This Day in History July 19th

This day in history

July 19 is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 165 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 2781, B.C., Presumed start of Egyptian calendar.

In 64,  Great Fire of Rome: a fire begins to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burns completely out of control. According to a popular, but untrue legend, Nero fiddled as the city burned.

In 484,  Leontius, Roman usurper, is crowned Eastern emperor at Tarsus (modern Turkey). He is recognized in Antioch and makes it his capital.

In 711,  Umayyad conquest of Hispania: Battle of GuadaleteUmayyad forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by King Roderic.

Califato de Córdoba - 1000.svg

Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba circa 1000.

In 939,  Battle of Simancas: King Ramiro II of León defeats the Moorish army under Caliph Abd-al-Rahman III near the city of Simancas.

The battle unfolded after the army of Abd al-Rahman III launched toward the northern Christian territories in 934. Abd al-Rahman III had gathered a large army of caliphal fighters, with the help of the Andalusian governor of ZaragozaAbu Yahya. The Leonese king Ramiro II led the counterattack with an army constituted of his own troops, those of Castile under Count Fernan Gonzalez and the Navarrese under García Sánchez I.

Arab witnesses chronicle a spectacular eclipse of the sun that took place on the first day of the battle:

As the army arrived near Simancas, there was an awful eclipse of the sun that covered the earth of a dark yellow amid the day and it filled us and the infidels with terror as neither had seen in their life such a thing as this. Two days passed without either side making any movement

In 998,  Arab–Byzantine warsBattle of ApameaFatimids defeat a Byzantine army near Apamea.

In 1333,  Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Halidon Hill – The English win a decisive victory over the Scots.

Mary Boleyn.jpgIn 1543,  Mary Boleyn, English daughter of Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire (b. 1499) dies. She was the sister of English queen consort Anne Boleyn and a member of the Boleyn family, which enjoyed considerable influence during the reign of King Henry VIII of England. Some historians claim she was Anne’s younger sister, but her children believed Mary was the elder, as do most historians today. Mary was one of the mistresses of Henry VIII, from a period of roughly 1521 to 1526. It has been rumoured that she bore two of the king’s children, though Henry did not acknowledge either of them as he had done with Henry FitzRoy, his son by Bessie Blount. Mary was also rumoured to have been a mistress of Henry VIII’s rival, King Francis I of France, for some period between 1515 and 1519. She was the maternal aunt of Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary Boleyn was married twice: in 1520 to William Carey, and secretly in 1534, the year after sister Anne married the king, to William Stafford, a soldier of good family but few prospects. This secret marriage to a man considered beneath her station angered both Henry VIII and her sister, Queen Anne, and resulted in Mary’s banishment from the royal court; she spent the remainder of her life in obscurity, dying seven years after sister Anne’s execution.

In 1544,  Italian War of 1542–46: the first Siege of Boulogne begins.

In 1545,  The Tudor warship Mary Rose sinks off Portsmouth; in 1982 the wreck is salvaged in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology.

In 1553,  Lady Jane Grey is replaced by Mary I of England as Queen of England after only nine days on the throne.

In 1588,  Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines – The Spanish Armada is sighted in the English Channel.

In 1701,  Representatives of the Iroquois Confederacy sign the Nanfan Treaty, ceding a large territory north of the Ohio River to England.

In 1702,  Great Northern War: A numerically superior Polish-Saxon army of Augustus II the Strong, operating from an advantageous defensive position, is defeated by a Swedish army half its size under the command of King Charles XII in the Battle of Klissow.

In 1812, The British launch an unsuccessful attack on Sacketts Harbor, New York during the War of 1812.

In 1832,  The British Medical Association is founded as the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association by Sir Charles Hastings at a meeting in the Board Room of the Worcester Infirmary.

In 1843,  Brunel’s steamship the SS Great Britain is launched, becoming the first ocean-going craft with an iron hull or screw propeller and becoming the largest vessel afloat in the world.

In 1848Women’s rights: a two-day Women’s Rights Convention opens in Seneca Falls, New York.  a pioneer women’s rights convention called by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia C. Mott convened featuring the introduction of the first Bloomers, loose fitting trousers that were a radical departure in women’s clothing, named after Amelia Jenks Bloomer.

In 1861,  Galway liberated from Indians.

In 1863,  American Civil War: Morgan’s Raid – At Buffington Island in Ohio, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan‘s raid into the north is mostly thwarted when a large group of his men are captured while trying to escape across the Ohio River.

In 1864,  Taiping Rebellion: Third Battle of Nanking – The Qing dynasty finally defeats the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.

In 1866, Under duress, Tennessee is the first southern state to ratify the controversial 14th Amendment which provides constitutional definitions of civil rights for blacks. Don’t believe me… I can show you the bullet holes the guards fired to prevent the representatives from leaving. They are located to the right of the Capitol’s library is a marble staircase and one of it’s banisters has a chunk missing from it from bullets fired during a legislative battle over the ratification of the 14th Amendment in 1866.

In 1870,  Franco-Prussian War: France declares war on Prussia.

In 1899, the National Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (now IBEW) Local 39, an offspring of Local 38, is organized in Cleveland.

In 1900,  The first line of the Paris Métro opens for operation.

In 1903,  Maurice Garin wins the first Tour de France.

In 1916,  World War I: Battle of FromellesBritish and Australian troops attack German trenches in a prelude to the Battle of the Somme.

In 1919,  Following Peace Day celebrations marking the end of World War I, ex-servicemen riot and burn down Luton Town Hall.

Lionel prewar windup Disney Mickey mouse hand car

In 1934, Disney signs a contract with the Lionel Corporation to produce a Mickey Mouse wind-up hand-car.

In 1935, The first parking meters are installed in the Oklahoma City business district.

In 1940,  World War II: Battle of Cape Spada – The Royal Navy and the Regia Marina clash; the Italian light cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni sinks, with 121 casualties.

In 1940,  1940 Field Marshal Ceremony: The first occasion in World War II in which Hitler appointed field marshals due to military achievements.

In 1940,  World War II: Army order 112 forms the Intelligence Corps of the British Army.

In 1942,  World War II: Battle of the AtlanticGerman Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz orders the last U-boats to withdraw from their United States Atlantic coast positions in response to the effective American convoy system.

By Kenneth Vernon Hultgren

In 1942, The first color comic strip of “Bambi” is published in Sunday editions of newspapers.

In 1943,  World War II: Rome is heavily bombed by more than 500 Allied aircraft, inflicting thousands of casualties.

In 1947,  The Prime Minister of the shadow Burmese government, Bogyoke Aung San and 6 of his cabinet and 2 non-cabinet members are assassinated by Galon U Saw.

In 1947,  Korean politician Lyuh Woon-hyung is assassinated.

In 1949, Laos gained independence from France as a conditional monarchy.

In 1952,  The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were opened in Helsinki, Finland.

In 1955, Yarkon Water Project opens to supply water to Negev desert in Israel.

In 1961,  Tunisia imposes a blockade on the French naval base at Bizerte; the French would capture the entire town four days later.

In 1963,  Joe Walker flies a North American X-15 to a record altitude of 106,010 meters (347,800 feet) on X-15 Flight 90. Exceeding an altitude of 100 km, this flight qualifies as a human spaceflight under international convention.

In 1964,  Vietnam War: at a rally in Saigon, South Vietnamese Prime Minister Nguyễn Khánh calls for expanding the war into North Vietnam.

In 1972,  Dhofar Rebellion: British SAS units help the Omani government against Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman rebels in the Battle of Mirbat.

Joe Flynn 1963.JPGIn 1974,  Joe Flynn, American actor (b. 1924) dies of a apparent drowning. He was an American character actor. He was best known for his role in the 1960s ABC television situation comedy, McHale’s Navy. He was also a frequent guest star on 1960s TV shows, such as Batman, and appeared in several Walt Disney film comedies. Later in his career, Flynn worked as a voice actor for Disney animated features.

In 1976,  Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal is created.

In 1979,  The Sandinista rebels overthrow the government of the Somoza family in Nicaragua.

In 1981,  In a private meeting with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, French Prime Minister François Mitterrand reveals the existence of the Farewell Dossier, a collection of documents showing that the Soviets had been stealing American technological research and development.

In 1983,  The first three-dimensional reconstruction of a human head in a CT is published.

In 1984, U.S. Rep. Geraldine A. Ferraro, D-N.Y., won the Democratic nomination for vice president by acclamation at the party’s convention in San Francisco; she was the first female V.P. candidate.

In 1985,  The Val di Stava dam collapses killing 268 people in Val di Stava, Italy.

In 1986, Caroline Kennedy, daughter of President John F. Kennedy, married Edwin A. Schlossberg in Centerville, Mass.

In 1988, Jesse Jackson brought his 1988 presidential campaign to an emotionally charged close at the Democratic National Convention in Atlanta, telling the party faithful to unite because “the only time we win is when we come together.”

In 1989,  United Flight 232 crashes in Sioux City, Iowa killing 112.

In 1990, The House Ethics Committee suggests Barney Frank be officially reprimanded by Congress for his acknowledged two year affair with male prostitute Steven Gobie. While fellow congressmen Newt Gingrich and William Dannemeyer push to have Frank expelled from Congress, the full House accepts the Ethics committees recommendation and Frank is let off with only a reprimand.

In 1992,  A car bomb placed by mafia with collaboration of Italian intelligence kills Judge Paolo Borsellino and five members of his escort

In 1994, Congressman Dan Rostenkowski of Illinois, one of the most powerful members of the U.S. House of Representatives, is indicted on numerous federal charges, including fraud and misuse of government funds.

In 1997, The Troubles: The Provisional Irish Republican Army resumes a ceasefire to end their 25-year campaign to end British rule in Northern Ireland.In 1994, Rock The Vote kicked off its campaign to help the MTV generation join the health-care debate.

In 1999, Federal officials said radar data showed the plane piloted by John F. Kennedy Junior dropped 11,000 feet in just 14 seconds. Senator Edward Kennedy released a statement saying, “We are filled with unspeakable grief and sadness by the loss of John and Carolyn and of Lauren Bessette.”

Jack Warden.jpgIn 2006,  Jack Warden, American actor and singer (b. 1920) dies of heart and kidney failure in a New York hospital on July 19, 2006, at the age of 85. He was  married to French actress Vanda Dupre in 1958 and had one son, Christopher. Although they separated in the 1970s, the couple never divorced. Warden was born John Warden Lebzelter, Jr. He was an American character actor of film and television. He was twice nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, for Shampoo (1975) and Heaven Can Wait (1978). He received a BAFTA nomination for the former movie and won an Emmy for his performance in Brian’s Song (1971).

Warden worked as a nightclub bouncer, tugboat deckhand and lifeguard before joining the United States Navy in 1938. He was stationed for three years in China with the Yangtze River Patrol.

In 1941, he joined the United States Merchant Marine but he quickly tired of the long convoy runs, and in 1942 he moved to theUnited States Army, where he served as a paratrooper in the 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, with the 101st Airborne Division in World War II. In 1944, on the eve of the D-Day invasion (in which many of his friends would die), Warden, now a Staff Sergeant, shattered his leg when he landed in a tree during a night-time practice jump in England. He spent almost eight months in the hospital recuperating, during which time he read a Clifford Odets play and decided to become an actor. Ironically, Warden would later portray a paratrooper from the 101st Rivals-the 82nd Airborne Division in That Kind of Woman.

After leaving the military, he moved to New York City and studied acting on the G.I. Bill. He joined the company of the Dallas Alley Theatre and performed on stage for five years. In 1948 he made his television debut on the anthology series, The Philco Television Playhouse and Studio One. His first film role, uncredited, was in the 1951 film You’re in the Navy Now, a film which also featured the screen debuts of Lee Marvin and Charles Bronson.

In 2014,  Gunmen in Egypt’s western desert province of New Valley Governorate attack a military checkpoint, killing at least 21 soldiers. Egypt reportedly declares a state of emergency on its border with Sudan.

In 2016, The University of Tennessee’s Office for Diversity and Inclusion won the coveted Beacon Center of Tennessee infamous “Pork of the Year” award. This taxpayer-funded office “encouraged” students and faculty to use gender neutral pronouns such as “ze” and “zir” in lieu of “he” and “she” and tried to ensure that holiday parties on the campus were not “Christmas parties in disguise.” 

The report highlighted this mismanagement of taxpayer funds and includes the following examples:
  • Nearly $56 million taxpayer dollars to fund the canceled-then-revived-on-cable television series Nashville
  • $1.5 million paid to out of state artists to litter music city with tacky art
  • $900,000 in Washington-style earmarks for Hamilton County commissioners to squander on their pet political projects

In May of 2016 the University of Tennessee had disbanded its Office of Diversity, including eliminating four staff positions and a $131,365 operating budget. The $445,000 cut comes after Gov. Bill Haslam allowed a bill passed by the General Assembly that defunded the office to become law without his signature Friday.

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