This Day in History July 15th

This day in historyJuly 15 is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 169 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

RomaForoRomanoTempioCastori.jpg

Temple of Castor and Pollux

In 484 BC,  Dedication of the Temple of Castor and Pollux in ancient Rome

In 756,  An Lushan Rebellion: Emperor Xuanzong of Tang is ordered by his Imperial Guards to execute chancellor Yang Guozhong by forcing him to commit suicide or face a mutiny. He permits his consort Yang Guifei to be strangled by his chief eunuch. General An Lushan has other members of the emperor’s family killed.

In 1099,  First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final assault of a difficult siege.

In 1149,  The reconstructed Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated in Jerusalem.

In 1207,  King John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop Stephen Langton.

In 1240,  Swedish–Novgorodian Wars: A Novgorodian army led by Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva.

John Ball encouraging Wat Tyler rebels from ca 1470 MS of Froissart Chronicles in BL.jpg

Medieval drawing of John Ball giving hope to Wat Tyler’s rebels

In 1381,  John Ball, a leader in the Peasants’ Revolt, is hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of King Richard II of England.

In 1410,  Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War: Battle of Grunwald – the allied forces of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeat the army of the Teutonic Order.

In 1482,  Muhammad XII is crowned the twenty-second and last Nasrid king of Granada.

In 1685,  Monmouth Rebellion: James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth is executed at Tower Hill, England after his defeat at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685.

In 1741,  Aleksei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.

In 1788, Georgia turned over to the federal government any claim to lands west of today’s Georgia…making Alabama and Mississippi possible.

In 1789,  Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette, is named by acclamation Colonel General of the new National Guard of Paris.

In 1799,  The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleon‘s Egyptian Campaign.

In 1806,  Pike expedition: United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike begins an expedition from Fort Bellefontaine near St. Louis, Missouri, to explore the west.

In 1815,  Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders aboard HMS Bellerophon.

In 1823,  A fire destroys the ancient Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome, Italy.

In 1830, The Sioux, Sauk and Fox Indians sign a treaty with the U.S., giving the U.S. most of what is now Minnesota, Iowa and Missouri.

In 1834,  The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years.

In 1838,  Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage.

In 1861, The citizens of Jackson, Tennessee first received news of Confederate victory at Bull Right. They appear delighted.

In 1870,  Reconstruction Era of the United States: Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union. Interesting that according to Lincoln’s reasoning, the states need not be readmitted since they had no right to succeed.

In 1870,  Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory are transferred to Canada from the Hudson’s Bay Company, and the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories are established from these vast territories.

In 1885, Niagara Falls Reservation is formally opened.

In 1888,  The stratovolcano Mount Bandai erupts killing approximately 500 people, in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

In 1902, the 3M Company is founded.

In 1910,  In his book Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin gives a name to Alzheimer’s disease, naming it after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.

In 1912, British National Health Insurance Act goes into effect.

In 1916, In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products (later renamed Boeing).

In 1918,  World War I: The Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne with a German attack.

In 1920,  The Polish Parliament establishes Silesian Voivodeship before the Polish-German plebiscite.

In 1922,  Japanese Communist Party is established in Japan.

In 1922, If there is a day that we get excited about around here, it’s this day that the duck-billed platypus thingy made our hearts singy! The duck-billed platypus arrived in America, direct from Australia. It was exhibited at the Bronx Zoo in New York City. For those of you who have never seen this unusual mammal, it has webbed feet, a duck’s bill, a beaver’s tail; is seal-like, yet hairy and it lays eggs. Go figure…

In 1927,  Massacre of July 15, 1927: Eighty-nine protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.

Wenceslao Vinzons 2010 stamp of the Philippines.jpgIn 1942,  Wenceslao Vinzons, Filipino lawyer and politician (b. 1910) was bayoneted to death after refusing one final entreaty to cooperate with the Japanese forces. Shortly thereafter, his father, wife, sister and two of his children were also executed by the Japanese. He was a Filipino politician and a leader of the armed resistance against the Japanese occupying forces during World War II. He was the youngest member of the 1935 Constitutional Convention. Among the first Filipinos to organize the guerrilla resistance after the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941.

In 1954,  First flight of the Boeing 367-80, prototype for both the Boeing 707 and C-135 series.

In 1955,  Eighteen Nobel laureates sign the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons, later co-signed by thirty-four others.

In 1959,  The steel strike of 1959 begins, leading to significant importation of foreign steel for the first time in United States history.

In 1965, Congress passed a law requiring all cigarette packages to carry a health warning.

In 1966,  Vietnam War: The United States and South Vietnam begin Operation Hastings to push the North Vietnamese out of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone.

In 1968, Commercial air travel began between the United States and the U.S.S.R., with the first plane, a Soviet Aeroflot jet, landing at Kennedy International Airport in New York this day.

In 1971,  The United Red Army is founded in Japan.

In 1974,  In Nicosia, Cyprus, Greek Junta-sponsored nationalists launch a coup d’état, deposing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as Cypriot president.

In 1975,  Space Race: Apollo–Soyuz Test Project features the dual launch of an Apollo spacecraft and a Soyuz spacecraft on the first joint Soviet-United States human-crewed flight. It was both the last launch of an Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn family of rockets.

In 1979,  U.S. President Jimmy Carter gives his so-called malaise speech, where he characterizes the greatest threat to the country as “this crisis in the growing doubt about the meaning of our own lives and in the loss of a unity of purpose for our nation” but in which he never uses the word malaise.

In 1980,  A massive storm tears through western Wisconsin, causing US$160 million in damage.

In 1983,  Orly Airport attack is launched by Armenian militant organisation ASALA at the Paris-Orly Airport in Paris; it leaves 8 people dead and 55 injured.

In 1996,  A Belgian Air Force C-130 Hercules carrying the Royal Netherlands Army marching band crashes on landing at Eindhoven Airport.

In 1997,  In Miami, Florida, serial killer Andrew Cunanan guns down Gianni Versace outside his home.

In 2002,  “American TalibanJohn Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and to possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.

In 2002,  Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan hands down the death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life terms to three others suspected of murdering The Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.

Netscape logo.svgIn 2003,  AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day. The Mozilla Foundation (stylized as moz://a) is a non-profit organization that exists to support and collectively lead the open source Mozilla project. Founded in July 2003, the organization sets the policies that govern development, operates key infrastructure and controls Mozilla trademarks and copyrights. It owns a taxable subsidiary: the Mozilla Corporation, which employs many Mozilla developers and coordinates releases of the Mozilla Firefox web browser and Mozilla Thunderbird email client. The subsidiary is 100% owned by the parent, and therefore follows the same non-profit principles. The Mozilla Foundation was founded by the Netscape-affiliated Mozilla Organization. Mozilla logo.svgThe organization is currently based in the Silicon Valley city of Mountain ViewCalifornia, United States. The Mozilla Foundation describes itself as “a non-profit organization that promotes openness, innovation and participation on the Internet.” The Mozilla Foundation is guided by the Mozilla Manifesto, which lists 10 principles which Mozilla believes “are critical for the Internet to continue to benefit the public good as well as commercial aspects of life.”

In 2006,  Twitter is launched, becoming one of the largest social media platforms in the world.

In 2007. For Brian D. Kelly, 18, of Carlisle, Penn., making videos is a hobby. But when a pickup truck he was riding in was pulled over by Carlisle police, the officer noticed Kelly was taping him with his camcorder. The officer ordered him to turn it off; Kelly did, but he was still arrested. The charge: felony wiretapping, which carries a prison sentence of up to seven years and a fine of up to $15,000. State law specifies no one’s voice can be recorded without their consent, but the officer had a camera in his car recording everything too — an exception specifically allowed by the law. Kelly was jailed until his mother was able to put up her house as security for his bail. After a national uproar following publicity in the case, Cumberland County District Attorney David Freed dropped the charges. “When police are audio- and video-recording traffic stops with notice to the subjects,” Freed said, “similar actions by citizens, even if done in secret, will not result in criminal charges.” Freed decreed that this would be the policy for such cases from now on in his department.

In 2014,  A train derails on the Moscow Metro, killing at least 24 and injuring more than 160 others

In 2016,  Factions of the Turkish Armed Forces attempt a coup.

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