July 7th in History

This day in history

July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 177 days remaining until the end of the year.

The terms 7th July, July 7th, and 7/7 (pronounced “Seven-seven“) have been widely used in the Western media as a shorthand for the 7 July 2005 bombings on London’s transport system. In the Chinese language, this term is used to denote the Battle of Lugou Bridge started on July 7, 1937, marking the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Holidays

History

In 1124,  Tyre falls to the Crusaders. Tyre sometimes romanized as Sour, is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. There were approximately 117,000 inhabitants in 2003. However, the government of Lebanon has released only rough estimates of population numbers since 1932, so an accurate statistical accounting is not possible. Tyre juts out from the coast of the Mediterranean and is located about 80 km (50 mi) south of Beirut. The name of the city means “rock” after the rocky formation on which the town was originally built. The adjective for Tyre is Tyrian, and the inhabitants are Tyrians. Tyre is an ancient Phoenician city and the legendary birthplace of Europa and Dido (Elissa). Today it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon and houses one of the nation’s major ports. Tourism is a major industry. The city has a number of ancient sites, including its Roman Hippodrome which was added to UNESCO‘s list of World Heritage Sites in 1979.

A man in half figure with short, curly hair and a hint of beard is facing left. He wears a coronet and holds a sceptre in his right hand. He has a blue robe over a red tunic, and his hands are covered by white, embroidered gloves. His left hand seems to be pointing left, to something outside the picture.In 1307, Death of Edward I, King of England, at Burgh-on-Sands. He dies on his way to Scotland to fight Robert the Bruce. Edward also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307. The first son of Henry III, Edward was involved early in the political intrigues of his father’s reign, which included an outright rebellion by the English barons. In 1259, he briefly sided with a baronial reform movement, supporting the Provisions of Oxford. After reconciliation with his father, however, he remained loyal throughout the subsequent armed conflict, known as the Second Barons’ War. After the Battle of Lewes, Edward was hostage to the rebellious barons, but escaped after a few months and joined the fight against Simon de Montfort. Montfort was defeated at the Battle of Evesham in 1265, and within two years the rebellion was extinguished. With England pacified, Edward joined the Ninth Crusade to the Holy Land. The crusade accomplished little, and Edward was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died. Making a slow return, he reached England in 1274 and was crowned at Westminster on 19 August.

Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname “Longshanks”. He was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, and he often instilled fear in his contemporaries. Nevertheless, he held the respect of his subjects for the way he embodied the medieval ideal of kingship, as a soldier, an administrator and a man of faith. Modern historians are divided on their assessment of Edward I: while some have praised him for his contribution to the law and administration, others have criticised him for his uncompromising attitude towards his nobility. Currently, Edward I is credited with many accomplishments during his reign, including restoring royal authority after the reign of Henry III, establishing Parliament as a permanent institution and thereby also a functional system for raising taxes, and reforming the law through statutes. At the same time, he is also often criticised for other actions, such as his brutal conduct towards the Scots, and issuing the Edict of Expulsion in 1290, by which the Jews were expelled from England. The Edict remained in effect for the rest of the Middle Ages, and it was over 350 years until it was formally overturned under Oliver Cromwell in 1656.

Joan of Arc miniature graded.jpg

Joan of Arc

In 1456,  A retrial verdict acquits Joan of Arc of heresy 25 years after her death.

In 1520,  Spanish conquistadores defeat a larger Aztec army at the Battle of Otumba.

In 1534,  European colonization of the Americas: first known exchange between Europeans and natives of the Gulf of St. Lawrence in New Brunswick.

In 1543,  French troops invade Luxembourg.

In 1550, Europe introduced the first chocolate; the next day, Chocoholics Anonymous was established for chocolate addicts.

In 1575,  Raid of the Redeswire, the last major battle between England and Scotland.

In 1585,  King Henri III & Duke De Guise sign the Treaty of Nemours abolishes tolerance to Protestants in France. Treaty of Nemours: French Huguenots loose all freedoms.

In 1607, “God Save the King” is first sung.

Hooker.jpgIn 1647,  Thomas Hooker, English minister, founded the Colony of Connecticut (b. 1586) dies. He was a prominent Puritan colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage. Called today “the Father of Connecticut,” Thomas Hooker was a towering figure in the early development of colonial New England. He was one of the great preachers of his time, an erudite writer on Christian subjects, the first minister of Cambridge, Massachusetts, one of the first settlers and founders of both the city of Hartford and the state of Connecticut, and cited by many as the inspiration for the “Fundamental Orders of Connecticut,” cited by some as the world’s first written democratic constitution that established a representative government. Most likely coming out of the county of Leicestershire, in the East Midlands region, the Hooker family was prominent at least as far back as the reign of Henry VIII. There is known to have been a great Hooker family in Devon (colloquially called Devonshire, in the middle of the southwestern peninsula), well known throughout Southern England. The Devon branch produced the great theologian and clergyman, the Rev. Richard Hooker who, with Sir Walter Raleigh, was one of the two most influential sons of Exeter, the county town of Devon. Family genealogist Edward Hooker linked the Rev. Thomas to the Rev. Richard and the Devon branch. Other Hooker genealogists, however, have traced the Rev. Thomas back to Leicestershire where, in fact, he is said to have been born. Positive evidence linking Thomas to Leicestershire is lacking since the Marefield parish records from before 1610 perished. Any link to the Rev. Richard is likewise lacking since the Rev. Thomas’s personal papers were disposed of and his house destroyed after his death. There remains no evidence giving positive information as to which region Hooker came from, so the issue remains unsettled.

In 1668, Sir Isaac Newton received his M.A. from Trinity College in Cambridge.

In 1754, King’s College in New York City opened. (The school was renamed Columbia College 30 years later.).

In 1770,  The Battle of Larga between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire takes place.

In 1777,  American Revolutionary War: American forces retreating from Fort Ticonderoga are defeated in the Battle of Hubbardton.

In 1798,  Quasi-War: the U.S. Congress rescinds treaties with France sparking the “war“. It was the first case of outright abrogation of a treaty by the U.S. occurs when Congress pronounces the U.S. “freed and exonerated from the stipulations” of the treaties of 1778 with France.

In 1802, The first comic book was published in Hudson, NY this day. It was about “The Wasp” and was published under the pseudonym “Robert Rusticoat,” it was actually the work of one Harry Croswell.

In 1807,  Napoleonic Wars: the Peace of Tilsit between France, Prussia and Russia ends the War of the Fourth Coalition.

In 1809, The spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church, Pope Pius VIIfell on hard times, big time. French soldiers seized the Pope and carried him to Grenoble…where he lived on alms for three years.

In 1834,  In New York City, four nights of rioting against abolitionists began.

In 1838, Congress designated the railroad system as postal routes.

In 1846,  Mexican–American War: American troops occupy Monterey and Yerba Buena, thus beginning the U.S. acquisition of California.

In 1853, Commodore Perry sailed the U-S Navy into a harbor in Japan to “persuade” the Japanese to trade with the West.

In 1863,  United States begins its first military draft; exemptions cost $300.

In 1865,  American Civil War: four conspirators in the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln are hanged. After being convicted of conspiring with John Wilkes Booth in the assassination of President Lincoln; Mary Surratt, owner of the boarding house where John Wilkes Booth stayed while planning Lincoln’s assassination, was also hanged for her part in the alleged conspiracy.

In 1874, 27th Postmaster General: James W Marshall of NJ takes office.

In 1875, Jesse James robs train in Otterville, Missouri.

In 1885, G. Moore Peters of Xenia, OH, patented the cartridge-loading machine.

Henry Nestle.jpgIn 1890,  Henri Nestlé, German businessman, founded Nestlé (b. 1814) dies. He was a Swiss confectioner and the founder of Nestlé, the world’s largest food and beverage company,  as well as one of the main creators of condensed milk.

In 1891, A patent was granted for the travelers cheque. Don’t leave home without it!

In 1892,  Katipunan: the Revolutionary Philippine Brotherhood is established, contributing to the fall of the Spanish Empire in Asia.

In 1898,  U.S. President William McKinley signs the Newlands Resolution annexing Hawaii as a territory of the United States.

In 1907,  Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr. staged his first Follies on the roof of the New York Theater in New York City.

In 1911,  The United States, Great Britain, Japan, and Russia sign the North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911 banning open-water seal hunting, the first international treaty to address wildlife preservation issues.

In 1915,  World War I: end of First Battle of the Isonzo.

In 1915,  An International Railway trolley with an extreme overload of 157 passengers crashes near Queenston, Ontario, killing 15.

In 1915,  Militia officer Henry Pedris executed by firing squad at Colombo, Ceylon – an act widely regarded as a miscarriage of justice by the British colonial authorities.

In 1920, a device known as the radio compass was used for the first time on a U.S. Navy airplane near Norfolk, Virginia on this day.

In 1928,  Sliced bread is sold for the first time (on the inventor’s 48th birthday) by the Chillicothe Baking Company of Chillicothe, Missouri.

In 1930, Construction began on Boulder Dam, later renamed Hoover Dam.

In 1930,  Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser begins construction of the Boulder Dam (now known as Hoover Dam). It was the best Dam project of the year.

Conan doyle.jpgIn 1930,  Arthur Conan Doyle, Scottish physician and author, created Sherlock Holmes (b. 1859) dies. He was a Scottish physician and writer who is most noted for his fictional stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered milestones in the field of crime fiction. He is also known for writing the fictional adventures of a second character he invented, Professor Challenger, and for popularising the mystery of the Mary Celeste. He was a prolific writer whose other works include fantasy and science fiction stories, plays, romances, poetry, non-fiction, and historical novels. His first significant piece, A Study in Scarlet, was taken by Ward Lock & Co on 20 November 1886, giving Doyle £25 for all rights to the story. The piece appeared later that year in the Beeton’s Christmas Annual and received good reviews in The Scotsman and the Glasgow Herald. The story featured the first appearance of Watson and Sherlock Holmes, partially modelled after his former university teacher Joseph Bell. Doyle wrote to him, “It is most certainly to you that I owe Sherlock Holmes … round the centre of deduction and inference and observation which I have heard you inculcate I have tried to build up a man.”

In 1937,  Second Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Lugou Bridge – Japanese forces invade Beijing, China.

In 1941,  World War II: U.S. forces land in Iceland, Trinidad and British Guiana to forestall any Nazi invasion, even though the United States had not yet entered World War II; taking over from an earlier British occupation.

In 1941,  World War II: Beirut is occupied by Free France and British troops.

In 1943, third day of battle at Kursk: Germans occupy Dubrova.

In 1944,  World War II: Largest Banzai charge of the Pacific War at the Battle of Saipan.

In 1946,  Mother Francesca S. Cabrini becomes the first American to be canonized.

In 1946,  Howard Hughes nearly dies when his XF-11 reconnaissance aircraft prototype crashes in a Beverly Hills neighborhood.

In 1947,  The Roswell incident, the (supposed) crash of an alien spaceship near Roswell in New Mexico.

In 1952,  The ocean liner SS United States passes Bishop Rock on her maiden voyage, breaking the transatlantic speed record to become the fastest passenger ship in the world.

In 1953,  Ernesto “Che” Guevara sets out on a trip through Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and El Salvador.

In 1954,  Elvis Presley makes his radio debut when WHBQ Memphis played his first recording for Sun Records, “That’s All Right.”

In 1956,  Fritz Moravec and two other Austrian mountaineers make the first ascent of Gasherbrum II (8,035 m).

In 1958,  U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Alaska Statehood Act into law.

In 1959,  Venus occults the star Regulus. This rare event is used to determine the diameter of Venus and the structure of the Venusian atmosphere.

In 1959, the American Lutheran Church is established by the merger of the Evangelical Lutherans and the United Evangelical Lutherans.

In 1961, James R Hoffa elected chairman of Teamsters.

In 1967, Vivien Leigh, Indian-English actress and singer (b. 1913) dies. She was a British stage and film actress. She won two Best Actress Academy Awards for her performances as “Southern belles“: Scarlett O’Hara in Gone with the Wind (1939) and Blanche DuBois in the film version of A Streetcar Named Desire (1951), a role she had also played on stage in London‘s West End in 1949. She won a Tony Award for her work in the Broadway version of Tovarich (1963). After an education in drama school, Leigh appeared in small roles in four films in 1935, and progressed to the role of heroine in Fire Over England (1937). Lauded for her beauty, Leigh felt that it sometimes prevented her from being taken seriously as an actress. Despite her fame as a screen actress, Leigh was primarily a stage performer. During her 30-year stage career, she played roles ranging from the heroines of Noël Coward and George Bernard Shaw comedies to classic Shakespearean characters such as Ophelia, Cleopatra, Juliet and Lady Macbeth. Later in life, she played character roles in a few films. To the public at the time, Leigh was strongly identified with her second husband Laurence Olivier, to whom she was married from 1940 to 1960. Leigh and Olivier starred together in many stage productions, with Olivier often directing, and in three films. For much of her adult life, she suffered from bipolar disorder. She earned a reputation for being difficult to work with, and her career suffered periods of inactivity. She suffered recurrent bouts of chronic tuberculosis, first diagnosed in the mid-1940s, which ultimately claimed her life at the age of 53. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked Leigh as the 16th greatest female movie star of all time.

In 1969, Canada’s House of Commons approved a measure making the French language equal to English throughout the national government.

In 1972, The first female FBI agents were sworn-in. Susan Roley was a former Marine. On the other end of the spectrum, Joanne Pierce was a former Roman Catholic nun.

In 1973, President Nixon said he would not appear before the Senate Watergate Investigating Committee, or give it access to White House files. Watergate would eventually lead to Nixon’s resignation in August 1974.

Veronica Lake still.jpgIn 1973,  Veronica Lake, American actress and singer (b. 1919) dies. She was an American film, stage and television actress. Lake won both popular and critical acclaim, most notably for her role in Sullivan’s Travels and for her femme fatale roles in film noirs with Alan Ladd, during the 1940s. She was also well known for her peek-a-boo hairstyle. By the late 1940s however, Lake’s career had begun to decline in part due to her struggles with mental illness and alcoholism. She made only one film in the 1950s but appeared in several guest-starring roles on television. She returned to the screen in 1966 with a role in the film Footsteps In the Snow, but the role failed to revitalize her career. Lake released her memoirs, Veronica: The Autobiography of Veronica Lake, in 1970. She used the money she made from the book to finance a low-budget horror film Flesh Feast. It was her final onscreen role. Lake died in July 1973 from hepatitis and acute kidney injury at the age of 50.

In 1976, The first televised U.S. state dinner was shown in Washington, D.C.

In 1977, the first female member of the Civil Aeronautics Board, E. E. Bailey, was appointed.

In 1978,  The Solomon Islands becomes independent from the United Kingdom

In 1980,  Institution of sharia in Iran.

In 1980,  During the Lebanese Civil War, 83 Tiger militants are killed during what will be known as the Safra massacre.

In 1981,  U.S. President Ronald Reagan appoints Sandra Day O’Connor to become the first female member of the Supreme Court of the United States.

In 1981, The first solar-powered aircraft, Solar Challenger, crossed the English Channel.

In 1983,  Cold War: Samantha Smith, a U.S. schoolgirl, flies to the Soviet Union at the invitation of Secretary General Yuri Andropov.

In 1983, Former model Vicki Morgan, who had filed a palimony suit against the late millionaire Alfred Bloomingdale, was found beaten to death in a North Hollywood condominium.

In 1985,  Boris Becker becomes the youngest player ever to win Wimbledon at age 17

In 1986, IBM-PC DOS Version 3.2 (updated) released.

In 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a key provision of the Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law.

In 1987, Kiwanis Clubs end men-only tradition and vote to admit women.

In 1987, Lt. Col. Oliver North began his long-awaited public testimony at the Iran-Contra hearing on Capitol Hill, telling House members that he “never carried out a single act, not one” without authorization. At the height of Ollie-mania, you could buy posters, t-shirts and even an “Ollie North Coloring Book,” done by the folks associated with Mad magazine.

In 1991,  Yugoslav Wars: the Brioni Agreement ends the ten-day independence war in Slovenia against the rest of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

In 1992, Jupiter’s gravitational forces break up the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL-9) – captured 65 years earlier – into at least 23 segments which crash into the planet 2 years later.

In 1994, Viacom Inc. buys Paramount Communications Inc. for $10 billion after winning a bidding war against QVC Inc. for the movie, publishing and sports company.

In 1996, President Clinton delivered more Whitewater trial testimony before video cameras, this time testifying in the case of two Arkansas bankers accused of making political contributions with bank funds; a jury later acquitted Herby Branscum Jr., and Robert M. Hill of four counts and was deadlocked on seven other counts. Whitewater prosecutor Kenneth Starr decided not to retry the bankers.

In 1997, three days after landing on Mars, the Pathfinder spacecraft yielded what scientists said was unmistakable photographic evidence that colossal floods scoured the planet’s now-barren landscape more than a billion years ago.

In 1997,  The Turkish Armed Forces withdraw from northern Iraq after assisting the Kurdistan Democratic Party in the Iraqi Kurdish Civil War.

In 2000, Stock car driver Kenny Irwin was killed when his car slammed into a wall during practice at New Hampshire International Speedway; he was 30. He was an American stock car racing driver. He had driven in all three NASCAR national touring series, and had two total victories, both in the Craftsman Truck Series. Before that, he raced in the United States Auto Club against Tony Stewart, who was one of his fiercest rivals. He died as a result of injuries suffered in a crash during a practice session at New Hampshire Motor Speedway.

In 2002,  A scandal breaks out in the United Kingdom when news reports accuse MI6 of sheltering Abu Qatada, the supposed European Al-Qaeda leader.

In 2003,  NASA Opportunity rover, MER-B or Mars Exploration Rover – B, was launched into space aboard a Delta II rocket.

In 2005,  A series of four explosions occurs on London’s transport system killing 56 people including four alleged suicide bombers and injuring over 700 others.

In 2011, Roof of a stand in De Grolsch Veste Stadium in Enschede which was under construction collapsed, killing two and injuring 14.

In 2012,  At least 172 people are killed in a flash flood in the Krasnodar Krai region of Russia.

In 2013,  A De Havilland Otter air taxi crashes in Soldotna, Alaska, killing 10 people.

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