August 13th in History

This day in historyAugust 13 is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 140 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 29 BCOctavian holds the first of three consecutive triumphs in Rome to celebrate the victory over the Dalmatian tribes.

In 523,  John I becomes the new Pope after the death of Pope Hormisdas.

In 554,  Emperor Justinian I rewards Liberius for his long and distinguished service in the Pragmatic Sanction, granting him extensive estates in Italy.

In 582,  Maurice becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire.

In 900,  Count Reginar I of Hainault rises against Zwentibold of Lotharingia and slays him near present-day Susteren.

In 1099,  Pope Paschal II succeeds Pope Urban II as the 160th pope.

In 1516,  The Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain is signed. Francis I of France recognizes Charles’s claim to Naples, and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, recognizes Francis’s claim to Milan.

In 1521,  After an extended siege, forces led by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés capture Tlatoani Cuauhtémoc and conquer the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.

In 1532,  Union of Brittany and France: The Duchy of Brittany is absorbed into the Kingdom of France.

In 1536,  Buddhist monks from Kyoto, Japan‘s Enryaku-ji temple set fire to 21 Nichiren temples throughout in what will be known as the Tenbun Hokke Disturbance. (Traditional Japanese date: July 27, 1536).

In 1553,  Michael Servetus is arrested by John Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland as a heretic.

In 1624,  The French king Louis XIII appoints Cardinal Richelieu as prime minister

In 1704,  War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of BlenheimEnglish and Imperial forces are victorious over French and Bavarian troops.

In 1779,  American Revolutionary War: The Royal Navy defeats the Penobscot Expedition with the most significant loss of United States naval forces prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor.

In 1792,  King Louis XVI of France is formally arrested by the National Tribunal, and declared an enemy of the people.

In 1806,  Battle of Mišar during the Serbian Revolution begins. The battle will end two days later, with a decisive Serbian victory over the Ottomans.

In 1814,  The Convention of London, a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United Provinces, is signed in London, England.

In 1831,  Nat Turner sees a solar eclipse, which he believes is a sign from God. Eight days later he and 70 other slaves kill approximately 55 whites in Southampton County, Virginia.

In 1868,  A massive earthquake near Arica, Peru, causes an estimated 25,000 casualties, and the subsequent tsunami causes considerable damage as far away as Hawaii and New Zealand.

In 1898,  Spanish–American War: Spanish and American forces engaged in a mock battle for Manila, after which the Spanish commander surrendered in order to keep the city out of Filipino rebel hands.

In 1898,  Carl Gustav Witt discovers 433 Eros, the first near-Earth asteroid to be found.

In 1906,  The all black infantrymen of the U.S. Army’s 25th Infantry Regiment are accused of killing a white bartender and wounding a white police officer in Brownsville, Texas, despite exculpatory evidence; all are later dishonorably discharged.

Florence Nightingale three quarter length.jpgIn 1910,  Florence Nightingale, Italian-English nurse (b. 1820) dies peacefully in her sleep in her room at 10 South Street, Mayfair, London. The offer of burial in Westminster Abbey was declined by her relatives and she is buried in the graveyard at St Margaret Church in East Wellow, Hampshire. She was a celebrated English social reformer and statistician, and the founder of modern nursing. She came to prominence while serving as a manager of nurses trained by her during the Crimean War, where she organised the tending to wounded soldiers. She gave nursing a highly favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture, especially in the persona of “The Lady with the Lamp” making rounds of wounded soldiers at night.

Some recent commentators have asserted Nightingale’s achievements in the Crimean War were exaggerated by the media at the time, to satisfy the public’s need for a hero. Nevertheless, critics agree on the decisive importance of her follow-up achievements in professionalizing nursing roles for women. In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas’ Hospital in London. It was the first secular nursing school in the world, now part of King’s College London. The Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses was named in her honour, and the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday. Her social reforms include improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to abolish prostitution laws that were over-harsh to women, and expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the workforce.

Nightingale was a prodigious and versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge. Some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could easily be understood by those with poor literary skills. She also helped popularise the graphical presentation of statistical data. Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously.

In 1913,  Otto Witte, an acrobat, is purportedly crowned King of Albania.

In 1913,  First production in the UK of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.

In 1918,  Women enlist in the United States Marine Corps for the first time. Opha Mae Johnson is the first woman to enlist.

In 1918,  Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) established as a public company in Germany.

In 1920,  Polish–Soviet War: the Battle of Warsaw begins and will last till August 25. The Red Army is defeated.

In 1937,  The Battle of Shanghai begins.

In 1942,  Major General Eugene Reybold of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers authorizes the construction of facilities that would house the “Development of Substitute Materials” project, better known as the Manhattan Project.

In 1942,  Walt Disney’s fifth full-length animated film, Bambi, was released to theaters.

H.G. Wells by Beresford.jpgIn 1946,  H. G. Wells, English journalist and author (b. 1866) dies of unspecified causes on 13 August 1946, aged 79, at his home at 13 Hanover Terrace, Regent’s Park, London. He was a prolific English writer in many genres, including the novel, history, politics, and social commentary, and textbooks and rules for war games. Wells is now best remembered for his science fiction novels, and is called the father of science fiction, along with Jules Verne and Hugo Gernsback. His most notable science fiction works include The Time Machine (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Invisible Man (1897), and The War of the Worlds (1898). He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature four times.

Wells’s earliest specialized training was in biology, and his thinking on ethical matters took place in a specifically and fundamentally Darwinian context. He was also from an early date an outspoken socialist, often (but not always, as at the beginning of the First World War) sympathizing with pacifist views. His later works became increasingly political and didactic, and he wrote little science fiction, while he sometimes indicated on official documents that his profession was that of journalist. Novels like Kipps and The History of Mr Polly, which describe lower-middle-class life, led to the suggestion, when they were published, that he was a worthy successor to Charles Dickens, but Wells described a range of social strata and even attempted, in Tono-Bungay (1909), a diagnosis of English society as a whole. A diabetic, in 1934 Wells co-founded the charity The Diabetic Association (known today as Diabetes UK).

Dan Fogelberg 1974.JPGIn 1951Dan Fogelberg, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and composer was born (d. 2007). He was an American musician, songwriter, composer, and multi-instrumentalist whose music was inspired by sources as diverse as folk, pop, rock, classical, jazz, and bluegrass. He is best known for his early 1980s hits, including “Longer” (1980), “Leader of the Band” (1981), and “Same Old Lang Syne” (1981).

In 1954,  Radio Pakistan broadcasts the “Qaumī Tarāna“, the national anthem of Pakistan for the first time.

In 1960,  The Central African Republic declares independence from France.

In 1961,  East Germany closes the border between the eastern and western sectors of Berlin to thwart its inhabitants’ attempts to escape to the West.

In 1964,  Peter Allen and Gwynne Evans are hanged for the Murder of John Alan West becoming the last people executed in the United Kingdom.

In 1968,  Alexandros Panagoulis attempts to assassinate the Greek dictator Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos in Varkiza, Athens.

In 1969,  The Apollo 11 astronauts are released from a three-week quarantine to enjoy a ticker tape parade in New York, New York. That evening, at a state dinner in Los Angeles, California, they are awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U.S. President Richard Nixon.

In 1977,  Members of the British National Front (NF) clash with anti-NF demonstrators in Lewisham, London, resulting in 214 arrests and at least 111 injuries.

In 1978,  One hundred fifty Palestinians in Beirut are killed in a terrorist attack during the second phase of the Lebanese Civil War.

In 1979,  The roof of the uncompleted Rosemont Horizon in Rosemont, Illinois, collapses, killing five workers and injuring 16.

In 2004,  Hurricane Charley, a Category 4 storm, strikes Punta Gorda, Florida, and devastates the surrounding area.

In 2004,  One hundred fifty-six Congolese Tutsi refugees are massacred at the Gatumba refugee camp in Burundi.

In 2007,  Officially, Kim McMillan of Clarksville was filling in for Gov. Phil Bredesen Saturday when she delivered the keynote address for an eight-county Democratic party rally at Brandon Springs Group Camp in Land Between the Lakes. But the day also felt like McMillan’s own coming-out party. A detectable undercurrent of support continues to build across Tennessee for her to someday make her own bid for the governor’s office. The former state House majority leader and 67th District state representative is now Bredesen’s senior staff adviser, and continues to talk mainly of Bredesen’s achievements in public life. Talk of grooming McMillan’s own political future, however, was circulating through the crowd of some 160 Democrats at LBL, who hailed from Stewart, Houston, Henry, Cheatham, Decatur, Carroll, Henderson and Humphreys counties, said Stewart County Democratic Party Chairman Thurston Smith.

In 2007, Former Wisconsin Gov. Tommy Thompson is dropped out of the race for the Republican presidential nomination, a campaign official said. His campaign released a statement saying the Republican is leaving the campaign trail several hours after WITI-TV in Milwaukee reported that Thompson told one of its reporters he was withdrawing. The campaign statement said Thompson intends to take sometime off before returning to the private sector and his nonprofit work.

In 2008,  South Ossetian War: Russian units occupy the Georgian city of Gori.

In 2010,  The MV Sun Sea docks in CFB Esquimalt, British Columbia, Canada, carrying 492 Sri Lankan Tamils.

In 2014,  Three train cars derail and 11 people are injured after a landslide hits a mountain train in the Swiss Alps.

In 2015,  At least 76 people are killed and 212 others are wounded in a truck bombing in Baghdad, Iraq.

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