August 9th in History

This day in history

August 9 is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 144 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 48 BC, Caesar’s civil war: Battle of PharsalusJulius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt.

Traianus Glyptothek Munich 336.jpgIn 117,  Trajan, Roman emperor (b. 53) dies of a stroke. He was Roman emperor from 98 AD until his death. Officially declared by the Senate as optimus princeps (“the best ruler”), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the greatest military expansion in Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. He is also known for his philanthropic rule, overseeing extensive public building programs and implementing social welfare policies, which earned him his enduring reputation as the second of the Five Good Emperors who presided over an era of peace and prosperity in the Mediterranean world.

In 378, Gothic War: Battle of Adrianople – A large Roman army led by Emperor Valens is defeated by the Visigoths in present-day Turkey. Valens is killed along with over half of his army.

In 1173, Construction of the campanile of the cathedral of Pisa (now known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa) begins; it will take two centuries to complete.

In 1329, Quilon, the first Indian Christian Diocese, is erected by Pope John XXII; the French-born Jordanus is appointed the first Bishop.

In 1483, Opening of the Sistine Chapel in Rome with the celebration of a Mass.

In 1810, Napoleon annexes Westphalia as part of the First French Empire.

In 1814, Indian Wars: the Creek sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson, giving up huge parts of Alabama and Georgia.

In 1842, The Webster-Ashburton Treaty is signed, establishing the United StatesCanada border east of the Rocky Mountains.

In 1854, Henry David Thoreau published Walden.

In 1862, American Civil War: Battle of Cedar Mountain – At Cedar Mountain, Virginia, Confederate General Stonewall Jackson narrowly defeats Union forces under General John Pope.

In 1877, Indian Wars: Battle of Big Hole – A small band of Nez Percé Indians clash with the United States Army

In 1892, Thomas Edison receives a patent for a two-way telegraph.

In 1902, Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

In 1907, The first Boy Scout encampment concludes at Brownsea Island in southern England.

In 1942,  Edith Stein, German nun and saint (b. 1891) dies. was a German Jewish philosopher who converted to the Roman Catholic Church and became a Discalced Carmelite nun. She is a martyr and saint of the Catholic Church. She was born into an observant Jewish family, but was an atheist by her teenage years. Moved by the tragedies of World War I, in 1915 she took lessons to become a nursing assistant and worked in a hospital for the prevention of disease outbreaks. After completing her doctoral thesis in 1918 from the University of Göttingen, she obtained a teaching position at the University of Freiburg. From reading the works of the reformer of the Carmelite Order, St. Teresa of Jesus, OCD, she was drawn to the Catholic Faith. She was baptized on 1 January 1922 into the Roman Catholic Church. At that point she wanted to become a Discalced Carmelite nun, but was dissuaded by her spiritual mentors. She then taught at a Catholic school of education in Münster. As a result of the requirement of an “Aryan certificate” for civil servants promulgated by the Nazi government in April 1933 as part of its Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, she had to quit her teaching position. She was admitted to the Discalced Carmelite monastery in Cologne the following October. She received the religious habit of the Order as a novice in April 1934, taking the religious name Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (“Teresa blessed by the Cross”). In 1938 she and her sister Rosa, by then also a convert and an extern Sister of the monastery, were sent to the Carmelite monastery in Echt, Netherlands for their safety. Despite the Nazi invasion of that state in 1940, they remained undisturbed until they were arrested by the Nazis on 2 August 1942 and sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where they died in the gas chamber on 9 August 1942.

In 1925, A train robbery takes place in Kakori, near Lucknow, India

In 1930, Betty Boop made her cartoon debut in Dizzy Dishes.

In 1936, Summer Olympic Games: Games of the XI OlympiadJesse Owens wins his fourth gold medal at the games becoming the first American to win four medals in one Olympiad.

In 1942, World War II: Battle of Savo IslandAllied naval forces protecting their amphibious forces during the initial stages of the Battle of Guadalcanal are surprised and defeated by an Imperial Japanese Navy cruiser force.

In 1942, Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi is arrested in Bombay by British forces, launching the Quit India Movement.

Dmitri Shostakovich in 1950.

In 1942, The Leningrad première of Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 7 took place on 9 August 1942 during the Second World War, while the city (now Saint Petersburg) was under siege by Nazi German forces. Dmitri Shostakovich(pictured) had intended for the piece to be premièred by the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra, but they had been evacuated because of the siege, along with the composer, and the world première was instead held in Kuybyshev. The Leningrad première was performed by the surviving musicians of the Leningrad Radio Orchestra, supplemented with military performers. Most of the musicians were starving, and three died during rehearsals. Supported by a Soviet military offensive intended to silence German forces, the performance was a success, prompting an hour-long ovation. The symphony was broadcast to the German lines by loudspeaker as a form of psychological warfare. The Leningrad première was considered by music critics to be one of the most important artistic performances of the war because of its psychological and political effects. Reunion concerts featuring surviving musicians were convened in 1964 and 1992 to commemorate the event.

In 1944, The United States Forest Service and the Wartime Advertising Council release posters featuring Smokey Bear for the first time.

In 1944,  Continuation War: The Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive, the largest offensive launched by Soviet Union against Finland during the Second World War, ends to a strategic stalemate. Both Finnish and Soviet troops at the Finnish front dug to defensive positions, and the front remains stable until the end of the war.

In 1945,  World War II: Nagasaki is devastated when an atomic bomb, Fat Man, is dropped by the United States B-29 Bockscar. 39,000 people are killed outright.

In 1965, Singapore is expelled from Malaysia and becomes the first and only country to date to gain independence unwillingly.

In 1965,  A fire at a Titan missile base near Searcy, Arkansas kills 53 construction workers.

In 1969,  Followers led by Charles Manson murder pregnant actress Sharon Tate (wife of Roman Polanski), coffee heiress Abigail Folger, Polish actor Wojciech Frykowski, men’s hairstylist Jay Sebring and recent high-school graduate Steven Parent. I remember reading about this… I was coming back from Cimarron, NM (Philmont Scout camp) and had stopped in Dallas, TX to visit with my brother. It was in the headlines of the Dallas paper.

In 1971, The Troubles: The British security forces in Northern Ireland launch Operation Demetrius. Hundreds of people are arrested and interned, thousands are displaced, and twenty are killed in the violence that followed.

In 1974, As a direct result of the Watergate scandal, Richard Nixon becomes the first President of the United States to resign from office. His Vice President, Gerald Ford, becomes president.

In 1980,  Jacqueline Cochran, American pilot (b. 1906) dies. She was a pioneer in the field of American aviation, considered to be one of the most gifted racing pilots of her generation. She was an important contributor to the formation of the wartime Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) and Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP). Jacqueline Cochran, born Bessie Lee Pittman, in Pensacola, in the Florida Panhandle, was the youngest of the five children of Mary (Grant) and Ira Pittman, a skilled millwright who moved from town to town setting up and reworking saw mills. While her family was not rich, Cochran’s childhood living in small-town Florida was similar to those in other families of that time and place. Contrary to some accounts, there was always food on the table and she was not adopted, as she often claimed. Cochran meet Floyd Bostwick Odlum, founder of Atlas Corp. and CEO of RKO in Hollywood. Fourteen years her senior, he was reputed to be one of the 10 richest men in the world. Odlum became enamored with Cochran and offered to help her establish a cosmetics business. After a friend offered her a ride in an aircraft, Cochran began taking flying lessons at Roosevelt Airfield, Long Island in the early 1930s and learned to fly an aircraft in just three weeks. She then soloed and within two years obtained her commercial pilot’s license. Odlum, whom she married in 1936 after his divorce, was an astute financier and savvy marketer who recognized the value of publicity for her business. Calling her line of cosmetics Wings, she flew her own aircraft around the country promoting her products. Years later, Odlum used his Hollywood connections to get Marilyn Monroe to endorse her line of lipstick. Known by her friends as “Jackie”, and maintaining the Cochran name, she was the first woman to compete in in the MacRobertson Air Race in 1934. In 1937, she was the only woman to compete in the Bendix race and worked with Amelia Earhart to open the race to women. That year, she also set a new woman’s national speed record. By 1938, she was considered the best female pilot in the United States. She had won the Bendix and set a new transcontinental speed record as well as altitude records. Cochran was the first woman to fly a bomber across the Atlantic. She won five Harmon Trophies as the outstanding woman pilot in the world. Sometimes called the “Speed Queen”, at the time of her death, no other pilot held more speed, distance or altitude records in aviation history than Cochran. Cochran died on August 9, 1980 at her home in Indio, California that she shared with her husband.

In 1988, Wayne Gretzky is traded from the Edmonton Oilers to the Los Angeles Kings in one of the most controversial player transactions in hockey history, upsetting many Canadians.

In 1993, The Liberal Democratic Party of Japan loses a 38-year hold on national leadership.

In 1995, The original members of the rock band Kiss reunite during the taping of MTV Unplugged.

In 1999, Russian President Boris Yeltsin fires his Prime Minister, Sergei Stepashin, and for the fourth time fires his entire cabinet.

In 2006, At least 21 suspected terrorists were arrested in the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot that happened in the United Kingdom. The arrests were made in London, Birmingham, and High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, in an overnight operation.

In 2013,  Gunmen open fire at a Sunni mosque in the city of Quetta killing at least 10 people and injuring 30.

In 2014,  Michael Brown, an 18-year-old black male in Ferguson, Missouri, was shot and killed by a Ferguson police officer, sparking protests and unrest in the city.

In 2015, The most sexually diseased city in Tennessee is… One more on the Hit List as Jackson is third in Tennessee, or 41st in the nation.

%d bloggers like this: