This Day in History August 23rd

This day in historyGeneral events on August 23rd

In 79, Mount Vesuvius begins stirring, on the feast day of Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

In 1900, Booker T. Washington forms the National Negro Business League in Boston, Massachusetts.

In 1904, The automobile tire chain is patented.

In 1938, English cricketer Len Hutton sets a world record for the highest individual Test innings of 364, during a Test match against Australia.

In 1966Lunar Orbiter 1 takes the first photograph of Earth from orbit around the Moon.

In 1970, Organized by Mexican American union leader César Chávez, the Salad Bowl strike, the largest farm worker strike in U.S. history, begins.

In 1987, The American male basketball team lost the gold medal to Brazilian team at the Pan American Games in Indianapolis. Score was 115-120 and triggered changes in this sport basis in USA, resulting in the “Dream Team”.

In 1994, Eugene Bullard, the only black pilot in World War I, is posthumously commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the United States Air Force.

In 2007,  The skeletal remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, and his sister Anastasia are found near Yekaterinburg, Russia.

Government and Politics on August 23rd

In 1784, Settlers in eastern Tennessee declared their region an independent state and christened it Franklin, in honor of Benjamin Franklin. One year later, the Continental Congress will reject their action and the territory will remain under the jurisdiction of North Carolina until 1796.

In 1975, Laos Taken Over By Communists. My team and I had trekked out from an area in Eastern Laos to Thailand 4 months earlier. All indications at the time, they were already there.

In 1775, American Revolutionary War: King George III delivers his Proclamation of Rebellion to the Court of St. James’s stating that the American colonies have proceeded to a state of open and avowed rebellion.

In 1784, Western North Carolina (now eastern Tennessee) declares itself an independent state under the name of Franklin; it is not accepted into the United States, and only lasts for four years.

In 1799, Napoleon leaves Egypt for France en route to seizing power.

In 1946, Ordinance No. 46 of the British Military Government constitutes the German Länder (states) of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein.

In 1990, Armenia declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

In 1990, West Germany and East Germany announce that they will reunite on October 3.

In 1993, The Galileo spacecraft discovers a moon, later named Dactyl, around 243 Ida, the first known asteroid moon.

 

War, Crime and Disaster events on August 23rd

In 406, Radagaisus is executed after he is defeated by the Roman army under Stilicho.

In 1305, Scottish patriot Sir William Wallace is hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.

In 1328, Battle of Cassel: French troops stop an uprising of Flemish farmers.

In 1514, The Battle of Chaldiran ends with a decisive victory for the Sultan Selim I, Ottoman Empire, over the Shah Ismail I, Safavids founder.

In 1572, Mob violence against Huguenots in Paris – St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre.

In 1595, Michael the Brave confronts the Ottoman army in the Battle of Calugareni.

In 1650, Colonel George Monck of the English Army forms Monck’s Regiment of Foot, which will later become the Coldstream Guards.

In 1765, Beginning of Burmese–Siamese War.

In 1813, At the Battle of Grossbeeren, the Prussians under Von Bülow repulse the French army.

In 1839, The United Kingdom captures Hong Kong as a base as it prepares for war with Qing China. The ensuing 3-year conflict will later be known as the First Opium War.

In 1858, The Round Oak rail accident occurs in Brierley Hill in the Black Country, England. It is ‘Arguably the worst disaster ever to occur on British railways’.

In 1864, The Union Navy captures Fort Morgan, Alabama, thus breaking Confederate dominance of all ports on the Gulf of Mexico except Galveston, Texas.

In 1866, Austro-Prussian War ends with the Treaty of Prague.

In 1896, Officially recognised date of the Cry of Pugad Lawin, the start of the Philippine Revolution is made in Pugad Lawin (Quezon City), in the province of Manila (actual date and location is disputed).

In 1914, World War I: Japan declares war on Germany and bombs Qingdao, China. Seems a bit odd!

In 1914, World War I: Battle of Mons; the British Army begins withdrawal.

In 1921, British airship R-38 experiences structural failure over Hull in England and crashes in the Humber estuary. Of her 49 British and American training crew, only 4 survive.

In 1927, Italian-born anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were executed in Boston for the murders of two men during a 1920 payroll robbery in a controversial case. (In 1977, Sacco and Vanzetti were vindicated by Massachusetts Gov. Michael S. Dukakis, who declared that “any stigma and disgrace should be forever removed.”).

In 1929, Hebron Massacre during the 1929 Palestine riots: Arab attack on the Jewish community in Hebron in the British Mandate of Palestine, continuing until the next day, resulted in the death of 65-68 Jews and the remaining Jews being forced to leave the city.

In 1939, World War II: Germany and the Soviet Union sign a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. In a secret addition to the pact, the Baltic states, Finland, Romania, and Poland are divided between the two nations.

In 1942, World War II: Beginning of the Battle of Stalingrad. 600 Luftwaffe bombers strikes Stalingrad (40,000 die).

In 1943, World War II: Kharkov is liberated as a result of the Battle of Kursk.

In 1944, World War II: Marseille is liberated.

In 1944, World War II: King Michael of Romania dismisses the pro-Nazi government of Marshal Antonescu, who is arrested. Romania switches sides from the Axis to the Allies.

In 1944, Freckleton Air Disaster – A United States Army Air Forces B-24 Liberator bomber crashes into a school in Freckleton, England killing 61 people.

In 1958, Chinese Civil War: The Second Taiwan Strait crisis begins with the People’s Liberation Army‘s bombardment of Quemoy.

In 1973, A bank robbery gone wrong in Stockholm, Sweden, turns into a hostage crisis; over the next five days the hostages begin to sympathize with their captors, leading to the term “Stockholm syndrome“.

In 1982, Bachir Gemayel is elected Lebanese President amidst the raging civil war.

In 1985, Hans Tiedge, top counter-spy of West Germany, defects to East Germany.

In 1989, Singing Revolution: two million people from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania stand on the Vilnius-Tallinn road, holding hands (Baltic Way).

In 1989, 1,645 Australian domestic airline pilots resign after the airlines threaten to fire them and sue them over a dispute.

In 1990, Saddam Hussein appears on Iraqi state television with a number of Western “guests” (actually hostages) to try to prevent the Gulf War.

In 1996, Osama bin Laden issues message entitled ‘A declaration of war against the Americans occupying the land of the two holy places.’

In 2000, Gulf Air Flight 072 crashes into the Persian Gulf near Manama, Bahrain, killing 143.

In 2006, Natascha Kampusch, who had been abducted at the age of ten, escapes from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil, after eight years of captivity.

In 2010, Manila hostage crisis, in which eight hostages were killed

In 2011, A magnitude 5.8 (class: moderate) earthquake occurs in Virginia. Damage occurs to monuments and structures in Washington D.C. and the resulted damage is estimated at $200 million – $300 million USD.

In 2011, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is overthrown after the National Transitional Council forces take control of Bab al-Azizia compound during the 2011 Libyan civil war.

 

Royalty and Religious events on August 23rd

In 476, Odoacer, chieftain of the Germanic tribes (HerulicScirian foederati), is proclaimed rex Italiae (“King of Italy”) by his troops.

In 1948, World Council of Churches is formed.

 

Human Achievement and Science events on August 23rd

In 1541, French explorer Jacques Cartier lands near Quebec City in his third voyage to Canada.

In 1873, Albert Bridge in Chelsea, London opens.

In 1898, The Southern Cross Expedition, the first British venture of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, departs from London.

In 1923, Capt. Lowell Smith and Lt. John P. Richter performed the first mid-air refueling on De Havilland DH-4B, setting an endurance flight record of 37 hours.

In 1954, First flight of the C-130 Hercules transport aircraft.

In 1977,  The Gossamer Condor wins the Kremer prize for human powered flight.

In 1990,  Tim Berners-Lee opens the WWW – World Wide Web to new users.

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