This Day in History July 11th

This day in historyJuly 11 is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 173 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 472,  After being besieged in Rome by his own generals, Western Roman Emperor Anthemius is captured in the St. Peter’s Basilica and put to death.

In 813,  Byzantine emperor Michael I, under threat by conspiracies, abdicates in favor of his general Leo the Armenian, and becomes a monk (under the name Athanasius).

In 911,  Signing of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between Charles the Simple and Rollo of Normandy.

In 1174,  Baldwin IV, 13, becomes King of Jerusalem, with Raymond III, Count of Tripoli as regent and William of Tyre as chancellor.

In 1302,  Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch) – a coalition around the Flemish cities defeats the king of France’s royal army.

In 1346,  Charles IV, Count of Luxembourg and King of Bohemia, is elected King of the Romans.

In 1405,  Ming admiral Zheng He sets sail to explore the world for the first time.

In 1476,  Giuliano della Rovere is appointed bishop of Coutances.

In 1576,  Martin Frobisher sights Greenland.

In 1598, Founding of San Juan de los Caballeros, New Mexico (Today Ohkay Owingeh (pronounced [ˈokɛ oˈwiŋɛ]))

In 1616,  Samuel de Champlain returns to Quebec.

In 1625, The English parliament adjourned because of the Plague.

In 1690, During Britain’s Glorious Revolution, King William III defeated the mostly Roman Catholic English, Irish and French Jacobite forces under James II at the Battle of the Boyne.

Painting of two men on horses

The Duke of Vendôme and Philip V of Spain depicted after the victory at the 1710 Battle of Villaviciosa

In 1708, Duke of Marlborough’s forces beat the French under Louis Vendome at the battle of Oudenarde in the War of Spanish Succession.

Pluto animiert 200px.gifIn 1735,  Mathematical calculations suggest that it is on this day that dwarf planet Pluto moved inside the orbit of Neptune for the last time before 1979.

In 1740,  Pogrom: Jews are expelled from Little Russia.

In 1750,  Halifax, Nova Scotia is almost completely destroyed by fire.

In 1781, Thomas Hutchins designated Geographer of the US. He was an American military engineer, cartographer, geographer and surveyor. In 1781, Hutchins was named Geographer of the United States. He is the only person to hold that post.

In 1789,  Jacques Necker is dismissed as France’s Finance Minister sparking the Storming of the Bastille.

In 1796,  The United States takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.

In 1798,  The United States Marine Corps is re-established; they had been disbanded after the American Revolutionary War; the Marine Corps was created by the Continental Congress in November 1775. Semper Fidelis

In 1801,  French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons makes his first comet discovery. In the next 27 years he discovers another 36 comets, more than any other person in history.

In 1804,  A duel occurs in which the Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr mortally wounds former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton.

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James Smith

In 1806,  James Smith, Irish-American politician (b. 1719) dies. He was an American lawyer and a signer to the United States Declaration of Independence as a representative of Pennsylvania. He was born in Province of Ulster, Ireland; his family immigrated to Chester County, Pennsylvania, in 1729. Smith attended the Philadelphia Academy. He studied law at the office of his brother George and was admitted to the bar in Pennsylvania, initially practicing near Shippensburg, and later near York. He became captain of the militia there. He was appointed to the provincial convention in Philadelphia in 1775, to the state constitutional convention in 1776, and was elected to the Continental Congress. He was reelected to Congress in 1785 but declined to attend because of his advanced age.

In 1833,  Noongar Australian aboriginal warrior Yagan, wanted for the murder of white colonists in Western Australia, is killed.

In 1848,  Waterloo railway station in London opens.

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Cover of serial Vol. V, 1859

In 1859, “A Tale Of Two Cities” by Charles Dickens was first published. This is a novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the French Revolution. The novel tells the story of the French Doctor Manette, his 18-year-long imprisonment in the Bastille in Paris and his release to life in London with his daughter Lucie, whom he had never met; Lucie’s marriage and the collision between her beloved husband and the people who caused her father’s imprisonment; and Monsieur and Madame Defarge, sellers of wine in a poor suburb of Paris. The story is set against the conditions that led up to the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.

In 1862, After four months as his own general-in-chief, President Lincoln hands over the task to Gen. Henry W. (Old Brains) Halleck.

In 1863, The first U.S. draft lottery is held. Not long after, my Great Grandfather Phillipp Neudecker is drafted into the 2nd Army of the Ohio.

In 1864,  American Civil War: Battle of Fort Stevens; Confederate forces attempt to invade Washington, D.C.  Confederate forces led by General Jubal Early began an abortive invasion of Washington D.C., turning back the next day.

In 1882,  The British Mediterranean Fleet begins the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt as part of the Anglo-Egyptian War.

In 1889,  Tijuana, Mexico, is founded.

In 1893,  The first cultured pearl is obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.

In 1893 – A revolution led by the liberal general and politician, José Santos Zelaya, takes over state power in Nicaragua.

In 1895,  Brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière demonstrate movie film technology to scientists.

In 1897,  Salomon August Andrée leaves Spitsbergen to attempt to reach the North Pole by balloon. He later crashes and dies.

In 1906,  Murder of Grace Brown by Chester Gillette in the United States, inspiration for Theodore Dreiser‘s An American Tragedy.

In 1914,  Babe Ruth makes his debut in Major League Baseball.

In 1914, USS Nevada (BB-36) is launched.

In 1916, The Federal Aid Road Act was passed by Congress, providing grant-in-aid to states for road construction. Federal Progressivism moves to laying down roads.

In 1918, Enrico Caruso bypassed opera for a short time to join the war (WWI) effort. Caruso recorded “Over There“, the patriotic song written by George M. Cohan. It was a patriotic song designed to galvanize American young men to enlist in the army and fight the “Hun”. The song is best remembered for a line in its chorus, “The Yanks are coming.”

In 1919,  The eight-hour day and free Sunday become law for workers in the Netherlands.

In 1920,  In the East Prussian plebiscite the local populace decides to remain with Weimar Germany.

In 1921,  A truce in the Irish War of Independence comes into effect.

In 1921,  The Red Army captures Mongolia from the White Army and establishes the Mongolian People’s Republic. Gaining its independence from China (National Day), and a Communist regime is established.

In 1921,  Former President of the United States William Howard Taft is sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, becoming the only person ever to hold both offices.

In 1922,  The Hollywood Bowl opens.

In 1923, the first railroad signal system of continuous cab signals is installed at Sunbury, Pa.

In 1924,  Eric Liddell won the gold medal in 400m at the 1924 Paris Olympics, after refusing to run in the heats for 100m, his favoured distance, on the Sunday

In 1930,  Australian cricketer Donald Bradman scores a world record 309 runs in one day, on his way to the highest individual Test innings of 334, during a Test match against England.

In 1934,  Engelbert Zaschka of Germany flies his large human-powered aircraft, the Zaschka Human-Power Aircraft, about 20 meters at Berlin Tempelhof Airport without assisted take-off.

In 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt became the first chief executive to travel through the Panama Canal, aboard the cruiser Houston.

In 1936,  The Triborough Bridge in New York City is opened to traffic.

George Gershwin 1937.jpgIn 1937,  George Gershwin, American pianist and composer (b. 1898) dies from a brain tumor. He was an American composer and pianist. Gershwin’s compositions spanned both popular and classical genres, and his most popular melodies are widely known. Among his best-known works are the orchestral compositions Rhapsody in Blue (1924) and An American in Paris (1928) as well as the opera Porgy and Bess (1935).

Gershwin studied piano under Charles Hambitzer and composition with Rubin Goldmark and Henry Cowell. He began his career as a song plugger, but soon started composing Broadway theatre works with his brother Ira Gershwin, and Buddy DeSylva. He moved to Paris to study with Nadia Boulanger, where he began to compose An American in Paris. After returning to New York City, he wrote Porgy and Bess with Ira and the author DuBose Heyward. Initially a commercial failure, Porgy and Bess is now considered one of the most important American operas of the twentieth century. Gershwin moved to Hollywood and composed numerous film scores.

In 1940,  World War II: Vichy France regime is formally established. Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France.

In 1943,  Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army within the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (Volhynia) peak.

In 1943,  World War II: Allied invasion of SicilyGerman and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily. US 45th Division occupies airport Comiso Sicily.

In 1944, President FDR announced he was available for an unprecedented fourth term.

In 1945, The U.S. Army used napalm on Japanese forces on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. This is the first recorded use of Napalm.

In 1947,  The Exodus 1947 heads to Palestine from France.

In 1950,  Pakistan joins the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank.

In 1952, the Republican National Convention, meeting in Chicago, nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower for president and Richard M. Nixon for vice president.

In 1955, Congress authorized all US currency to say “In God We Trust”

In 1955, the U.S. Air Force Academy was dedicated in Colorado Springs, CO this day. The first class included 306 cadets.

In 1957,  Prince Karim Husseini Aga Khan IV inherits the office of Imamat as the 49th Imam of Shia Imami Ismai’li worldwide, after the death of Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III.

In 1960,  France legislates for the independence of Dahomey (later Benin), Upper Volta (later Burkina) and Niger.

In 1960,  Congo Crisis: The State of Katanga breaks away from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

In 1960,  To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is first published, in the United States.

In 1962,  First transatlantic satellite television transmission.

In 1962,  Project Apollo: At a press conference, NASA announces lunar orbit rendezvous as the means to land astronauts on the Moon, and return them to Earth.

In 1964, the first 7-11 convenience store opened its doors. It was called a convenience store because of its extended hours: from 7am to 11pm. And they’re buying at seven/eleven.

In 1968, American Indian Movement Founded (Organization). AIM was initially formed to address American Indian sovereignty, treaty issues, spirituality, and leadership, while simultaneously addressing incidents of police harassment and racism against Native Americans forced to move away from reservations and tribal culture by the 1950s-era enforcement of the U.S. federal government-enforced Indian Termination Policies originally created in the 1930s.

In 1969, a federal appeals court in Boston reversed the convictions of Dr. Benjamin Spock and three others found guilty in 1968 of conspiring to counsel evasion of the military draft.

In 1971,  Copper mines in Chile are nationalized.

In 1972,  The first game of the World Chess Championship 1972 between challenger Bobby Fischer and defending champion Boris Spassky starts.

In 1973,  Varig Flight 820 crashes near Paris, France on approach to Orly Airport, killing 123 of the 134 on board. In response, the FAA bans smoking on flights.

In 1974, the Los Angeles City Council votes 12 to 1 to ban all public nudity in the city, after a local television station runs an “expos‚” on nude sunbathing at Venice Beach.

In 1974, the House Judiciary Committee released volumes of evidence it had gathered in its Watergate inquiry.

In 1975, Chinese archeologists announce the uncovering of a 3-acre burial mound concealing 6000 clay statues of warriors and their regalia dating from 221 to 206 BC.

In 1977,  Martin Luther King, Jr. is posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

In 1978,  Los Alfaques disaster: A truck carrying liquid gas crashes and explodes at a coastal campsite in Tarragona, Spain killing 216 tourists.

In 1979, After 80 years of British rule Kiribati, formerly the Gilbert Islands, achieved independence.

In 1979,  America’s first space station, Skylab, is destroyed as it re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere over the Indian Ocean.

In 1980, American hostage Richard I. Queen was freed on the 250 day of captivity by Iran when he was diagnosed as having multiple sclerosis.

In 1981, Neva Rockefeller became the first woman to be ordered by the court to pay alimony to her husband.

In 1984, Transportation Secretary Elizabeth Dole ordered that airbags or automatic seat belts be installed in cars beginning with some 1987 models unless states enacted laws requiring seat-belt use.

In 1983, the Reagan administration filed its first school desegregation lawsuit, charging that Alabama’s public colleges and universities were practicing segregation.

In 1985, two explosions sank the Rainbow Warrior, flagship of the Greenpeace environmental activist group, in Auckland, New Zealand, killing a ship’s photographer and launching an international uproar. France later acknowledged responsibility.

In 1985, Zippers for stitches were announced by Dr. H. Harlan Stone this day. The surgeon had used zippers on 28 patients, on whom he thought he might have to re-operate, because of internal bleeding following initial operations. The zippers which lasted between five and 14 days, were then replaced with permanent stitches. Now you could, literally, zip your lips.

In 1986, An Air Force plane crashed in Sequoia National Forest in California. Officials revealed little, but experts speculated the plane was a radar-evading stealth fighter, a plane whose existence had yet to be officially confirmed.

In 1987, Matej Gaspar, born at 1:35 a.m. in Yugoslavia, is proclaimed Earth’s five-billionth inhabitant.

In 1987, Col. Oliver North implicates officials inside the White House in the secret arms sales to Iran.

In 1990,  Oka Crisis: First Nations land dispute in Quebec, Canada begins.

In 1992, Undeclared presidential hopeful Ross Perot, addressing the NAACP convention in Nashville, Tenn., startled and offended his listeners by referring to the predominantly black audience as “you people.” WOW, I would be so offended!

In 1995,  The Srebrenica massacre is carried out.

In 1995, President Clinton formally opened full diplomatic relations with Vietnam.

In 1996, The U.N. criminal tribunal for former Yugoslavia issued international arrest warrants against Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic on charges of genocide and war crimes.


Michael Blassie in his Air Force Academy cadet uniform

In 1998, Air Force Lieutenant Michael Blassie, a casualty of the Vietnam War, was laid to rest near his Missouri home, after the positive identification of his remains, which had been enshrined at the Tomb of the Unknowns in Arlington, Virginia.

In 1999, A US Air Force cargo jet, braving Antarctic winter, swept down over the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research Center to drop off emergency medical supplies for Dr. Jerri Nielsen, a physician at the center who had discovered a lump in her breast.

In 2006,  Mumbai train bombings: Two hundred nine people are killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India.

In 2010,  July 2010 Kampala attacks: At least 74 people are killed in twin suicide bombings at two locations in Kampala, Uganda

In 2011,  Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion: Ninety-eight containers of explosives self-detonate killing 13 people in Zygi, Cyprus.

In 2012,  Astronomers announce the discovery of Styx, the fifth moon of Pluto.


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