July 10th in History

This day in history

July 10 is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 174 days remaining until the end of the year.




In 48 BC,  Battle of Dyrrhachium: Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia.

In 138,  Emperor Hadrian dies after a heart failure at Baiae; he is buried at Rome in the Tomb of Hadrian beside his late wife, Vibia Sabina.

In 645,  Isshi Incident: Prince Naka-no-Ōe and Fujiwara no Kamatari assassinate Soga no Iruka during a coup d’état at the imperial palace.

In 988,  The Norse King Glun Iarainn recognises Máel Sechnaill II, High King of Ireland, and agrees to pay taxes and accept Brehon Law; the event is considered to be the founding of the city of Dublin.

In 1212,  The most severe of several early fires of London burns most of the city to the ground.

Richard Neville.jpgIn 1460,  Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick, defeats the king’s Lancastrian forces and takes King Henry VI prisoner in the Battle of Northampton.

In 1499,  The Portuguese explorer Nicolau Coelho returns to Lisbon, after discovering the sea route to India as a companion of Vasco da Gama.

Conquista de Navarra.svg

In red, the lands of Navarre occupied by Ferdinand. In pink, the remaining Kingdom of Navarre which survived until Henry IV of France.

In 1512,  The Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre commences with the capture of Goizueta.

In 1519,  Zhu Chenhao declares the Ming Dynasty emperor Zhengde a usurper, beginning the Prince of Ning rebellion, and leads his army north in an attempt to capture Nanjing.

In 1553,  Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.

In 1584,  William I of Orange is assassinated in his home in Delft, Holland, by Balthasar Gérard.

In 1645,  English Civil War: The Battle of Langport takes place.

In 1776,  Richard Peters, English clergyman (b. 1704) dies. He born in Liverpool, became an attorney, Anglican minister, and civil servant. In 1735 he emigrated to Pennsylvania, where he served in numerous posts for the Penn family, including on the Governor’s Council from 1749 to 1775, and eventually became rector of Christ Church in Philadelphia. He was educated at Westminster School and continued at the Dutch University of Leyden for additional studies. He read law at the Middle Temple and became ordained in the Church of England. He later undertook further studies at Wadham College, Oxford.

In 1778,  American Revolution: Louis XVI of France declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.

In 1789,  Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Mackenzie River delta.

In 1806,  The Vellore Mutiny is the first instance of a mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company.

The Author of 'A Visit from St. Nicholas' - Clement C. Moore crop.pngIn 1863,  Clement Clarke Moore, American author and educator (b. 1779) passes. He was an American Professor of Oriental and Greek Literature, as well as Divinity and Biblical Learning, at the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in New York City. Located on land donated by the “Bard of Chelsea” himself, the seminary still stands today on Ninth Avenue between 20th and 21st Streets, in an area known as Chelsea Square. Moore’s connection with that institution continued for over twenty-five years. He is the author of the yuletide poem “A Visit from St. Nicholas“, which later became famous as “‘Twas the Night Before Christmas”. Clement Clarke Moore penned his famous poem on a visit from Santa while visiting his cousin, Mary McVicker at Constable Hall in what is now Constableville, NY.

In 1882,  War of the Pacific: Chile suffers its last military defeat in the Battle of La Concepción when a garrison of 77 men is annihilated by a 1,300-strong Peruvian force, many of them armed with spears.

In 1821,  The United States takes possession of its newly bought territory of Florida from Spain.

In 1832,  The U.S. President Andrew Jackson vetoes a bill that would re-charter the Second Bank of the United States.

In 1850,  Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 16 months into his term.

In 1877,  The then-villa of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, formally receives its city charter from the Royal Crown of Spain.

In 1890,  Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U.S. state.

In 1913,  Death Valley, California, hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C), the highest temperature recorded in the United States.

In 1921,  Belfast’s Bloody Sunday: 16 people are killed and 161 houses destroyed during rioting and gun battles in Belfast, Northern Ireland.

In 1925,  Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, the so-called “Monkey Trial” begins with John T. Scopes, a young high school science teacher accused of teaching evolution in violation of the Butler Act.

In 1925,  Meher Baba begins his silence of 44 years. His followers observe Silence Day on this date in commemoration.

In 1938,  Howard Hughes sets a new record by completing a 91-hour airplane flight around the world.

In 1940,  World War II: the Vichy government is established in France.

In 1940,  World War II: Battle of Britain – The German Luftwaffe begins attacking British convoys in the English Channel thus starting the battle (this start date is contested, though).

In 1941,  Jedwabne Pogrom: the massacre of Jewish people living in and near the village of Jedwabne in Poland.

In 1942,  World War II: An American pilot spots a downed, intact Mitsubishi A6M Zero on Akutan Island (the “Akutan Zero“) that the US Navy uses to learn the aircraft’s flight characteristics.

In 1942,  Diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and the Soviet Union are established.

In 1946,  Hungarian hyperinflation sets a record with inflation of 348.46 percent per day, or prices doubling every eleven hours.

In 1947,  Muhammad Ali Jinnah is recommended as the first Governor-General of Pakistan by the British Prime Minister, Clement Attlee.

In 1951,  Korean War: Armistice negotiations begin at Kaesong.

In 1962,  Telstar, the world’s first communications satellite, is launched into orbit.

In 1967,  Uruguay becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.

In 1966,  The Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., holds a rally at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois. As many as 60,000 people come to hear Dr. King as well as Mahalia Jackson, Stevie Wonder, and Peter Paul and Mary.

In 1967,  New Zealand adopts decimal currency

In 1971,  Hassan II of Morocco survives an attempted coup d’état, which lasts until June 11.

In 1973,  John Paul Getty III, a grandson of the oil magnate J. Paul Getty, is kidnapped in Rome, Italy.

In 1973,  The Bahamas gain full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations.

In 1973,  National Assembly of Pakistan passes a resolution on the recognition of Bangladesh.

In 1976,  The Seveso disaster occurs in Italy.

In 1976,  One American and three British mercenaries are executed in Angola following the Luanda Trial.

In 1977,  Alexandr Zagirnyak and Gennadi Sheludko hijack a Tupolev Tu-134 en route from Petrozavodsk to Leningrad and try to force the pilot to fly to Sweden. The plane lands in Helsinki instead. The hijackers surrender the next day and are returned to the Soviet Union.

In 1978,  World News Tonight premieres on ABC.

John Davison Rockefeller III.jpgIn 1978,  John D. Rockefeller III, American businessman and philanthropist, founded the Asia Society (b. 1906) dies. He was a philanthropist and third-generation member of the prominent Rockefeller family. He was the eldest son of philanthropists John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller. His siblings were Abby, Nelson, Laurance, Winthrop, and David. Like his sister Abby, John III eventually settled on philanthropy as his major interest. His brothers Nelson and Winthrop devoted themselves to politics while Laurance went into conservation and David went into banking. He was a major force behind the establishment of the Council on Foundations, the Foundation Center, and Independent Sector. He took a leading role in organizing the Commission on Foundations and Private Philanthropy (better known as the Peterson Commission) and the Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs (better known as the Filer Commission). He also made the initial donation to support Yale University‘s Program on Non-Profit Organizations, the first academic research center to focus on nonprofits. In addition to his interest in philanthropy, Rockefeller made major commitments to supporting organizations related to East Asian affairs, including the Institute of Pacific Relations, the Asia Society, and the Japan Society. He was also a major supporter of the Population Council.

In 1978,  President Moktar Ould Daddah of Mauritania is ousted in a bloodless coup d’état.

In 1978,  World News Tonight premieres on ABC.

Arthur Fiedler 1968.jpgIn 1979,  Arthur Fiedler, American conductor (b. 1894) dies from heart failure. He was a long-time conductor of the Boston Pops Orchestra, a symphony orchestra that specializes in popular and light classical music. With a combination of musicianship and showmanship, he made the Boston Pops one of the best-known orchestras in the country. Some people criticized him for over-popularizing music, particularly when adapting popular songs or edited portions of the classical repertoire, but Fiedler kept performances informal and sometimes self-mocking to attract a bigger audience.

In 1980,  Alexandra Palace burns down for a second time.

In 1985,  The Greenpeace vessel Rainbow Warrior is bombed and sunk in Auckland harbour by French DGSE agents, killing Fernando Pereira.

In 1991,  The South African cricket team is readmitted into the International Cricket Council following the end of Apartheid.

In 1992,  In Miami, Florida, the former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega is sentenced to 40 years in prison for drug and racketeering violations.

In 1997,  Miguel Ángel Blanco, a member of Partido Popular (Spain), is kidnapped in the Basque city of Ermua by ETA members, sparking widespread protests.

In 1997,  In London scientists report the findings of the DNA analysis of a Neanderthal skeleton which supports the “out of Africa theory” of human evolution placing an “African Eve” at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.

In 1998,  Roman Catholic sex abuse cases: The Diocese of Dallas agrees to pay $23.4 million to nine former altar boys who claimed they were sexually abused by Rudolph Kos, a former priest.

In 2000,  A leaking southern Nigerian petroleum pipeline explodes, killing about 250 villagers scavenging gasoline.

In 2000,  EADS, the world’s second-largest aerospace group is formed by the merger of Aérospatiale-Matra, DASA, and CASA.

In 2002,  At a Sotheby’s auction, Peter Paul Rubens‘ painting The Massacre of the Innocents is sold for £49.5million (US$76.2 million) to Lord Thomson.

In 2003,  A Neoplan bus, owned by Kowloon Motor Bus, collides with a truck, falls off a bridge on Tuen Mun Road, Hong Kong, and plunges into the underlying valley, killing 21 people. This is the deadliest traffic accident to date in Hong Kong.

In 2005,  Hurricane Dennis slams into the Florida Panhandle, causing billions of dollars in damage.

In 2007,  Erden Eruç begins the first solo human-powered circumnavigation of the world.

In 2008,  Former Macedonian Interior Minister Ljube Boškoski is acquitted of all charges by a United Nations Tribunal accusing him of war crimes.

In 2011,  Russian cruise ship Bulgaria sunk in Volga near Syukeyevo, Tatarstan, leading to 122 deaths.

In 2017,  Iraqi Civil War: Mosul is declared fully liberated from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

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