, fans were leaving flowers at the base of his bust outside Busch Stadium even though it was the middle of the night. The flags at St. Louis City Hall and the St. Louis County Government Center were lowered to half-staff, the local television news anchors all wore black suits for the next several days, and a public visitation was held in the stadium before the next baseball game after his death, with free admission to the game for all the mourners who filed past his coffin. He was an American sportscaster, best known for his work announcing Major League Baseball games of the St. Louis Cardinals. His play-by-play work earned him recognition from numerous Halls of Fame, such as the National Baseball Hall of Fame, the Pro Football Hall of Fame, and the National Radio Hall of Fame. He has also been inducted as a member of the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame Museum.

In 2006,  The first Kazakh space satellite, KazSat is launched.

In 2007,  The Charleston Sofa Super Store fire happened in Charleston, South Carolina killing nine firefighters.

In 2009,  The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a NASA robotic spacecraft is launched.

In 2012,  Salman bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud is appointed Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia.

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