August 3rd in History

This day in history

August 3 is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 150 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 8,  Roman Empire general Tiberius defeats the Dalmatae on the river Bathinus.

In 435,  Deposed Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople Nestorius, considered the originator of Nestorianism, is exiled by Roman Emperor Theodosius II to a monastery inEgypt.

In 881,  Battle of Saucourt-en-Vimeu: Louis III of France defeats the Vikings, an event celebrated in the poem Ludwigslied.

In 1031,  Olaf II of Norway is canonized as Saint Olaf by Grimketel, the English Bishop of Selsey.

In 1342,  The Siege of Algeciras commences during the Spanish Reconquista.

In 1347, The French city of Calais surrendered to Edward III of England in the Hundred Years’ War.

James II of Scotland 17th century.jpgIn 1460, James II, King of Scotland, was killed by a cannon explosion during his siege of Roxburgh Castle. He reigned as king of Scots from 1437 on, was the son of James I and Joan Beaufort. Nothing is known of his early life, but by his first birthday his twin and only brother, Alexander, who was also the older twin, had died, thus making James the heir apparent and Duke of Rothesay. On 21 February 1437, James I was assassinated and the six-year-old Duke of Rothesay immediately succeeded him as James II.

In 1449, nineteen-year-old James married fifteen-year-old Mary of Guelders, daughter of the Duke of Gelderland. She bore him seven children, six of whom survived into adulthood. Subsequently, the relations between Flanders and Scotland improved. James’s nickname, Fiery Face, referred to a conspicuous vermilion birthmark on his face which appears to have been deemed by contemporaries an outward sign of a fiery temper.

James was a politic, and singularly successful king. He was popular with the commoners, with whom, like most of the Stewarts, he socialized often, in times of peace and war. His legislation has a markedly popular character. He does not appear to have inherited his father’s taste for literature, which was “inherited” by at least two of his sisters; but the foundation of the University of Glasgow during his reign, by Bishop Turnbull, shows that he encouraged learning; and there are also traces of his endowments to St. Salvator’s, the new college of Archbishop Kennedy at St Andrews. He possessed much of his father’s restless energy. However, his murder of the Earl of Douglas leaves a stain on his reign.

In 1492,  Christopher Columbus sets sail from Palos de la Frontera, Spain.

In 1527,  The first known letter from North America is sent by John Rut while at St. John’s, Newfoundland.

In 1596, David Fabricius discovers light variation of Mira (first variable star).

In 1601,  Long War: Austria captures Transylvania in the Battle of Goroszló.

HenryHudson.jpgIn 1610, Captain Henry Hudson, seeking a new passage to the Pacific, discovers the bay which now bears his name.

In 1645,  Thirty Years’ War: The Second Battle of Nördlingen sees French forces defeating those of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon publishes “Declaration of People of Virginia”.

In 1678,  Robert LaSalle builds the Le Griffon, the first known ship built on the Great Lakes.

In 1692, A Massachusettsts court condemned three witches

In 1778,  The theatre La Scala is inaugurated.

A head and shoulders profile engraving of Benedict Arnold. He is facing left, wearing a uniform with two stars on the shoulder epaulet. His hair is tied back.

A head and shoulders profile engraving of Benedict Arnold. He is facing left, wearing a uniform with two stars on the shoulder epaulet. His hair is tied back.

In 1780, West Point got a new commander – a fellow who was highly regarded at the time. His name was Benedict Arnold. By August 15, he received a coded letter from André with Clinton’s final offer: £20,000 and no indemnification for his losses. Neither side knew for some days that the other was in agreement with that offer, due to difficulties in getting the messages across the lines. Arnold’s letters continued to detail Washington’s troop movements and provide information about French reinforcements that were being organized. On August 25, Peggy finally delivered to him Clinton’s agreement to the terms.

Arnold’s command at West Point also gave him authority over the entire American-controlled Hudson River, from Albany down to the British lines outside New York City. While en route to West Point, Arnold renewed an acquaintance with Joshua Hett Smith, who had spied for both sides and who owned a house near the western bank of the Hudson about 15 miles south of West Point.

Once Arnold established himself at West Point, he began systematically weakening its defenses and military strength. Needed repairs were never ordered on the chain across the Hudson. Troops were liberally distributed within Arnold’s command area (but only minimally at West Point itself) or furnished to Washington on request. He also peppered Washington with complaints about the lack of supplies, writing, “Everything is wanting.” At the same time, he tried to drain West Point’s supplies so that a siege would be more likely to succeed. His subordinates, some long-time associates, grumbled about Arnold’s unnecessary distribution of supplies and eventually concluded that he was selling them on the black market for personal gain.

In 1792,  Richard Arkwright, English engineer and businessman (b. 1732) died at Rock House, Cromford, on 3 August 1792, aged 59, leaving a fortune of £500,000. He was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution. Although his patents were eventually overturned, he is credited with inventing the spinning frame, which following the transition to water power was renamed the water frame. He also patented a rotary carding engine that transformed raw cotton into cotton lap.

Arkwright’s achievement was to combine power, machinery, semi-skilled labour and the new raw material of cotton to create mass-produced yarn. His skills of organization made him, more than anyone else, the creator of the modern factory system, especially in his mill at CromfordDerbyshire, now preserved as part of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site. Later in his life Arkwright was known as the “father of the modern industrial factory system.”

In 1795,  Treaty of Greenville is signed.  The U.S government signs treaties with the Native American tribes, giving the U.S. the Ohio Territory.

In 1804, get ready to sing the Marine song, because it was on this day that the United States bombarded Tripoli.

In 1811,  First ascent of Jungfrau, third highest summit in the Bernese Alps by brothers Johann Rudolf and Hieronymus Meyer.

In 1846, Abraham Lincoln’s elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

In 1852,  Harvard University wins the first Boat Race between Yale University and Harvard. The race is also the first American intercollegiate athletic event

In 1859,  The American Dental Association is founded in Niagara Falls, New York.

In 1860,  The Second Maori War begins in New Zealand.

In 1877,  William B. Ogden, American businessman and politician, 1st Mayor of Chicago (b. 1805) dies. Ogden was a leading promoter and investor in the Illinois and Michigan Canal, then switched his loyalty to railroads. Throughout his later life, Ogden was heavily involved in the building of several railroads. “In 1847, Ogden announced a plan to build a railway out of Chicago, but no capital was forthcoming. Eastern investors were wary of Chicago’s reputation for irrational boosterism, and Chicagoans did not want to divert traffic from their profitable canal works. So Ogden and his partner J. Young Scammon solicited subscriptions from the farmers and small businessmen whose land lay adjacent to the proposed rail. Farmer’s wives used the money they earned from selling eggs to buy shares of stock on a monthly payment plan. By 1848, Ogden and Scammon had raised $350,000—enough to begin laying track. The Galena and Chicago Union Railroad was profitable from the start and eventually extended out to Wisconsin, bringing grain from the Great Plains into the city. As president of Union Pacific, Ogden extended the reach of Chicago’s rail lines to the West coast.”

In 1894, workers at the Pullman Palace Car Company, their strike broken, ended their walkout.

In 1894, Japan declared war on China. The same day, the first Chinese newspaper in New York began publication.

In 1900,  The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company is founded.

In 1903,  Macedonian rebels in Kruševo proclaim the Kruševo Republic, which exists only for ten days before Ottoman Turks lay waste to the town.

In 1907,  Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis fines Standard Oil of Indiana a record $29.4 million for illegal rebating to freight carriers; the conviction and fine are later reversed on appeal.

In 1908, Philadelphia Subway Opens, aka Tube Transportation.

In 1909, the first Lincoln penny was issued.

In 1913,  A major labour dispute, known as the Wheatland hop riot, starts in Wheatland, California.

In 1914,  World War I: Germany declares war against France, while Romania declares its neutrality.

In 1921,  Major League Baseball Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis confirms the ban of the eight Chicago Black Sox, the day after they were acquitted by a Chicago court.

In 1921, the first crop dusting from an airplane occurred when John Macready used an airplane to dust a six acre grove in Troy, Ohio to kill caterpillars.

In 1923, Calvin Coolidge was sworn in as the 30th president of the United States, following the death of Warren G. Harding.

In 1929,  Jiddu Krishnamurti, tagged as the messianicWorld Teacher“, shocks the Theosophy movement by dissolving the Order of the Star, the organisation built to support him.

In 1936,  Jesse Owens wins the 100 metre dash, defeating Ralph Metcalfe, at the Berlin Olympics.

In 1936,  A fire wipes out Kursha-2 in the Meshchera Lowlands, Ryazan Oblast, Russia, killing 1,200 and leaving only 20 survivors.

In 1936, the U.S. State Department urged Americans in Spain to leave because of that country’s civil war.

In 1940,  World War II: Italian forces begin the invasion of British Somaliland.

In 1940, Lithuania was formally incorporated into the Soviet Union as the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic.

In 1943, The bombing of Hamburg during World War Two caused the first firestorm and more than 30,000 people died. Operation Gomorrah, created one of the largest firestorms raised by the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces in World War II, killing 42,600 civilians and wounding 37,000 in Hamburg and virtually destroying most of the city. Before the development of the firestorm in Hamburg there had been no rain for some time and everything was very dry. The unusually warm weather and good conditions meant that the bombing was highly concentrated around the intended targets and also created a vortex and whirling updraft of super-heated air which created a 460 meter high tornado of fire, a totally unexpected effect. Various other previously used techniques and devices were instrumental as well, such as area bombingPathfinders, and H2S radar, which came together to work with particular effectiveness. An early form of chaff, code named ‘Window’, was successfully used for the first time by the RAF – clouds of tinfoil strips dropped by Pathfinders as well as the initial bomber stream – in order to completely cloud German radar. The raids inflicted severe damage to German armaments production in Hamburg.

In 1943, During World War II, General George S. Patton slapped and verbally abused Private Charles Herman Kuhl of Mishawaka, Indiana, at an army hospital in Sicily, accusing him of cowardice. Patton was later ordered by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower to apologize for this and a second, similar episode that occurred a week later.

In 1945, All ethnic Germans and Hungarians in Czechoslovakia were stripped of their citizenship.

In 1946,  Santa Claus Land, the world’s first themed amusement park, opens in Santa Claus, Indiana, United States.

In 1948,  Whittaker Chambers accuses Alger Hiss of being a communist and a spy for the Soviet Union.

In 1949,  The Basketball Association of America and the National Basketball League finalize the merger, that would create the National Basketball Association

In 1956, the name of Bedloe’s Island, the site of the statue of Liberty, was changed to Liberty Island.

In 1958,  The nuclear submarine USS Nautilus travels beneath the Arctic ice cap. James Robert Sordelet of Fort Wayne, IN, became the first person to reenlist in the U.S. Navy while under the North Pole! He did so this day, while serving on the submarine, “Nautilus”, as it crossed under the Arctic ice.

In 1959,  Portugal’s state police force PIDE fires upon striking workers in Bissau, Portuguese Guinea, killing over 50 people.

In 1960,  Niger gains independence from France.

In 1961,  The New Democratic Party of Canada is founded by the merger of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the Canadian Labour Congress.

In 1970, Mairiam Hargrave of Yorkshire, passes her driving test on 40th try.

In 1972,  The United States Senate ratifies the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

In 1975,  A privately chartered Boeing 707 strikes a mountain peak and crashes near Agadir, Morocco, killing 188.

In 1977,  The United States Senate begins its hearing on Project MKUltra.

In 1977,  Tandy Corporation announces the TRS-80, one of the world’s first mass-produced personal computers.  The TRS-80, which was developed by Tandy Corp. for less than $150,000, was unveiled at New York’s Warwick Hotel. It is widely recognized as the first completely assembled computer and the first affordable computer available at retail. Sold through Radio Shack stores, the $599.95 system featured a black-and-white-monitor, cassette tape storage, 4KB of RAM (expandable to 52K) and a Z80 8-bit 1.77MHz processor.

In 1981,  Senegalese opposition parties, under the leadership of Mamadou Dia, launch the Antiimperialist Action Front – Suxxali Reew Mi.

In 1981, U.S. air traffic controllers went on an illegal strike, despite a warning from President Reagan that they would be fired. They went on strike anyway, causing suspension of half the nation’s nearly 15,000 daily flights. President Reagan ordered the 13,000 striking controllers to return to work within 48 hours or risk being fired. Two days later, they were still on strike, so Reagan dismissed all those who defied his order.

In 1981, Marine Corps Major Oliver North was assigned to the National Secrity Council.

In 1983, President Reagan apologized in person to a professional women’s group for a canceled White House tour, but the gesture apparently backfired. The audience reacted stonily as Reagan said, “If it wasn’t for women, us men would still be walking around in skin suits carrying clubs.”

In 1985, Mail service returned to Paradise Lake, FL — a nudist colony. Residents promised that they’d wear clothes or stay the heck out of sight when the mailperson came to deliver.

In 1987, The Iran-Contra congressional hearings ended, with none of the 29 witnesses tying President Reagan directly to the diversion of arms-sales profits to Nicaraguan rebels.

In 1988, the Soviet Union released Mathias Rust (muh-TEE’-uhs rust), the young West German pilot who had landed a light plane in Moscow’s Red Square in May 1987.

In 1989, Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was sworn in as Iranian President.

In 1990, The prime ministers of East and West Germany agreed to move up unification to early fall and rescheduled all-German elections from December 2 to October 14.

In 1991, Japanese Finance Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto publicly apologized, but refused to resign, for involvement in loans worth $10 million to three friends.

In 1993, Daniel and Cara Schmidt, the biological parents of Jessica, were given custody of the 2 1/2 year old by the U.S. Supreme Court and flew her to their home in Cedar Rapids, IA. The only people she had ever known were her adopted parents, Roberta and Jan DeBoer of Ann Arbor, MI.

In 1993, The Senate voted 96-to-three to confirm Supreme Court nominee Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

In 1994, Arkansas carried out the nation’s first triple execution in 32 years.

In 1994, Stephen G. Breyer was sworn in as the Supreme Court’s newest justice in a private ceremony at Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist’s Vermont summer home.

In 1997, Iran’s new president, moderate Muslim cleric Mohammad Khatami (HAHT’-ah-mee), took office with a message of peace to the world but said his country opposes the “high-handedness of certain big countries,” a reference to the United States.

In 1997,  Oued El-Had and Mezouara massacre in Algeria; a total of 116 villagers killed, 40 in Oued El-Had and 76 in Mezouara.

In 1998, The White House played down the possibility that President Clinton would reverse previous statements and admit to a sexual relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky when he testified before a grand jury.

In 1999, Congressional Republicans, shrugging off a presidential veto threat, nailed down the details of an agreement for a ten-year, $792 billion tax cut.

In 2000, George W. Bush accepted the Republican presidential nomination at the party’s convention in Philadelphia, presenting himself as an outsider who would return “civility and respect” to Washington politics.

In 2001,  The Real IRA detonates a car bomb in Ealing, London, England, United Kingdom injuring seven people.

In 2004,  The pedestal of the Statue of Liberty reopens after being closed since the September 11 attacks.

In 2005,  President of Mauritania Maaouya Ould Sid’Ahmed Taya is overthrown in a military coup while attending the funeral of King Fahd in Saudi Arabia.

In 2005,  Mahmoud Ahmadinejad becomes President of Iran.

In 2007,  Former Deputy Director of the Chilean secret police Raúl Iturriaga is captured after having been on the run following a conviction for kidnapping.

In 2010,  Widespread rioting erupts in Karachi, Pakistan, after the assassination of a local politician, leaving at least 85 dead and at least 17 billion Pakistani rupees (US$200 million) in damage.

In 2014,  A 6.1 magnitude earthquake kills at least 617 people and injures more than 2,400 in Yunnan, China.

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