This Day in History July 16th

This day in history

July 16 is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 168 days remaining until the end of the year.



In 463, A.D., Start of Lunar Cycle of Hilarius. Sounded rather demented, doesn’t it?

In 622,  The beginning of the Islamic calendar. This date is generally considered as the start of the Islamic Era, when Mohammed began his flight from Mecca to Medina.

In 1054,  Three Roman legates break relations between Western and Eastern Christian Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal bull of Excommunication on the altar of Hagia Sophia during Saturday afternoon divine liturgy. Historians frequently describe the event as the start of the East–West Schism.

In 1212,  Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: after Pope Innocent III calls European knights to a crusade, forces of Kings Alfonso VIII of Castile, Sancho VII of Navarre, Peter II of Aragon and Afonso II of Portugal defeat those of the Berber Muslim leader Almohad, thus marking a significant turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain.

In 1377,  Coronation of Richard II of England.

In 1439, Kissing was banned in England in an attempt to stop the spread of pestilence and disease. The ban put in place by King Henry the VI (6th).

Government Palace of Bolivia in downtown La Paz

In 1548, La Paz, Bolivia is founded. Originally it was to be at the site of the Native American settlement, Laja, with the full name of the city being Nuestra Señora de La Paz (meaning Our Lady of Peace). The name commemorated the restoration of peace following the insurrection of Gonzalo Pizarro and fellow conquistadors four years earlier against Blasco Núñez Vela, the first viceroy of Peru. The town site was moved a few days later to its present location in the valley of Chuquiago, which is more clement.

In 1661,  The first banknotes in Europe are issued by the Swedish bank Stockholms Banco.

In 1683,  Manchu Qing Dynasty naval forces under traitorous commander Shi Lang defeat the Kingdom of Tungning in the Battle of Penghu near the Pescadores Islands.

In 1769,  Father Junípero Serra founds California‘s first mission, Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Over the following decades, it evolves into the city of San Diego, California.

In 1779,  American Revolutionary War: light infantry of the Continental Army seize a fortified British Army position in a midnight bayonet attack at the Battle of Stony Point.

In 1782,  First performance of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart‘s opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail.

In 1787, The Constitutional Convention accepts the Great Compromise – the approving of a bicameral legislation.

In 1790,  The District of Columbia is established as the capital of the United States after signature of the Residence Act.

In 1798, US Public Health Service established & US Marine Hospital authorized.

In 1809,  The city of La Paz, in what is today Bolivia, declares its independence from the Spanish Crown during the La Paz revolution and forms the Junta Tuitiva, the first independent government in Spanish America, led by Pedro Domingo Murillo.

Image result for Painting of Saint Antoni Maria Claret

Painting of Saint Antoni Maria Claret

In 1849,  Antonio María Claret y Clará founded the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, popularly known as the Claretians in Vic, in the province of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

In 1849, The first territorial legislature of Oregon met.

In 1861,  American Civil War: at the order of President Abraham Lincoln, Union troops begin a 25 mile march into Virginia for what will become the First Battle of Bull Run, the first major land battle of the war.

In 1862,  American Civil War: David Farragut is promoted to rear admiral, becoming the first officer in United States Navy to hold an admiral rank.

In 1864, Sherman began his march through Georgia. The Union general led his men all the way through Georgia to the ocean… setting fire to everything he found in his path, including the city of Atlanta.

In 1867, Reinforced Concrete patented by Joseph Monier.

In 1904, Islands of the Manu’a group (Samoa) ceded to US by their chiefs.

In 1909,  Persian Constitutional Revolution: Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar is forced out as Shah of Persia and is replaced by his son Ahmad Shah Qajar.

In 1910,  John Robertson Duigan makes the first flight of the Duigan pusher biplane, the first aircraft built in Australia.

In 1912, Naval torpedo launched from an airplane patented by B.A. Fiske.

In 1915,  Henry James becomes a British citizen, to highlight his commitment to Britain during the first World War.

Image result for order of the arrowIn 1915,  First Order of the Arrow ceremony takes place and the Order of the Arrow is founded. I received mine in 1965 on this day by Ordeal. The next year I received his Brotherhood by accomplishment and in 1968 the Vigil. The Vigil Honor may be conferred upon Arrowmen who have completed a minimum of two years as a Brotherhood member and have performed exceptional service above and beyond their immediate responsibilities through leadership, exemplary efforts, and dedication. However, under no circumstances should tenure in Scouting or the Order of the Arrow be considered as reason enough for a Vigil Honor recommendation. Selection is annual and is limited to one person for every 50 members of the lodge, and members of the Order can be inducted into the Vigil Honor only with the written approval of the national Order of the Arrow committee.

In 1920, China joins the League of Nations

In 1927,  Augusto César Sandino leads a raid on U.S. Marines and Nicaraguan Guardia Nacional that had been sent to apprehend him in the village of Ocotal, but is repulsed by one of the first dive-bombing attacks in history.

In 1931,  Emperor Haile Selassie I signs the first constitution of Ethiopia.

In 1935 – The world’s first parking meter is installed in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

In 1941Joe DiMaggio hits safely for the 56th consecutive game, a streak that still stands as a MLB record.

In 1942Holocaust: Vel’ d’Hiv Roundup (Rafle du Vel’ d’Hiv): the government of Vichy France orders the mass arrest of 13,152 Jews who are held at the Winter Velodrome in Paris before deportation to Auschwitz.

In 1945,  World War II: The heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis leaves San Francisco with parts for the atomic bomb “Little Boy” bound for Tinian Island.

A fiery mushroom cloud lights up the sky.

The Trinity test of the Manhattan Project was the first detonation of a nuclear weapon.

In 1945,  Manhattan Project: the Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates a plutonium-based test nuclear weapon near Alamogordo, New Mexico.

In 1948,  Following token resistance, the city of Nazareth, revered by Christians as the hometown of Jesus, capitulates to Israeli troops during Operation Dekel in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

In 1948,  The storming of the cockpit of the Miss Macao passenger seaplane, operated by a subsidiary of the Cathay Pacific Airways, marks the first aircraft hijacking of a commercial plane.

In 1948, The world’s first turbine-propeller aircraft, the Vickers Viscount, made its maiden flight. The prototype Type 630, registered G-AHRF, made its maiden flight from the grass airfield at Wisley on 16 July 1948, piloted by Joseph “Mutt” Summers, Vickers’ chief test pilot

In 1950,  Chaplain–Medic massacre: American POWs were massacred by North Korean Army.

In 1951,  King Leopold III of Belgium abdicates in favor of his son, Baudouin I of Belgium.

Cover features a crude drawing of a Carousel horse (pole visible entering the neck and exiting below on the chest) with a city skyline visible in the distance under the hindquarters. The cover is two-toned: everything below the horse is whitish while the horse and everything above it is a reddish orange. The title appears at the top in big dirty yellow letters against the reddish orange background. It is split into two lines after "Catcher". At the bottom in the whitish background are the words "a novel by J. D. Salinger".

Cover features a crude drawing of a Carousel horse (pole visible entering the neck and exiting below on the chest) with a city skyline visible in the distance under the hindquarters. The cover is two-toned: everything below the horse is whitish while the horse and everything above it is a reddish orange. The title appears at the top in big dirty yellow letters against the reddish orange background. It is split into two lines after “Catcher”. At the bottom in the whitish background are the words “a novel by J. D. Salinger”.

In 1951,  The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger is published for the first time by Little, Brown and Company.

In 1956,  Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus closes its very last “Big Tent” show in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, due to changing economics all subsequent circus shows will be held in arenas.

In 1957, Marine Major John Glenn set a transcontinental speed record when he flew a jet from California to New York in three hours, 23 minutes and eight seconds.

In 1960,  USS George Washington a modified Skipjack class submarine successfully test fires the first ballistic missile while submerged.

In 1962, NASA civilian test pilot Joseph A Walker takes X-15 to 32,600 m.

In 1963, Congressman Carl Vinson of Georgia broke House Speaker Sam Rayburn’s record of service in the U.S. Congress this day, as he celebrated serving 48 years, 8 months and 13 days. He was a United States Representative from Georgia. He was a Democrat and served for more than 50 years in the United States House of Representatives. He was known as “The Father of the Two-Ocean Navy”. He is the longest-serving member ever of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Georgia.

In 1964, In accepting the Republican presidential nomination in San Francisco, Sen. Barry M. Goldwater said “extremism in the defense of liberty is no vice” and that “moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue.”

In 1965,  The Mont Blanc Tunnel linking France and Italy opens.

In 1969,  Apollo program: Apollo 11, the first mission to land astronauts on the Moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Kennedy, Florida.  The Crew consisted of Apollo XI, Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Michael Collins.

In 1973Watergate scandal: former White House aide Alexander Butterfield informs the United States Senate that President Richard Nixon had secretly recorded potentially incriminating conversations.

In 1979Iraqi President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr resigns and is replaced by Saddam Hussein.

In 1981Mahathir Mohamad becomes Malaysia‘s 4th Prime Minister.

In 1981, after 23 years of familiarity with the name “Datsun”, executives of Nissan, the Japanese automaker, played with our minds and changed the name of their cars to “Nissan”. Nissan didn’t begin to show up on nameplates in the U.S. until the 1985 models were released.

In 1983Sikorsky S-61 disaster: a helicopter crashes off the Isles of Scilly, causing 20 fatalities.

In 1990 – The Luzon Earthquake strikes in Benguet, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, La Union, Aurora, Bataan, Zambales and Tarlac, Philippines, with an intensity of 7.7.

In 1990 – The Parliament of the Ukrainian SSR declares state sovereignty over the territory of the Ukrainian SSR.

In 1992,  a train carrying 2,200 tons of New York garbage that spent three weeks wending its way through the Midwest headed home for burial in a Staten Island landfill.

In 1994Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 collides with Jupiter. Impacts continue until July 22.

In 1997, Jerold Mackenzie awarded $266M for being fired from Miller Brewing for sexual harassment for relaying a Seinfeld episode to a co worker.

In 1999John F. Kennedy, Jr., piloting a Piper Saratoga aircraft, dies when his plane crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. His wife Carolyn Bessette-Kennedy and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are also killed.

In 2004Millennium Park, considered Chicago, Illinois‘s first and most ambitious early 21st-century architectural project, is opened to the public by Mayor Richard M. Daley.

In 2007, An earthquake of magnitude 6.8 and 6.6 aftershock occurs off the Niigata coast of Japan killing eight people, injuring at least 800 and damaging a nuclear power plant.

In 2008 – Sixteen infants in Gansu Province, China, who had been fed on tainted milk powder, are diagnosed with kidney stones; in total an estimated 300,000 infants are affected.

In 2013,  As many as 27 children die and 25 others are hospitalized after eating lunch served at their school in eastern India.

In 2015,  Four U.S. Marines and one gunman die in a shooting spree targeting military installations in Chattanooga, Tennessee.

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