This Day in History July 12th

This day in historyJuly 12 is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 172 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In AD 70,  The armies of Titus attack the walls of Jerusalem after six months of battle. Three days later they breach the walls, which enables the army to destroy the Second Temple.

In 927,  Æthelstan, King of England, secures a pledge from Constantine II of Scotland that the latter will not ally with Viking kings, beginning the process of unifying Great Britain.

In 1191,  Third Crusade: Saladin‘s garrison surrenders to Philip Augustus, ending the two-year siege of Acre.

In 1328, Marriage of David II, King of Scotland, to Joanna, sister of Edward III of England

In 1470,  The Ottomans capture Euboea.

In 1493,  Hartmann Schedel‘s Nuremberg Chronicle, one of the best-documented early printed books, is published.

In 1527,  Lê Cung Hoàng ceded the throne to Mạc Đăng Dung, ending the Lê Dynasty and starting the Mạc Dynasty.

Catherine Parr from NPG.jpgIn 1543,  King Henry VIII of England marries his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, at Hampton Court Palace.  She was also the most-married English queen, with four husbands. Catherine enjoyed a close relationship with Henry’s three children and was personally involved in the education of Elizabeth and Edward, both of whom became English monarchs. She was influential in Henry’s passing of the Third Succession Act in 1542 that restored both his daughters, Mary and Elizabeth, to the line of succession to the throne.

Catherine was appointed Regent from July to September 1544 while Henry was on a military campaign in France and in case he lost his life, she was to rule as regent until Edward came of age. However he did not give her any function in government in his will. In 1543, she published her first book, Psalms or Prayers, anonymously. On account of Catherine’s Protestant sympathies, she provoked the enmity of anti-Protestant officials, who sought to turn the King against her; a warrant for her arrest was drawn up in 1545. However, she and the King soon reconciled. Her book Prayers or Meditations became the first book published by an English queen under her own name. She assumed the role of Elizabeth’s guardian following the King’s death, and published a second book, The Lamentations of a Sinner.

In 1561,  Saint Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow is consecrated.

In 1562,  Fray Diego de Landa, acting Bishop of Yucatán, burns the sacred books of the Maya.

In 1580,  The Ostrog Bible, one of the early printed Bibles in a Slavic language, is published.

In 1630, New Amsterdam’s governor buys Gull Island from Indians for cargo, renames it Oyster Island, it is later known as Ellis Island.

In 1679, English king Charles II ratifies Habeas Corpus Act.

In 1690,  Battle of the Boyne (Gregorian calendar): The armies of William III defeat those of the former James II.

In 1691,  Battle of Aughrim (Julian calendar): The decisive victory of William III of England‘s forces in Ireland.

In 1749, The Colony of Virginia grants 800,000 acres west of the Virginia-North Carolina border to the Loyal Company.

Marquis de Beauharnois.jpgIn 1749,  Charles de la Boische, Marquis de Beauharnois, French navy officer and politician, Governor General of New France (b. 1671) dies. He was a French Naval officer who served as Governor of New France from 1726 to 1746. Charles had two brothers who also impacted the history of New France. Claude de Beauharnois was a French Naval officer who spent time commanding ships that maintained supply lines to the colony and François de Beauharnois was intendant of New France for a time. The governor worked well with frontier traders, explorers, and missionaries. His term saw a great expansion in the number of western forts with the leadership of people like La Vérendrye, and the linkage of Canadian and Louisiana colonies. Exploration was pushed west to the Rocky Mountains by La Vérendrye and his sons. Despite a generally peaceful and prosperous administration, he was blamed for the fall of Fortress Louisbourg in 1745, and was recalled in 1746, returning to France to following year.

Many places carry his name including the town of Beauharnois, Quebec and Fort Beauharnois, Minnesota.

In 1775, the Continental Congress appoints the U.S.’s first management of Indian affairs official.

In 1776,  Captain James Cook begins his third voyage.

In 1776, A plan for confederation of the 13 colonies is presented to the Continental Congress by John Dickinson.

In 1789,  French revolutionary and radical journalist Camille Desmoulins gave a speech in response to the dismissal of Jacques Necker France’s finance minister the day before. The speech calls the citizens to arms and leads to the Storming of the Bastille two days later.

In 1790,  The Civil Constitution of the Clergy is passed in France by the National Constituent Assembly.

In 1799,  Ranjit Singh conquers Lahore and becomes Maharaja of the Punjab (Sikh Empire).

In 1801,  French Revolutionary Wars: British Royal Navy ships inflict heavy damage against Spanish and French ships in the Second Battle of Algeciras.

Alexander Hamilton portrait by John Trumbull 1806.jpgIn 1804,  Former United States Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton dies a day after being shot in a duel. He was a founding father of the United States, chief staff aide to General George Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the U.S. Constitution, the founder of the nation’s financial system, and the founder of the Federalist Party, the world’s first voter-based political party. As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the primary author of the economic policies of the George Washington administration. Hamilton took the lead in the funding of the states’ debts by the Federal government, the establishment of a national bank, a system of tariffs, and friendly trade relations with Britain. He led the Federalist Party, created largely in support of his views; he was opposed by the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, which despised Britain and feared that Hamilton’s policies of a strong central government would weaken the American commitment to Republicanism.

Born out of wedlock, raised in the West Indies, and orphaned as a child, Hamilton pursued a college education through the help of local wealthy men. Recognized for his abilities and talent, he was sent to King’s College (now Columbia University), in New York City. Hamilton played a major role in the American Revolutionary War. At the start of the war in 1775, he organized an artillery company. He soon became the senior aide to General Washington, the American forces’ commander-in-chief. Washington sent him on numerous important missions to tell generals what Washington wanted. After the war, Hamilton was elected to the Congress of the Confederation from New York. He resigned, to practice law, and founded the Bank of New York. Hamilton was among those dissatisfied with the weak national government. He led the Annapolis Convention, which successfully influenced Congress to issue a call for the Philadelphia Convention, in order to create a new constitution. He was an active participant at Philadelphia; and he helped achieve ratification by writing 51 of the 85 installments of The Federalist Papers. To this day, it is the single most important reference for Constitutional interpretation.

In 1806,  Sixteen German imperial states leave the Holy Roman Empire and form the Confederation of the Rhine.

In 1806,  Liechtenstein is given full sovereignty after its accession to the Confederation of the Rhine.

In 1812,  War of 1812: The United States invades Canada at Windsor, Ontario. United States forces led by Gen. William Hull entered Canada during the War of 1812 against Britain. (However, Hull, concerned about a new alliance between the British and the Indians led by Tecumseh, retreated shortly thereafter to Detroit, and surrendered to the British a month later.).

In 1817, the first flower show is held at Dannybrook, County Cork, Ireland.

In 1843, Joseph Smith, leader of the Mormon Church, announces that a divine revelation has sanctioned the practice of polygamy.

In 1844, Captain J.N. Taylor first demonstrates the fog horn.

Dolley Madison.jpgIn 1849,  Dolley Madison, American wife of James Madison, 4th First Lady of the United States (b. 1768) dies. She was the wife of James Madison, President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. She was noted for her social gifts, which boosted her husband’s popularity as President. In this way, she did much to define the role of the President’s spouse, known only much later by the title First Lady—a function she had sometimes performed earlier for the widowed Jefferson.

Dolley Madison also helped to furnish the newly constructed White House. When the British set fire to it in 1814, she was credited with saving the classic portrait of George Washington. In widowhood, she often lived in poverty, partially relieved by the sale of her late husband’s papers.

In 1859, the Paper bag manufacturing machine was patented by William Goodale, Mass.

In 1862,  The Medal of Honor is authorized by the United States Congress.

In 1864, During a Civil War battle near Washington, D.C., junior officer Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., yells, “Get down, you fool!” at President Lincoln, who is observing the Union forces in action.

In 1870, a U.S. patent for a process by which celluloid is produced is awarded to John W. Hyatt, Jr., and Isaiah S. Hyatt of Albany, N.Y.

In 1878, Turkey cedes Cyprus to Britain.

In 1879,  The National Guards Unit of Bulgaria is founded.

young man with beardIn 1892,  Alexander Cartwright, American firefighter, invented baseball (b. 1820) dies. He  is one of several people sometimes referred to as a “father of baseball“. Cartwright is thought to be the first person to draw a diagram of a diamond-shaped baseball field, and the rules of the modern game are based on the Knickerbocker Rules developed by Cartwright and a committee from his club, the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club. With the myth of Abner Doubleday inventing baseball debunked, Cartwright was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame as an executive 46 years after his death. Cartwright was officially declared the inventor of the modern game of baseball by the 83rd United States Congress on June 3, 1953

In 1893, Publication of the  Sherlock Holmes Adventure, “The Adventure of the Gloria Scott ” (BG). It is chronologically the earliest case in Sherlock Holmes canon. This story is related mainly by Holmes rather than Watson, and is the first case to which Holmes applied his powers of deduction, having treated it as a mere hobby until this time.

In 1910, Charles Stewart Rolls, aviator and co-founder of Rolls-Royce, became Britain’s first aviation victim when he crashed his plane near Bournemouth.

In 1913,  Second Balkan War: Serbian forces begin their siege of the Bulgarian city of Vidin; the siege is later called off when the war ends.

In 1917,  The Bisbee Deportation occurs as vigilantes kidnap and deport nearly 1,300 striking miners and others from Bisbee, Arizona.

In 1918,  The Imperial Japanese Navy battleship Kawachi blows up at Shunan, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621.

In 1920,  The Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty is signed. Soviet Russia recognizes independent Lithuania.

BellK 218 Gertrude Bell in Iraq in 1909 age 41.jpgIn 1926,  Gertrude Bell, English archaeologist and spy (b. 1868) was discovered dead, of an apparent overdose of sleeping pills. She was an English writer, traveler, political officer, administrator, spy and archaeologist who explored, mapped, and became highly influential to British imperial policy-making due to her knowledge and contacts, built up through extensive travels in Greater Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Arabia. Along with T. E. Lawrence, Bell helped establish the Hashemite dynasties in what is today Jordan as well as in Iraq.

She played a major role in establishing and helping administer the modern state of Iraq, utilizing her unique perspective from her travels and relations with tribal leaders throughout the Middle East. During her lifetime she was highly esteemed and trusted by British officials and given an immense amount of power for a woman at the time. She has been described as “one of the few representatives of His Majesty’s Government remembered by the Arabs with anything resembling affection”.

In 1932,  Hedley Verity takes a cricket world record ten wickets for ten runs in a county match for Yorkshire.

In 1933, A new U.S. industrial code was established to fix a minimum wage of 40 cents an hour. This was the first national minimum wage law passed by the U. S. Congress.

In 1934, the U.S. Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz Island is abandoned.

German tanks on the southern side of the Kursk salient at the start of Operation Citadel

German tanks on the southern side of the Kursk salient at the start of Operation Citadel

In 1943,  World War II: Battle of Prokhorovka: German and Soviet forces engage in one of the largest tank engagements of all time. It was fought between Waffen-SS units of Nazi Germany and Red Army units of the Soviet Union during the Second World War on the Eastern Front. The climax of the German offensive Operation Citadel, it resulted when the Soviet 5th Guards Tank Army intercepted the II SS-Panzer Corps of the German Wehrmacht near Prokhorovka. The Soviet forces were decimated in the attack, but succeeded in preventing the Wehrmacht from capturing Prokhorovka and breaking through the last heavily fortified defensive belt. With the Germans unable to accomplish their objective for Operation Citadel, they cancelled it and began redeploying their forces to deal with new pressing developments elsewhere. The failure of the operation marked the first time in the war that a major German offensive was halted before it could break through enemy defences. The Soviet Union permanently gained the strategic initiative, and Germany permanently lost the capacity to launch offensives of this scale on the Eastern Front.

LC-DIG-ggbain-37582.jpgIn 1944,  Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., American general and politician, Governor of Puerto Rico (b. 1887) dies of a heart attack near Sainte-Mère-Église in Normandy. He was living at the time in a converted sleeping truck, captured a few days before from the Germans. He had spent part of the day in a long conversation with his son, Captain Quentin Roosevelt II, who had also landed at Normandy on D-Day. He was stricken at about 10 pm and died, attended by medical help, at about midnight. He was fifty-six years old. On the day of his death, he had been selected by General Omar Bradley for promotion to major general and orders had been cut placing him in command of the 90th Infantry Division. These recommendations were sent to General Dwight D. Eisenhower for approval. However, when Eisenhower called the next morning to approve them, he was told that Roosevelt had died during the night.

He was an American government, business and military leader. He was the eldest son of President Theodore Roosevelt and First Lady Edith Roosevelt.

Roosevelt was instrumental in the forming of the American Legion in 1919 following his valiant service in the United States Army during World War I. He later served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Governor of Puerto Rico (1929–32), Governor-General of the Philippines (1932–33), Chairman of the Board of American Express Company, Vice-President at Doubleday Books. Returning to the Army in 1940, he led the first wave of troops at Utah Beach during the Normandy landings in 1944, earning the Medal of Honor for his command. He died in France 36 days later, holding the rank of Brigadier General.

In 1948,  Arab–Israeli War: Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion orders the expulsion of Palestinians from the towns of Lod and Ramla.

In 1948, The Democratic national convention opened in Philadelphia.

In 1954, President Eisenhower proposes an interstate highway system for general use and atomic defense.

In 1957, The first U.S. President to fly in a helicopter during a top-level civil defense exercise simulating a nuclear attack on targets including the White House was Dwight Eisenhower on a Huey Bell UH13J chopper.

In 1957, US Surgeon General Leroy Burney reports connection smoking & lung cancer.

In 1960,  Orlyonok, the main Young Pioneer camp of the Russian SFSR, is founded.

In 1960, Congo, Chad & Central African Republic declare independence.

In 1961,  Pune floods due to failure of the Khadakwasla and Panshet dams. Half of Pune is submerged, more than 100,000 families need to be relocated and the death toll exceeds 2,000.

In 1962,  The Rolling Stones perform their first concert, at the Marquee Club in London, England, United Kingdom.

In 1963,  Pauline Reade, who was 16-years-old, disappears on her way to a dance at the British Railways Club in Gorton, England, the first victim in the Moors murders.

In 1966, US Treasury announces it will buy mutilated silver coins at silver bullion price at Philadelphia & Denver mints.

In 1967,  The Newark riots begin in Newark, New Jersey.

In 1970,  A fire consumes the wooden home of Norwegian composer Geirr Tveitt and irretrievably destroys about 90 percent of his output.

In 1971,  The Australian Aboriginal Flag is flown for the first time.

In 1972, Sen. George McGovern, D-SD, was nominated as the Democratic candidate for president in Miami, Florida.

In 1973,  A fire destroys the entire sixth floor of the National Personnel Records Center of the United States.

Chaney Lon Jr 1.jpgIn 1973,  Lon Chaney, Jr., American actor (b. 1906) dies of heart failure at age 67 on July 12, 1973 in San Clemente, California. His body was donated for medical research. Born Creighton Tull Chaney, he was an American actor known for playing Larry Talbot in the 1941 film The Wolf Man and its various crossoversCount Alucard (Dracula spelled backward), Frankenstein’s monster in The Ghost of Frankenstein, the Mummy in three pictures, and various other roles in numerous horror films produced by Universal Studios. He also portrayed Lennie Small in Of Mice and Men(1939) and supporting parts in dozens of mainstream movies. Originally referenced in films as Creighton Chaney, he was later credited as “Lon Chaney, Jr.” in 1935, and after 1941’s Man Made Monster, beginning as early as The Wolf Man later that same year, he was almost always billed under his more famous father’s name as Lon Chaney. Chaney had EnglishFrench, and Irish ancestry, and his career in movies and television spanned four decades, from 1931 to 1971.

In 1974, John Daniel Ehrlichman, a former aide to President Richard M. Nixon, and three others were convicted of conspiring to violate the civil rights of Daniel Ellsberg’s former psychiatrist.

In 1974, The National Research Act, establishing guidelines for scientific research on humans, is signed by President Nixon.

In 1975,  São Tomé and Príncipe declare independence from Portugal.

In 1977, President Carter defended Supreme Court decisions limiting government payments for poor women’s abortions, saying, “There are many things in life that are not fair.”

In 1979,  The island nation of Kiribati becomes independent from United Kingdom.

In 1982, The last of the distinctive looking Checker taxicabs rolled off the assembly line in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The company had produced those cabs since 1922.

Woman in her forties, smiling for portrait, in more relaxed setting than usual for officeholders

United States Ambassador to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights

In 1984, Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale announced he’d chosen U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro of New York to be his running mate. Ferraro was the first woman to run for the vice presidency of the United States on a major-party ticket.

In 1985, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagan’s large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.

In 1986, Protestants paraded throughout Northern Ireland to observe the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne, and to protest the Anglo-Irish accord giving Ireland a consultative role in running the British-ruled province.

In 1988, Democratic presidential candidate Michael S. Dukakis tapped Senator Lloyd Bentsen as his running-mate.

In 1989,  Lotte World Adventure opened in Seoul, South Korea.

In 1990, Boris N. Yeltsin, president of the Russian republic, shocked the 28th congress of the Soviet Communist Party by announcing he was resigning his party membership, saying he wanted to concentrate on his duties as president of the Russian republic.

In 1994, PLO chief Yasser Arafat and his wife took up permanent residence in the Gaza Strip.

In 1996, the House voted overwhelmingly to define marriage in federal law as a legal union of one man and one woman, no matter what states might say. Gee! that was stupid!

In 1996, Details surfaced on the divorce of Prince Chuck and Princess Diana. Among other things, she kept the princess title but not Her Royal Highness, and got about $25 million in a lump sum followed by an income of $600,000 a year.

In 2000, New Hampshire Chief Justice David Brock was impeached by the Legislature, the first such action against an official in the state since 1790. (He was later acquitted in a state Senate trial.)

In 2006,  Hezbollah initiates Operation True Promise.

In 2007,  U.S. Army Apache helicopters perform airstrikes in Baghdad, Iraq; footage from the cockpit is later leaked to the Internet.

In 2012,  The Turaymisah massacre kills 250 people during a Syrian military operation in a village within the Hama Governorate.

In 2013,  Six people are killed and 200 injured in a French passenger train derailment in Brétigny-sur-Orge.

 

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