August 14th in History

This day in historyAugust 14 is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 139 days remaining until the end of the year.

Holidays

History

In 29 BC,  Octavian holds the second of three consecutive triumphs in Rome to celebrate the victory over the Dalmatian tribes.

In 1040,  King Duncan I is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth. The latter succeeds him as King of Scotland.

In 1183,  Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures and flee to western Japan to escape pursuit by the Minamoto clan (traditional Japanese date: Twenty-fifth Day of the Seventh Month of the Second Year of Juei).

In 1288,  Count Adolf VIII of Berg grants town privileges to Düsseldorf, the village on the banks of the Düssel.

In 1352,  War of the Breton Succession: Anglo-Bretons defeat the French in the Battle of Mauron.

In 1370,  Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, grants city privileges to Carlsbad (subsequently was named after him).

In 1385,  Portuguese Crisis of 1383–1385: Battle of Aljubarrota – Portuguese forces commanded by King John I and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira defeat the Castilian army of King John I.

In 1415,  Henry the Navigator leads Portuguese forces to victory over the Marinids at the Battle of Ceuta.

In 1592,  Imjin War: Battle of Hansan Island Admiral Yi Sun-sin decisively defeats the Japanese Navy at Hansan Island.

In 1598,  Nine Years’ War: Battle of the Yellow Ford – Irish forces under Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, defeat an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal.

In 1816, The United Kingdom formally annexed the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, ruling them from the Cape Colony in South Africa.

In 1842,  American Indian Wars: Second Seminole War ends, with the Seminoles forced from Florida to Oklahoma.

In 1848,  Oregon Territory is organized by act of Congress.

In 1880,  Construction of Cologne Cathedral, the most famous landmark in Cologne, Germany, is completed.

In 1885,  Japan’s first patent is issued to the inventor of a rust-proof paint.

In 1888,  An audio recording of English composer Arthur Sullivan‘s “The Lost Chord“, one of the first recordings of music ever made, is played during a press conference introducing Thomas Edison‘s phonograph in London, England.

In 1893,  France becomes the first country to introduce motor vehicle registration.

In 1897,  Franco-Hova Wars: The town of Anosimena is captured by French troops from Menabe defenders in Madagascar.

In 1900,  The Eight-Nation Alliance occupies Beijing, China, in a campaign to end the bloody Boxer Rebellion in China.

In 1901,  The first claimed powered flight, by Gustave Whitehead in his Number 21.

In 1911,  United States Senate leaders agree to rotate the office of President pro tempore of the Senate among leading candidates to fill the vacancy left by William P. Frye‘s death.

In 1912,  U.S. Marines invade Nicaragua to support the U.S.-backed government installed there after José Santos Zelaya had resigned three years earlier.

In 1916,  Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary, joining the Entente in World War I

In 1921,  Tannu Uriankhai, later Tuvan People’s Republic is established as a completely independent country (which is supported by Soviet Russia).

In 1933,  Loggers cause a forest fire in the Coast Range of Oregon, later known as the first forest fire of the Tillamook Burn. It is extinguished on September 5, after destroying 240,000 acres (970 km2).

In 1935,  Social Security Act, creating a government pension system for the retired.

In 1936,  Rainey Bethea is hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky in the last public execution in the United States.

In 1937,  Chinese Air Force Day: The beginning of air-to-air combat of the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II in general, when 6 Imperial Japanese Mitsubishi G3M bombers are shot down by the Nationalist Chinese Air Force while raiding Chinese air bases.

In 1941,  World War II: Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt sign the Atlantic Charter of war stating postwar aims.

In 1943,  On this day during the height of World War II, Jocelyn Neudecker Sapp was born in Jackson, Tennessee.

In 1945,  Japan accepts the Allied terms of surrender in World War II and the Emperor records the Imperial Rescript on Surrender (August 15 in Japan Standard Time).

In 1947,  Pakistan gains Independence from the British Empire and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.

In 1951,  William Randolph Hearst, American publisher and politician, founded the Hearst Corporation (b. 1863) died in Beverly Hills on August 14, 1951, at the age of 88. In 1947, Hearst left his San Simeon estate to seek medical care, which was unavailable in the remote location. He was interred in the Hearst family mausoleum at the Cypress Lawn Cemetery in Colma, California. All of his sons followed their father into the media business and his namesake, William Randolph, Jr., became a Pulitzer Prize-winning Hearst newspaper reporter.

In 1959,  Founding and first official meeting of the American Football League.

In 1967,  UK Marine Broadcasting Offences Act declares participation in offshore pirate radio illegal.

In 1969,  Operation Banner: British troops are deployed in Northern Ireland.

In 1971,  Bahrain declares independence as the State of Bahrain.

In 1972,  An East German Ilyushin Il-62 crashes during takeoff from East Berlin, killing 156.

In 1973,  The Pakistani Constitution of 1973 comes into effect.

In 1974,  The second Turkish invasion of Cyprus begins; 140,000 to 200,000 Greek Cypriots become refugees. 6,000 massacred, 1,619 missing.

In 1975The Rocky Horror Picture Show, the longest-running release in film history, opens at the USA Theatre in Westwood, Los Angeles, California. (Bad Movie…. Bad…)

In 1980,  Lech Wałęsa leads strikes at the Gdańsk, Poland shipyards.

In 1987,  All the children held at Kia Lama, a rural property on Lake Eildon, Australia, run by the Santiniketan Park Association, are released after a police raid.

In 1994,  Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, also known as “Carlos the Jackal,” is captured.

In 1996,  Greek Cypriot refugee Solomos Solomou is murdered by Turkish forces while trying to climb a flagpole in order to remove a Turkish flag from its mast in the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus.

1954 Bowman Pee Wee Reese.jpgIn 1999,  Pee Wee Reese, American baseball player and sportscaster (b. 1918) dies after a long battle from prostate and lung cancer at his Louisville home. He was an American professional baseball player. He played in Major League Baseball as a shortstop for the Brooklyn and Los Angeles Dodgers from 1940 to 1958. A ten-time All Star, Reese contributed to seven National League championships for the Dodgers and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1984. Reese is also famous for his support of his teammate Jackie Robinson, the first modern African American player in the major leagues, especially in Robinson’s difficult first years.

In 2003,  Widescale power blackout in the northeast United States and Canada.

In 2005,  Helios Airways Flight 522 en route from Larnaca, Cyprus via Athens, Greece to Prague, Czech Republic crashes near Athens, with at least 121 on board. Observations from Greek fighter aircraft indicate a decompression problem.

In 2006,  Chencholai bombing in which 61 Tamil girls are killed in Sri Lankan Airforce bombing.

In 2007,  The 2007 Kahtaniya bombings kills at least 796 people.

In 2007, American and Iraqi troops arrested 22 suspected insurgents during a weekend mission seeking information on two American Soldiers who have been missing since May 12. Dubbed “Operation Polar Schism,” the air assault involved troops from the two Soldiers’ unit, the 4th Battalion, 31st Infantry Regiment, 10th Mountain Division — and Iraqi troops of the 4th Brigade, 6th Iraqi Army Division. The mission was looking for information about Spc. Alex Jimenez and Pvt. Bryan Fouty, who were captured just over three months ago south of Baghdad.

The operation that weekend involved flying troops by “helicopter across the Euphrates River to track down a well-known terrorist cell leader,” according to a U.S. military news release issued Monday.

“Iraqi Army soldiers entered the mosque where Coalition Forces suspected the cell leader was hiding. Coalition Forces secured the area outside the building, while Iraqi Forces entered the mosque. They detained 22 suspected terrorists, including four that had fired upon them as they entered the area.”

The raid was part of ongoing efforts to get information about the fate of Jimenez, 25, and Fouty, 19. According to the Detroit Free Press, Fouty’s family and friends gathered Sunday at a religious service in Oakland County, Mich., to mark three months since the attack in which he was captured and four other Soldiers were killed. Jimenez’s family also held a service on Sunday in Lawrence, Mass. After the Mass, nearly a thousand people formed a procession carrying images of the Virgin Mary.  The Lord be with them.

In 2010,  The first-ever Youth Olympic Games are held in Singapore.

Phyllis Thaxter in Bewitched trailer.jpg

Phyllis Thaxter in Bewitched trailer

In 2012,  Phyllis Thaxter, American actress (b. 1919) died on August 14, 2012, in Longwood, Florida, after an eight- or nine-year battle with Alzheimer’s disease. She was 92 years old. In keeping with her wishes, she was cremated and her ashes were scattered at sea.

Prior to appearing in movies, Thaxter was on the stage. When Dorothy McGuire went to Hollywood, Thaxter replaced her in the Broadway play Claudia. In 1944, she signed a contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Her movie debut was opposite Van Johnson in the 1944 wartime film Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo. In the 1945 film-noir Bewitched, Thaxter played Joan Alris Ellis, a woman suffering from split personality. In 1948, she played a cattle owner’s daughter alongside Barbara Bel Geddes in Blood on the Moon.

At MGM, she routinely portrayed the ever-patient wife to a number of leading men. She moved to Warner Brothers in the 1950s, but usually played the same type of roles.

Thaxter’s career stalled after an attack of polio in 1952. She made a comeback in such television series as Rawhide, portraying Pauline Cushman in the episode “The Blue Spy” (1961), Wagon Train (“The Christine Elliott Story”), and “The Vivian Carter Story “, The Twilight Zone (“Young Man’s Fancy”), and Alfred Hitchcock Presents. She also returned to Broadway, appearing in Take Her, She’s Mine at the Biltmore in 1961. In 1978, Thaxter was cast along with Glenn Ford, as Jonathan and Martha Kent in the blockbuster film Superman.

In 2013,  Egypt declares a state of emergency as security forces kill hundreds of demonstrators supporting former president Mohamed Morsi.

In 2015, The US Embassy in Havana, Cuba re-opens after 54 years of being closed when Cuba–United States relations were broken off.

In 2016, Violent protests erupted in Milwaukee after more than 100 people gathered in a standoff with police following a shooting in which a cop shot and killed a man after a traffic stop and foot chase earlier in the day. Police said the 23-year-old man was armed with a handgun, but Assistant Chief Bill Jessup told the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel that it wasn’t immediately clear whether the man had pointed a gun or fired at the officer.

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