This Day in History July 14th

This day in history

July 14 is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 170 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 756,  Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Dynasty China flees the capital Chang’an as An Lushan‘s forces advance toward the city during the An Lushan Rebellion.

In 1223,  Louis VIII becomes King of France upon the death of his father, Philip II.

In 1420,  Battle of Vítkov Hill, decisive victory of Czech Hussite forces commanded by Jan Žižka against Crusade army led by Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor

In 1769,  An expedition led by Gaspar de Portolá establishes a base in California and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California).

In 1771,  Foundation of the Mission San Antonio de Padua in modern California by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra.

In 1773, The first annual conference of the Methodist Church in America convened at St. George’s Church in Philadelphia, PA.

In 1769,  An expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà establishes a base in California and sets out to find the Port of Monterey (now Monterey, California).

In 1771, Foundation of the Mission San Antonio de Padua in modern California by the Franciscan friar Junípero Serra.

In 1789,  French Revolution: citizens of Paris storm the Bastille.

In 1789,  Alexander Mackenzie finally completes his journey to the mouth of the great river he hoped would take him to the Pacific, but which turns out to flow into the Arctic Ocean. Later named after him, the Mackenzie is the second-longest river system in North America.

In 1790,  French Revolution: citizens of Paris celebrate the unity of the French people and the national reconciliation in the Fête de la Fédération.

In 1791,  The Priestley Riots drive Joseph Priestley, a supporter of the French Revolution, out of Birmingham, England.

In 1798,  The Sedition Act becomes law in the United States making it a federal crime to write, publish, or utter false or malicious statements about the United States government.

Francisco de Miranda by Lewis B. Adams.jpgIn 1816,  Francisco de Miranda, Venezuelan general (b. 1750) dies.  He was commonly known as Francisco de Miranda (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈsisko ðe miˈɾanda]), was a Venezuelan revolutionary. Although his own plans for the independence of the Spanish American colonies failed, he is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated a vast portion of South America. Miranda led a romantic and adventurous life. An idealist, he developed a visionary plan to liberate and unify all of Spanish America but his own military initiatives on behalf of an independent Spanish America ended in 1812. He was handed over to his enemies and four years later, in 1816, died in a Spanish prison. Within fourteen years of his death, however, most of Spanish America was independent.

In 1832, opium is exempted from U.S. narcotic import tariffs.

In 1833, Anglican clergyman John Keble preached his famous sermon on national religious apostasy. It marked the beginning of the Oxford Movement, which sought to purify and revitalize the Church of England.

In 1853, Opening of the first major US world’s fair, President Franklin Pierce opens the Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations in New York City.

In 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry relayed to Japanese officials a letter from President Millard Fillmore, requesting trade relations.

In 1861, General McDowell advanced toward Fairfax Courthouse, VA with 40,000 troops Naval Engagement at Wilmington NC – USS Daylight establishes blockade.

In 1863, Abraham Lincoln writes an undelivered letter to Meade complaining about his failure to capture Lee.

Map of the Gettysburg Campaign retreat (July 5-14)

In 1863, Battle of Falling Waters, MD (Beaver Creek). It also called the Battle of Williamsport and the Battle of Hagerstown, was fought as part of the Gettysburg Campaign during the American Civil War. It was an inconclusive battle in that it did not end in a clear victory for either side. Having been defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg, General Robert E. Lee‘s army retreated along the Fairfield Road toward Hagerstown and Williamsport, Maryland. Blocked from escaping into Virginia by the flooded Potomac River, Lee’s forces created a defensive line with their backs to the river. The Union army was cautiously following Lee and arrived in the area beginning on July 12. There were a number of skirmishes and heavy fighting on July 13. That evening the river was low enough and Lee’s army began crossing into Virginia. On July 14, Union cavalry attacked the Confederate rearguard taking about 700 prisoners.

In 1865,  First ascent of the Matterhorn by Edward Whymper and party, four of whom die on the descent.

In 1877,  The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 begins in Martinsburg, West Virginia, US, when Baltimore and Ohio Railroad workers have their wages cut for the second time in a year.

Billy the Kid corrected.jpg

Billy the Kid (William Bonney)

In 1881,  Billy the Kid is shot and killed by Pat Garrett outside Fort Sumner. Fort Sumner was a military fort in De Baca County in southeastern New Mexico charged with the internment of Navajo and Mescalero Apache populations from 1863-1868 at nearby Bosque RedondoFort Sumner was abandoned in 1869 and purchased by rancher and cattle baron Lucien Maxwell. Maxwell rebuilt one of the officers’ quarters into a 20-room house. On July 14, 1881, Sheriff Pat Garrett shot and killed Billy the Kid in this house, now referred to as the Maxwell House.

In 1900,  Armies of the Eight-Nation Alliance capture Tientsin during the Boxer Rebellion.

In 1902,  The Campanile in St. Mark’s Square, Venice collapses, also demolishing the loggetta.

In 1911,  Harry Atwood, an exhibition pilot for the Wright Brothers lands his airplane at the South Lawn of the White House. He is later awarded a Gold medal from U.S. President William Howard Taft for this feat.

In 1916,  Start of the Battle of Delville Wood as an action within the Battle of the Somme, which was to last until 3 September 1916.

Quentin Roosevelt in Uniform 1917.jpg

Lt. Quentin Roosevelt in the 95th Aero Squadron, WWI in France.

In 1918,  Quentin Roosevelt, American lieutenant and pilot (b. 1897) was killed in aerial combat over France on Bastille Day (July 14), 1918. He was the youngest son of President Theodore Roosevelt. Family and friends agreed that Quentin had many of his father’s positive qualities and few of the negative ones. Inspired by his father and siblings, he joined the United States Army Air Service where he became a pursuit pilot during World War I. He was extremely popular with his fellow pilots and known for being daring. Quentin was the youngest child of Theodore Roosevelt’s household, which included half-sister Alice, sister Ethel, and brothers Ted (Theodore III), Kermit, and Archie. Quentin was only three years old when his father became president, and he grew up in the White House. By far the favorite of all of President Roosevelt’s children, Quentin was also the most rambunctious.

In 1921, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were convicted in Dedham, Mass., in the killing of a shoe company paymaster and his guard. Sacco and Vanzetti were executed six years later.

In 1927,  The first commercial airplane flight arrives in Hawaii.

In 1928,  New Vietnam Revolutionary Party is founded in Huế amid providing some of the communist party‘s most important leaders in its early years.

In 1933,  Gleichschaltung: in Germany, all political parties are outlawed except the Nazi Party.

In 1933,  The Nazi eugenics begins with the proclamation of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring that calls for the compulsory sterilization of any citizen who suffers from alleged genetic disorders.

In 1943,  In Diamond, Missouri, the George Washington Carver National Monument becomes the first United States National Monument in honor of an African American.

In 1946, Dr. Benjamin Spock’s “The Common Sense Book Of Baby And Child Care” was published. In the next three decades, it became one of the best selling books in history.

In 1947, Airline service is started between New York City and Asia.

In 1948,  Palmiro Togliatti, leader of the Italian Communist Party, is shot and wounded near the Italian Parliament.

In 1950,  Korean War: North Korean troops initiate the Battle of Taejon.

In 1957,  Rawya Ateya takes her seat in the National Assembly of Egypt, thereby becoming the first female parliamentarian in the Arab world.

In 1958,  Iraqi Revolution: in Iraq the monarchy is overthrown by popular forces led by Abdul Karim Kassem, who becomes the nation’s new leader.

In 1960,  Jane Goodall arrives at the Gombe Stream Reserve in present-day Tanzania to begin her famous study of chimpanzees in the wild.

In 1961, BEST SELLING BOOKS According to “TIME”, the hottest books that week are (Fiction) “THE AGONY AND THE ECSTACY” and (non-fiction) “THE RISE AND FALL OF THE THIRD REICH”

In 1965,  The Mariner 4 flyby of Mars takes the first close-up photos of another planet.

AdlaiEStevenson1900-1965.jpgIn 1965,  Adlai Stevenson II, American politician, 5th United States Ambassador to the United Nations (b. 1900) dies. He was an American politician and diplomat, noted for his intellectual demeanor, eloquent public speaking, and promotion of liberal causes in the Democratic Party. He served as the 31st Governor of Illinois, and received the Democratic Party’s nomination for president in 1952 even though he had not campaigned in the primaries. John Frederick Martin says party leaders selected him “because he was more moderate on civil rights than Kefauver, yet nonetheless acceptable to labor and urban machines—so a coalition of southern, urban, and labor leaders fell in behind his candidacy in Chicago.” Stevenson was defeated in a landslide by Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1952 presidential election. In 1956 he was again the Democratic presidential nominee against Eisenhower, but was defeated in an even bigger landslide. He sought the Democratic presidential nomination for a third time in the election of 1960, but was defeated by Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts. After his election, President Kennedy appointed Stevenson as the Ambassador to the United Nations; he served from 1961 to 1965. He died on July 14, 1965 in London after suffering a heart attack. The prominent historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., who served as one of his speechwriters, wrote that “Stevenson was a great creative figure in American politics. He turned the Democratic Party around in the fifties and made JFK possible…to the United States and the world he was the voice of a reasonable, civilized, and elevated America. He brought a new generation into politics, and moved millions of people in the United States and around the world.” The journalist David Halberstam wrote that “Stevenson’s gift to the nation was his language, elegant and well-crafted, thoughtful and calming.”  Willard Wirtz, his friend and law partner, once famously said “If the Electoral College ever gives an honorary degree, it should go to Adlai Stevenson.”

In 1969,  Football War: after Honduras loses a soccer match against El Salvador, riots break out in Honduras against Salvadoran migrant workers.

In 1969,  The United States $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 bills are officially withdrawn from circulation.

In 1972, The State Department criticized actress Jane Fonda for making anti-war radio broadcasts in Hanoi, calling them “distressing.”

In 1972, Jean Westwood is chosen head of the Democratic Party’s National Committee (first woman to hold the top job in either of the two major parties).

In 1976,  Capital punishment is abolished in Canada.

In 1976, Jimmy Carter won the Democratic presidential nomination by an overwhelming margin at the party’s convention in New York City.

In 1978, Soviet dissident Anatoly Shcharansky was convicted of treasonous espionage and anti-Soviet agitation, and sentenced to 13 years at hard labor. Shcharansky was released in 1986.

In 1985, Doctors at Bethesda Naval Hospital said President Reagan was making a spectacular recovery from major abdominal surgery to remove an intestinal growth that proved to be cancerous.

In 1986, A federal judge in Los Angeles sentenced former FBI agent Richard W. Miller to two life terms plus 50 years in prison for spying for the Soviet Union. The sentence followed Miller’s second trial; the verdict was later overturned. Miller was convicted in a third trial and sentenced to 20 years in prison.

In 1987, Montreal, Canada, is hit by a series of thunderstorms causing the Montreal Flood of 1987.

In 1987, Greyhound Bus buys Trailways Bus for $80 million.

In 1987, Taiwan ends 37 years of martial law.

In 1987, Lt. Col. Oliver North concluded six days of testimony before the Iran-Contra committees. The National League took 13 innings to defeat the American League, 2-0, in the 58th All-Star Game in Oakland, Calif.

In 1990, West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl arrived in Moscow for talks with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev that were aimed at soothing Kremlin concerns about German unification.

In 1992,  386BSD is released by Lynne Jolitz and William Jolitz beginning the Open Source Operating System Revolution. Linus Torvalds releases his Linux soon afterwards.

In 1993, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) takes the “fried” out of chicken by unveiling the Colonel’s Rotisserie Gold roasted chicken.

In 1994, A tidal wave of Hutu refugees from Rwanda’s civil war flooded across the border into Zaire, swamping relief organizations.

In 1994, Echoing Dan Quayle’s comment, Health and Human Services Secretary Donna Shalala said that TV character Murphy Brown set a bad example by having a fictional baby out of wedlock. Makes you wonder why the Department of Health and Human Services were paying so many unwed mothers a stipends every month with a statement like that.

In 1997, The international war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia sentenced Dusan Tadic (DOO’-shahn TAH’-dich), a Bosnian Serb, to 20 years in prison for turning on his Muslim and Croat neighbors in a deadly campaign of terror and torture.

In 1998, The city of Los Angeles sued 15 tobacco companies for $2.5 billion over the dangers of secondhand smoke.

In 1999, Race-based school busing in Boston came to an end after 25 years.

In 2000, Hit with the biggest jury verdict in U.S. history, the nation’s top five cigarette makers remained hopeful they won’t have to pay the full amount of the staggering $145 billion penalty to sick Florida smokers. “There’s probably not a country in the world that can withstand a verdict this size,” said Philip Morris Inc. attorney Dan Webb, whose company was ordered to pay $73.96 billion. Defendants were confident that either the judge will gut the award or the entire case will be overturned on appeal. Jurors took less than five hours to reach the decision following a two-year class-action trial covering 300,000 to 700,000 smokers. They also ordered R.J. Reynolds to pay $36.28 billion, Brown & Williamson $17.59 billion, Lorillard Tobacco $16.25 billion, and Liggett Group Inc. $790 million.

In 2000,  A powerful solar flare, later named the Bastille Day event, causes a geomagnetic storm on Earth.

In 2002,  French President Jacques Chirac escapes an assassination attempt unscathed during Bastille Day celebrations.

In 2003,  In an effort to discredit U.S. Ambassador Joseph C. Wilson, who had written an article critical of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Washington Post columnist Robert Novak reveals that Wilson’s wife Valerie Plame is a CIA “operative”.

In 2015,  NASA‘s New Horizons probe performs the first flyby of Pluto, and thus completes the initial survey of the Solar System.

In 2015,  P5+1 and Iran agree on final provisions of Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action in regards to the latter’s nuclear program.

In 2016,  A terrorist vehicular attack in Nice, France kills 86 civilians and injures over 400 others.

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